Moscow is the capital of the Russian Federation, a
city of federal importance, the administrative center of the Central
Federal District and the center of the Moscow region, which is not
included in the region itself. It is the largest city by population
in Russia with a total of 12,506,468 people. (2018), it is the most
populated of the cities fully located in Europe, is among the top
ten cities in the world in terms of population, the largest
Russian-speaking city in the world.
Moscow is historical
capital of the Grand Duchy of Moscow, the Russian kingdom, the
Russian Empire (in the years 1728-1730), Soviet Russia and the USSR.
Moscow is home to several federal government bodies of the Russian
Federation (with the exception of the Constitutional Court),
embassies of foreign states, and the headquarters of most of the
largest Russian commercial organizations and public associations.
Moscow was found on the Moscow River in the center of the East
European Plain, in the interfluve of the Oka and Volga. As a subject
of the federation, Moscow borders with the Moscow and Kaluga
Moscow is a popular tourist center of Russia. The
Moscow Kremlin, Red Square, the Novodevichy Convent and the Church
of the Ascension in Kolomenskoye are on the UNESCO World Heritage
List. It is the most important transportation hub. The city is
served by 6 airports, 9 railway stations, 3 river ports (there is a
river connection with the seas of the Atlantic and Arctic Ocean
basins). Since 1935 Moscow has been working underground. Moscow is
the country's sports center. In 1980, the XXII Summer Olympics were
held in Moscow, and in 2018 the city became one of the hosts of the
2018 World Cup.
Climate in Moscow
The climate of Moscow is moderately continental
with cold long winters and warm (sometimes hot) summers. In winter,
the humidity is high, in summer - moderate.
period with temperatures below 0 ° C) begins in mid-November and
ends in late March - early April; The average temperature during
this period is −5 ° C. The average temperature of the coldest month,
February, is −7 ° C (average minimum −10 ° C, average maximum −4 °
C), thaws in December – January (up to +5 ° C) and severe frosts in
January – beginning are quite frequent February (to −25 ° C). Snow
falls in early November and melts completely by mid-April. March is
usually a winter month with an average temperature of around -2 ° C.
Spring begins in April, when the average temperature exceeds 0
degrees. By mid-May, summer sunny weather is established with an
average temperature above +15 ° C. Summer (the period with
temperatures above +15 ° C) lasts on average from mid-May to late
August; average temperature: +18 ° C. But often temperatures from
+15 ° C to +20 ° C can be in May and in September. The average
temperature of the hottest month - July is +19 ° C (average minimum
+14 ° C, average maximum +24 ° C). Recently in the summer in the
capital region (mostly in July) the temperature often exceeds +30 °
C, such heat can sometimes last 1-2 weeks. In early-mid-September,
autumn begins, the weather becomes gloomy and cloudy. October is a
purely autumn month with an average temperature of + 6 ° C. In early
to mid-November, steady snow cover is established, the temperature
in November rarely exceeds +6 ° C and falls below −10 ° C, averaging
a month -2 ° C. December is different: temperatures are possible
around 0 ° C (and sometimes even higher), but there are frosts
around −20 ° C.
Travel Destinations in Moscow
on the Moscow River in western Russia, is the cosmopolitan capital
of the country. In its historical core is the Kremlin, the complex
in which the president of the Russian Federation works, and also the
royal treasures are kept in the Armory. Behind its walls is Red
Square, the symbolic center of Russia. Here is the Lenin Mausoleum,
an extensive collection of the State Historical Museum and St.
Basil's Cathedral, known for its colorful domes in the shape of a
Moscow acquired a number of epithets, most of
which refer to its size and outstanding status within the nation:
the Third Rome, White Stone, First Throne, Forty Forty. “Forty”
today translates as forty, but historically it is the old name of
the district or parish, and “forty” in the old Russian means “a
lot”. In the old Russian language, the word "Forty" also meant the
church administrative district, in which there were about forty
churches. Moscow is one of the twelve hero cities, a status ot
acquired for heroic defense against German Nazi forces and their
Click on the part of the map that interests you.
Moscow is a huge city, and at first somewhat confusing with its
size and the activity of life. Nevertheless, some simple
observations will help to begin to navigate at least a little.
Moscow is a city with a traditional radial-ring structure, which,
until recently, has been built up with almost religious loyalty.
However, recently there have been plans to build chord roads, which
can slightly change the direction of movement. The central rings
appeared in Moscow historically - as the city’s fortifications as
they grew. Starting from the center, they go in the following order:
The ring of central squares - in place of the walls, limiting
the oldest part of the city, Kitay Town. The remainder of the
fortress walls is preserved in the area of Kitay-Gorod metro
station. Like the next ring, it is rather a semiring that rests on
the Moscow River, however, the Moscow River embankment can be
represented by the closure of this ring. The names of the squares
are clockwise: Borovitskaya (Borovitsky Gate of the Kremlin, the
entrance to the Armory), Manezhnaya, where it is easiest to get to
Red Square, Teatralnaya (Bolshoi Theater), Lubyanka, Novaya,
Boulevard ring - a half ring, around Moscow River.
It takes place at the site of the borders of the so-called White
City, and is so named because all the streets have boulevards. Among
them we can mention Chistoprudny Boulevard, as a favorite vacation
spot of Muscovites, but all the other boulevards are not at all
inferior to him in this.
Garden Ring - named for the dachas
(resort homes), which were broken outside the Garden Ring during its
formation. The garden ring roughly limits the city to what it was at
the beginning of the 20th century, and most of the historical
monuments are located within its borders, while beyond its borders,
the vast majority of the territory are residential areas, industrial
areas and parks. Now the Garden Ring is a transport highway, with a
large number of interchanges, which, however, do not save it from
traffic jams. As a controversial tourist route, we can recommend to
drive the entire Garden Ring in a circle on trolleybus B, while it
should be noted that it is clockwise, the terminus is located on
Zubovskaya Square (between Metro 5 Park Kultury and Metro
Smolenskaya), and opposite Kursk railway station, so you need to
either wait some time (up to 10 minutes), or change to another
trolley bus. Alternatively, you can take a trolley bus 10, which
goes around the ring approximately from the bridge over Yauza along
the northern part of the ring to Leninsky Prospect. Taking into
account traffic jams, a full circle may take 2-3 hours, in the
The metro ring line is the only line of the
Moscow Metro that moves in a circular direction, roughly the same as
the Garden Ring, but makes several departures from it (to the
outside) in order to reach most of the Moscow railway stations. It
should be noted that the workload of the central train cars on this
line is extremely high at almost any time of the day.
Third Transport Ring is a transport highway built at the turn of the
20th and 21st centuries to unload the center. As practice has shown,
for the Moscow movement this was not enough, and traffic jams also
exist on the third ring. As a rule, the third ring passes at a
distance of one metro station from the Koltsevaya metro line, and
also past the Riga and Savyolovsky railway stations. In Lefortovo
passes through the Lefortovo tunnel.
Moscow Central Ring
(ISC) (formerly the “Small Moscow Railway Ring”) - since September
2016, passenger traffic has been open.
The Moscow Ring Road
(MKAD) is the boundary of the city until about the 1980s, after
which they began to attach territories to the city behind the ring.
In the 90s of the 20th century, it was completely rebuilt, so it
became in fact the best highway in Russia. When traveling long
distances in Moscow, as a rule, movement through the Moscow Ring
Road, despite the increasing distance, is the fastest and most
The citadel of kings, the headquarters of the Soviet Union and
now the residence of the president of Russia, for centuries, the
Kremlin has been a symbol of state power. In 1156, Prince Yuri
Dolgoruky chose the confluence of the Moscow and Neglinnaya rivers
as a place for the first wooden Kremlin (the Kremlin means
“fortress” in Russian). At the end of the 15th century, Tsar Ivan
III invited several leading Italian architects to build a new
luxurious complex. They designed the Assumption Cathedral and the
Faceted Palace, in a fascinating fusion of early Russian and
imported Renaissance styles. The Kremlin did not escape the
architectural vandalism of the 1930s, when it was closed, and
several of its churches and palaces were destroyed by order of
Stalin. Only in 1955, two years after his death, was the Kremlin
partially open to the public.
It is believed that the name "Arbat" is derived from the
Mongolian word meaning suburb, and was first applied in the 15th
century to the entire territory west of the Kremlin. It was
originally inhabited by royal artisans and craftsmen. Although they
are still noted in street names, artisans moved elsewhere in the
late 18th century. The aristocracy took their place, and it was
followed by the professionals, intellectuals and artists of Moscow,
attracted by the unsophisticated streets of the district,
dilapidated cottages and overgrown courtyards. On the Old Arbat, the
main pedestrian street of the district, there are historical
churches, wooden houses and mansions from the beginning of the 19th
century around Sivtsev Vrazhek lane. Nevertheless, not far from the
stalls of small cafes there are several huge tenement houses of the
Soviet era and the shops of Novy Arbat.
Tverskaya is located around the road of the same name, which
initially led to St. Petersburg, it was a technological route
used by the kings. Now being the main shopping street of Moscow,
Tverskaya Street underwent a major reconstruction in the 1930s
during a huge reconstruction of Moscow, by order of Stalin. At
that time, many buildings were demolished or pushed aside (at
night with sleeping residents) so that the street could be
expanded, and massive new houses were built for the workers.
These impending gray buildings make the street a showcase of the
monumental style of architecture that Stalin loved. The
surprisingly quiet streets of the district were home to many
famous artists, writers and actors, and, despite Stalin’s best
efforts, there are still some interesting pre-revolutionary
The first suburb of Moscow, Kitay Gorod, was settled in the 12th
century by merchants and craftsmen hired by the tsar. It is believed
that the word Kitay (sounds like "China" in russian) refers to the
wattle used to build ramparts around the suburbs. Red Square was
created as a market square near the Kremlin in the late 15th
century. Behind it were installed shopping arcades, each street with
rows of wooden houses specializing in certain craftsmanship, such as
working with metal, working with leather or producing hats and
others. In the 16th century, a number of boyars, including the
future rulers of Russia, the Romanovs, built their estates nearby,
while the presence of merchants from Novgorod and as far away as
England was actively encouraged. Later, in the 19th century, Kitay
Gorod became a financial district of Moscow, where the stock
exchange and large banks are located.
At first Zamoskvorechye was settled in the 13th century.
Zamoskvoreche (literally "beyond Moscow river") acted as an outpost
against the Mongols. Its main road, Big Ordynka, was the route to
the Horde, or the Golden Horde, the Mongolian capital on the Volga.
Later, under Ivan the Terrible, the barracks of the archers (the
royal guard) stood here. The craftsmen who served at the court also
moved, living in areas according to their professions, each of which
was sponsored by the church. These historical churches are currently
in different states of preservation. The fact that this territory of
Moscow was hardly affected by the redevelopment of the 1930s, which
gives it a more old-fashioned atmosphere than the center dominated
by massive Soviet architecture. In the 19th century, rich merchants
settled here, many of whom, such as Alexey Bakhrushin and Pavel
Tretyakov, were patrons of the arts. Based on its acquisitions, the
Tretyakov Gallery is the most important collection of Russian art in
Ulitsa Bakhrishina 31/ 12 Tel. (495) 953 4470 Subway:
Paveletskaya Open: 12- 7pm Wed- Mon Closed: last
Monday of the month
Around Moscow Suburbs
The Moscow region of suburbs or Podmoskovye, as a rule, is
rather gloomy, but they hide an amazing amount of attractions,
all accessible from the metro. To the south of the center is a
series of fortified monasteries built to protect the city from
the Mongols and the Poles. The most spectacular of these is the
Novodevichy Convent, an 16th-century Orthodox shrine with a
magnificent cathedral, but the Donskoy Monastery is also worth a
visit. Danilov Monastery, with its beautiful cathedral, is the
oldest in the city. Visitors to Moscow are often surprised at
the beauty and diversity of Moscow’s green areas. Gorky,
Izmailovo and Pobedy Parks are ideal places to relax, while
Sparrow Hills offer fantastic views. Nevertheless, the best
secrets of Moscow are the luxurious mansions in the former
countryside. The Sheremetev family built two elegant
neoclassical dachas: Kuskovo
and Ostankino. Both have beautifully preserved gardens and
palaces with beautiful paintings and period furniture.
Prehistory The oldest evidence of humans on the
territory of Moscow dates from the Neolithic (Schukinskaya site on
the Moscow River). Within the modern bounds of the city other late
evidence was discovered (the burial ground of the Fatyanovskaya
culture, the site of the Iron Age settlement of the Dyakovo
culture), on the territory of the Kremlin, Sparrow Hills, Setun
River and Kuntsevskiy forest park, etc.
In the 9th century,
the Oka River was part of the Volga trade route, and the upper Volga
watershed became an area of contact between the indigenous
Finno-Ugric such as the Merya and the expanding Volga Bulgars
(particularly the second son of Khan Kubrat who expanded the borders
of the Old Great Bulgaria), Scandinavian (Varangians) and Slavic
The earliest East Slavic tribes recorded as having
expanded to the upper Volga in the 9th to 10th centuries are the
Vyatichi and Krivichi. The Moskva River was incorporated as part of
Kievan Rus into the Suzdal in the 11th century. By AD 1100, a minor
settlement had appeared on the mouth of the Neglinnaya River.
Early history (1147–1283) The first known reference to Moscow
dates from 1147 as a meeting place of Yuri Dolgoruky and Sviatoslav
Olgovich. At the time it was a minor town on the western border of
In 1156, Knjaz Yury Dolgoruky
fortified the town with a timber fence and a moat. In the course of
the Mongol invasion of Rus, the Mongols under Batu Khan burned the
city to the ground and killed its inhabitants.
fort na Moskvě "on the Moscow river" was inherited by Daniel, the
youngest son of Alexander Nevsky, in the 1260s, at the time
considered the least valuable of his father's possessions. Daniel
was still a child at the time, and the big fort was governed by
tiuns (deputies), appointed by Daniel's paternal uncle, Yaroslav of
Daniel came of age in the 1270s and became involved in
the power struggles of the principality with lasting success, siding
with his brother Dmitry in his bid for the rule of Novgorod. From
1283 he acted as the ruler of an independent principality alongside
Dmitry, who became Grand Duke of Vladimir. Daniel has been credited
with founding the first Moscow monasteries, dedicated to the Lord's
Epiphany and to Saint Daniel.
Grand Duchy (1283–1547)
Daniel I ruled Moscow as Grand Duke until 1303 and established it as
a prosperous city that would eclipse its parent principality of
Vladimir by the 1320s.
On the right bank of the Moskva River,
at a distance of five miles (8.0 kilometres) from the Kremlin, not
later than in 1282, Daniel founded the first monastery with the
wooden church of St. Daniel-Stylite. Now it is the Danilov
Monastery. Daniel died in 1303, at the age of 42. Before his death
he became a monk and, according to his will, was buried in the
cemetery of the St. Daniel Monastery.
Moscow was stable and
prosperous for many years and attracted a large number of refugees
from across Russia. The Rurikids maintained large landholdings by
practicing primogeniture, whereby all land was passed to the eldest
sons, rather than dividing it up among all sons. By 1304, Yury of
Moscow contested with Mikhail of Tver for the throne of the
principality of Vladimir. Ivan I eventually defeated Tver to become
the sole collector of taxes for the Mongol rulers, making Moscow the
capital of Vladimir-Suzdal. By paying high tribute, Ivan won an
important concession from the Khan.
While Khan of the Golden
Horde initially attempted to limit Moscow's influence, when the
growth of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania began to threaten all of
Russia, the Khan strengthened Moscow to counterbalance Lithuania,
allowing it to become one of the most powerful cities in Russia. In
1380, prince Dmitry Donskoy of Moscow led a united Russian army to
an important victory over the Mongols in the Battle of Kulikovo.
Afterwards, Moscow took the leading role in liberating Russia from
Mongol domination. In 1480, Ivan III had finally broken the Russians
free from Tatar control, and Moscow became the capital of an empire
that would eventually encompass all of Russia and Siberia, and parts
of many other lands.
In 1462 Ivan III, (1440–1505) became
Grand Prince of Moscow (then part of the medieval Muscovy state). He
began fighting the Tatars, enlarged the territory of Muscovy, and
enriched his capital city. By 1500 it had a population of 100,000
and was one of the largest cities in the world. He conquered the far
larger principality of Novgorod to the north, which had been allied
to the hostile Lithuanians. Thus he enlarged the territory
sevenfold, from 430,000 to 2,800,000 square kilometres (170,000 to
1,080,000 square miles). He took control of the ancient "Novgorod
Chronicle" and made it a propaganda vehicle for his regime.
The original Moscow Kremlin was built during the
14th century. It was reconstructed by Ivan, who in the 1480s invited
architects from Renaissance Italy, such as Petrus Antonius Solarius,
who designed the new Kremlin wall and its towers, and Marco Ruffo
who designed the new palace for the prince. The Kremlin walls as
they now appear are those designed by Solarius, completed in 1495.
The Kremlin's Great Bell Tower was built in 1505–08 and augmented to
its present height in 1600.
A trading settlement, or posad,
grew up to the east of the Kremlin, in the area known as Zaradye
(Зарядье). In the time of Ivan III, the Red Square, originally named
the Hollow Field (Полое поле) appeared.
In 1508–1516, the
Italian architect Aleviz Fryazin (Novy) arranged for the
construction of a moat in front of the eastern wall, which would
connect the Moskva and Neglinnaya and be filled in with water from
Neglinnaya. This moat, known as the Alevizov moat and having a
length of 541 metres (1,775 feet), width of 36 metres (118 feet),
and a depth of 9.5 to 13 metres (31–43 feet) was lined with
limestone and, in 1533, fenced on both sides with low,
four-metre-thick (13-foot) cogged-brick walls.
In the 16th and 17th centuries, the three circular
defences were built: Kitay-gorod (Китай-город), the White City
(Белый город) and the Earthen City (Земляной город). However, in
1547, two fires destroyed much of the town, and in 1571 the Crimean
Tatars captured Moscow, burning everything except the Kremlin. The
annals record that only 30,000 of 200,000 inhabitants survived.
The Crimean Tatars attacked again in 1591, but this time were
held back by new defence walls, built between 1584 and 1591 by a
craftsman named Fyodor Kon. In 1592, an outer earth rampart with 50
towers was erected around the city, including an area on the right
bank of the Moscow River. As an outermost line of defence, a chain
of strongly fortified monasteries was established beyond the
ramparts to the south and east, principally the Novodevichy Convent
and Donskoy, Danilov, Simonov, Novospasskiy, and Andronikov
monasteries, most of which now house museums. From its ramparts, the
city became poetically known as Bielokamennaya, the "White-Walled".
The limits of the city as marked by the ramparts built in 1592 are
now marked by the Garden Ring.
Three square gates existed on
the eastern side of the Kremlin wall, which in the 17th century,
were known as: Konstantino-Eleninsky, Spassky, Nikolsky (owing their
names to the icons of Constantine and Helen, the Saviour and St.
Nicholas that hung over them). The last two were directly opposite
the Red Square, while the Konstantino-Elenensky gate was located
behind Saint Basil's Cathedral.
The Russian famine of 1601–03
killed perhaps 100,000 in Moscow. From 1610 through 1612, troops of
the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth occupied Moscow, as its ruler
Sigismund III tried to take the Russian throne. In 1612, the people
of Nizhny Novgorod and other Russian cities conducted by prince
Dmitry Pozharsky and Kuzma Minin rose against the Polish occupants,
besieged the Kremlin, and expelled them. In 1613, the Zemsky sobor
elected Michael Romanov tsar, establishing the Romanov dynasty. The
17th century was rich in popular risings, such as the liberation of
Moscow from the Polish–Lithuanian invaders (1612), the Salt Riot
(1648), the Copper Riot (1662), and the Moscow Uprising of 1682.
During the first half of the 17th century, the population of
Moscow doubled from roughly 100,000 to 200,000. It expanded beyond
its ramparts in the later 17th century. By 1682, there were 692
households established north of the ramparts, by Ukrainians and
Belarusians abducted from their hometowns in the course of
Russo-Polish War (1654–1667). These new outskirts of the city came
to be known as the Meshchanskaya sloboda, after Ruthenian meshchane
"town people". The term meshchane (мещане) acquired pejorative
connotations in 18th-century Russia and today means "petty
bourgeois" or "narrow-minded philistine".
The entire city of
the late 17th century, including the slobodas that grew up outside
the city ramparts, are contained within what is today Moscow's
Central Administrative Okrug.
Numerous disasters befell the
city. The plague epidemics ravaged Moscow in 1570–1571, 1592 and
1654–1656. The plague killed upwards of 80% of the people in
1654–55. Fires burned out much of the wooden city in 1626 and 1648.
In 1712 Peter the Great moved his government to the newly built
Saint Petersburg on the Baltic coast. Moscow ceased to be Russia's
capital, except for a brief period from 1728 to 1732 under the
influence of the Supreme Privy Council.
Russian Empire (1721–1917)
After losing the status as capital of the empire,
the population of Moscow at first decreased, from 200,000 in the
17th century to 130,000 in 1750. But after 1750, the population grew
more than tenfold over the remaining duration of the Russian Empire,
reaching 1.8 million by 1915.
By 1700, the building of
cobbled roads had begun. In November 1730, the permanent street
light was introduced, and by 1867 many streets had a gaslight. In
1883, near the Prechistinskiye Gates, arc lamps were installed. In
1741 Moscow was surrounded by a barricade 25 miles (40 kilometres)
long, the Kamer-Kollezhskiy barrier, with 16 gates at which customs
tolls were collected. Its line is traced today by a number of
streets called val (“ramparts”). Between 1781 and 1804 the
Mytischinskiy water-pipe (the first in Russia) was built. In 1813,
following the destruction of much of the city during French
occupation, a Commission for the Construction of the City of Moscow
was established. It launched a great program of rebuilding,
including a partial replanning of the city-centre. Among many
buildings constructed or reconstructed at this time were the Grand
Kremlin Palace and the Kremlin Armoury, the Moscow University, the
Moscow Manege (Riding School), and the Bolshoi Theatre. In 1903 the
Moskvoretskaya water-supply was completed.
In the early 19th
century, the Arch of Konstantino-Elenensky gate was paved with
bricks, but the Spassky Gate was the main front gate of the Kremlin
and used for royal entrances. From this gate, wooden and (following
the 17th-century improvements) stone bridges stretched across the
moat. Books were sold on this bridge and stone platforms were built
nearby for guns – "raskats". The Tsar Cannon was located on the
platform of the Lobnoye mesto.
The road connecting Moscow
with St. Petersburg, now the M10 highway, was completed in 1746, its
Moscow end following the old Tver road, which had existed since the
16th century. It became known as Peterburskoye Schosse after it was
paved in the 1780s. Petrovsky Palace was built in 1776–1780 by
Matvey Kazakov as a railway station specifically reserved for royal
journeys from Saint Petersburg to Moscow, while coaches for lesser
classes arrived and departed from Vsekhsvyatskoye station.
When Napoleon invaded Russia in 1812, the Moscovites were evacuated.
It is suspected that the Moscow fire was principally the effect of
Russian sabotage. Napoleon's Grande Armée was forced to retreat and
was nearly annihilated by the devastating Russian winter and
sporadic attacks by Russian military forces. As many as 400,000 of
Napoleon's soldiers died during this time.
University was established in 1755. Its main building was
reconstructed after the 1812 fire by Domenico Giliardi. The
Moskovskiye Vedomosti newspaper appeared from 1756, originally in
weekly intervals, and from 1859 as a daily newspaper.
Arbat Street had been in existence since at least the 15th century,
but it was developed into a prestigious area during the 18th
century. It was destroyed in the fire of 1812 and was rebuilt
completely in the early 19th century.
In the 1830s, general
Alexander Bashilov planned the first regular grid of city streets
north from Petrovsky Palace. Khodynka field south of the highway was
used for military training. Smolensky Rail station (forerunner of
present-day Belorussky Rail Terminal) was inaugurated in 1870.
Sokolniki Park, in the 18th century the home of the tsar's falconers
well outside Moscow, became contiguous with the expanding city in
the later 19th century and was developed into a public municipal
park in 1878. The suburban Savyolovsky Rail Terminal was built in
1902. In January 1905, the institution of the City Governor, or
Mayor, was officially introduced in Moscow, and Alexander Adrianov
became Moscow's first official mayor.
When Catherine II came
to power in 1762, the city's filth and smell of sewage was depicted
by observers as a symptom of disorderly life styles of lower-class
Russians recently arrived from the farms. Elites called for
improving sanitation, which became part of Catherine's plans for
increasing control over social life. National political and military
successes from 1812 through 1855 calmed the critics and validated
efforts to produce a more enlightened and stable society. There was
less talk about the smell and the poor conditions of public health.
However, in the wake of Russia's failures in the Crimean War in
1855–56, confidence in the ability of the state to maintain order in
the slums eroded, and demands for improved public health put filth
back on the agenda.
Soviet period (1917–1991)
Following the success of the Russian Revolution of
1917, Vladimir Lenin, fearing possible foreign invasion, moved the
capital from Saint Petersburg back to Moscow on March 5, 1918. The
Kremlin once again became the seat of power and the political centre
of the new state.
With the change in values imposed by
communist ideology, the tradition of preservation of cultural
heritage was broken. Independent preservation societies, even those
that defended only secular landmarks such as Moscow-based OIRU were
disbanded by the end of the 1920s. A new anti-religious campaign,
launched in 1929, coincided with collectivization of peasants;
destruction of churches in the cities peaked around 1932. In 1937
several letters were written to the Central Committee of the
Communist Party of the Soviet Union to rename Moscow to "Stalindar"
or "Stalinodar", one from an elderly pensioner whose dream was to
"live in Stalinodar" and had selected the name to represent the
"gift" (dar) of the genius of Stalin. Stalin rejected this
suggestion, and after it was suggested again to him by Nikolai
Yezhov, he was "outraged", saying "What do I need this for?". This
was following Stalin banning the renaming of places in his name in
During the Great Patriotic War, the Soviet State
Committee of Defence and the General Staff of the Red Army were
located in Moscow. In 1941, 16 divisions of the national volunteers
(more than 160,000 people), 25 battalions (18,000 people) and 4
engineering regiments were formed among the Muscovites. In November
1941, German Army Group Centre was stopped at the outskirts of the
city and then driven off in the course of the Battle of Moscow. Many
factories were evacuated, together with much of the government, and
from October 20 the city was declared to be in a state of siege. Its
remaining inhabitants built and manned antitank defences, while the
city was bombarded from the air. On May 1, 1944 a medal "For the
defence of Moscow" and in 1947 another medal "In memory of the 800th
anniversary of Moscow" were instituted.
Both German and
Soviet casualties during the battle of Moscow have been a subject of
debate, as various sources provide somewhat different estimates.
Total casualties between September 30, 1941, and January 7, 1942,
are estimated to be between 248,000 and 400,000 for the Wehrmacht
and between 650,000 and 1,280,000 for the Red Army.
the postwar years, there was a serious housing crisis, solved by the
invention of high-rise apartments. There are over 11,000 of these
standardised and prefabricated apartment blocks, housing the
majority of Moscow's population, making it by far the city with the
most high-rise buildings. Apartments were built and partly furnished
in the factory before being raised and stacked into tall columns.
The popular Soviet-era comic film Irony of Fate parodies this
The city of Zelenograd was built in 1958
at 37 kilometres (23 miles) from the city centre to the north-west,
along the Leningradskoye Shosse, and incorporated as one of Moscow's
administrative okrugs. Moscow State University moved to its campus
on Sparrow Hills in 1953.
In 1959 Nikita Khrushchev launched
his anti-religious campaign. By 1964 over 10 thousand churches out
of 20 thousand were shut down (mostly in rural areas) and many were
demolished. Of 58 monasteries and convents operating in 1959, only
sixteen remained by 1964; of Moscow's fifty churches operating in
1959, thirty were closed and six demolished.
On May 8, 1965
due to the actual 20th anniversary of the victory in World War II
Moscow was awarded a title of the Hero City. In 1980 it hosted the
Summer Olympic Games.
The MKAD (ring road) was opened in
1961. It had four lanes running 109 kilometres (68 miles) along the
city borders. The MKAD marked the administrative boundaries of the
city of Moscow until the 1980s, when outlying suburbs beyond the
ring road began to be incorporated. In 1980, it hosted the Summer
Olympic Games, which were boycotted by the United States and several
other Western countries due to the Soviet Union's involvement in
Afghanistan in late 1979. In 1991 Moscow was the scene of a coup
attempt (known as pootch) by conservative communists opposed to the
liberal reforms of Mikhail Gorbachev.
Recent history (1991–present)
When the USSR was dissolved in the same year,
Moscow remained the capital of the Russian SFSR (on December 25,
1991 the Russian SFSR was renamed the Russian Federation). Since
then, a market economy has emerged in Moscow, producing an explosion
of Western-style retailing, services, architecture, and lifestyles.
The city has continued to grow during the 1990s to
2000s, its population rising from below nine to above ten million.
Mason and Nigmatullina argue that Soviet-era urban-growth controls
(before 1991) produced controlled and sustainable metropolitan
development, typified by the greenbelt built in 1935. Since then,
however, there has been a dramatic growth of low-density suburban
sprawl, created by a heavy demand for single-family dwellings as
opposed to crowded apartments. In 1995–1997 the MKAD ring road was
widened from the initial four to ten lanes. In December 2002 Bulvar
Dmitriya Donskogo became the first Moscow Metro station that opened
beyond the limits of MKAD. The Third Ring Road, intermediate between
the early 19th-century Garden Ring and the Soviet-era outer ring
road, was completed in 2004. The greenbelt is becoming more and more
fragmented, and satellite cities are appearing at the fringe. Summer
dachas are being converted into year-round residences, and with the
proliferation of automobiles there is heavy traffic congestion.
Multiple old churches and other examples of architectural heritage
that had been demolished during the Stalin era have been restored,
such as Cathedral of Christ the Saviour. In 2010s Moscow's
Administration has launched some long duration projects like the
Moja Ulitsa (in English: My Street) urban redevelopment program or
the Residency renovation one.
How to get there By plane Moscow has four passenger
airports. All of them are taken far beyond the Moscow Ring Road:
Sheremetyevo (SVO) - trains from
Belorussky railway station, minibuses and buses from the metro
station 2 Rechnoy Vokzal or 7 Planernaya Domodedovo (DME) - trains from
Paveletsky railway station, minibus and buses from 2 Domodedovo Vnukovo (VKO) - trains from Kievsky
Station, minibuses and buses from 1 Yugo-Zapadnaya (South-West) Zhukovsky (ZIA) - buses from 7
Kotelniki, by bus to the railway platform Otdyx and to Kazan station
The airport Bykovo is closed, the passenger terminal is demolished.
Trains are the most convenient, although far
from the cheapest way to get to the three main airports. From
Paveletsky (to Domodedovo), Belorussky (to Sheremetyevo) and Kievsky
(to Vnukovo) railway stations, Aeroexpress trains depart from Moscow
railway stations and continue to the airport without stopping. In
essence, these are modified electric trains, in which chairs and
luggage racks are installed. Some trains have air conditioning and
slow Wi-Fi. Aeroexpress runs at intervals of 30–60 minutes from 5 am
to 1 am. At peak hours, they are packed to capacity, sometimes you
have to go standing up. Although the speed of travel and the level
of comfort do not correspond well to the rather large price of a
ticket, there is simply no reasonable alternative to Aeroexpress
(except Domodedovo, where regular trains go at long intervals):
taxis and minibuses get stuck in Moscow traffic jams, making the
trip to the airport unpredictable. For Moscow city buses, the
problem of Moscow traffic jams was largely solved by creating
dedicated lanes on the Leningradsky, Kievsky and Kashirsky highways.
Aeroexpress usually go on schedule. If they are late, they do not
exceed 5-10 minutes. On the Paveletsky direction it is also possible
to get to Domodedovo Airport by a regular and cheaper train.
Tickets are sold at live ticket offices and ticket machines that
accept credit cards. The machines sell one-way tickets (500 rubles),
round-trip tickets (1000 rubles, a trip back within 30 days; they
have no practical sense) and a business class (1000 rubles: a ticket
with a seat in a separate luxury carriage). The ticket offices also
have family tickets (990 rubles for two adults and three children)
and various combinations of Aeroexpress + Metro, which are slightly
more expensive than Aeroexpress and Metro separately, but will be
useful to those who do not want to waste time on the inevitable turn
in the station ticket offices. Do not buy season tickets for
10-20-50 trips. They are designed only for one person and operate
for 30-60-90 days, and therefore do not make any sense, unless, of
course, you do not go to the airport three times a week. Tickets at
a reduced price of 420 rubles are sold on the Aeroexpress website,
through the mobile application and when paying with a PayPass card
on the turnstile.
Taxi - the eternal problem
of Moscow airports. At the exit you will be attacked by private
traders offering and even imposing their services. You need to
bargain hard and unceremoniously with private traders: in this case
you will leave for 1,500–2,000 rubles, depending on the area.
Drivers themselves will call arbitrary, usually exorbitant amounts,
which are often purchased by gullible foreigners. Be sure to
negotiate the price before the trip, and better - right in the
Cheaper to order a taxi from the city. All
companies offer fixed fares to the airport, amounting to 700-1500
rubles, depending on the area. To this amount will add a fee of
200-300 rubles, if you want the driver to wait for you at the
airport. Usually, drivers prefer to call up to the client and drive
up to the terminal after you go outside. This is somewhat
inconvenient and delays the process. There is no centralized taxi
service at airports. Racks "official taxi" will save you from frank
sell, but the prices there are still above average. In any case,
Moscow airports are far from the city, so you should always pay at a
fixed rate: time-based or meter-to-month payment simply does not
make sense. Moscow taxi drivers know a thousand and one ways to get
around traffic jams, but they still get into them, so it's better to
use the metro and Aeroexpress during peak hours.
between Moscow airports is a pleasure below average. All three
airports are approximately equidistant from each other, the distance
between them is 80-90 km, so even at night a taxi will travel for
more than an hour, and it costs at least 1,500 rubles (2014) when
ordering from the city. At the airport, they usually ask for from
2500 rubles. Considering Moscow traffic jams, it is better to use a
longer and more tiresome, but reliable, route Aeroexpress — metro —
Aeroexpress, which takes a little less than two hours and will cost
you about 1,000 rubles.
Moscow is the largest railway junction. From here you can go by
train to almost any city in Russia, most of the CIS countries, a
number of European countries, as well as to Mongolia, North Korea
and China. However, international trains (with the exception of
Ukraine, Belarus, Moldova and, for lovers of the beautiful, Central
Asia) are deprived of practical meaning, since the plane will be
slightly more expensive, inexpressibly more comfortable and many
times faster. The same applies to the Far East.
to long-distance trains, the largest network of electric trains in
Russia is tied to Moscow. Among them there are both regular and
express trains to the cities of the Moscow Region and neighboring
regional centers. All trains, except for express trains, stop at
stations combined with metro stations.
In Moscow, 9 railway
stations. Seven of them are combined with the metro stations of the
Koltsevaya line and serve the vast majority of long-distance
directions. Lightly loaded Rizhsky and Savyolovsky railway stations
are removed from the Koltsevaya metro line by one station. The names
of many stations immediately give an idea of where to go from
them, but there are a number of unobvious moments. Moreover, the
city does not have a rigid system that binds the station to a
certain direction: trains to the south can even go from Belorussky
railway station, if there is no free space for others. Be sure to
check which station is listed on the ticket.
5 Leningradsky railway station. Located on Komsomolskaya Square
(the so-called Three Station Squares), 1 5 Komsomolskaya, trains
coming from the north-west direction (Tver, St. Petersburg,
Petrozavodsk, Murmansk, Pskov, Novgorod and others) arrive at the
station. International trains come from Helsinki (Finland) and
Tallinn (Estonia). Electric trains direction to Tver, Konakovo, Klin
and others. 6 Kazan station. Located on Komsomolskaya Square, 1 5
Komsomolskaya, trains coming from the east and southeast (Nizhny
Novgorod, Kazan, Penza, Ulyanovsk, Ufa, Orenburg, Barnaul,
Chelyabinsk and other cities) arrive at the station. Also, trains
arrive from BAM stations. International trains come from Kyrgyzstan
and Kazakhstan. Trains to Ryazan, Kolomna, Yegoryevsk, Shatura and
other direction stations. 7 Yaroslavsky station. Located on
Komsomolskaya Square, 1 5 Komsomolskaya, trains arriving at the
station follow from the north (Arkhangelsk, Syktyvkar, Vologda,
Vorkuta, Kirov and others) and east from Siberia and the Far East
(Transsib and BAM stations). International trains come from Ulan
Bator (Mongolia), Beijing (China) and Pyongyang (DPRK). Trains to
Mytishchi, Sergiev Posad, Aleksandrov, Rostov and Yaroslavl. 8
Kursky Station, st. Zemlyanoy val, 29 (3 5 Kurskaya, 10
Chkalovskaya). The most difficult of the Moscow stations. From it,
trains depart at once in several directions: Kursk, Gorky,
Leningradsky (passing trains from St. Petersburg), as well as
Smolensk and Riga (through trains through Moscow-Kalanchevskaya).
For this reason, the railway station has through paths and dead
ends, and with independent numbering, i.e. 5 way and 5 dead end -
not the same thing. From the dead ends, to the south of the station
building, train trains of the Gorky direction are sent. The old
building, built in 1896, during the years of stagnation, was
supplemented with a faceless gray box that looks towards the Garden
Ring, and the old building, respectively, is drawn to the paths.
Inside it is one big and long building, but the difference between
the old and the new is clearly visible. On the ground floor (0
floor) suburban ticket offices and a huge number of inexpensive (by
Moscow standards) eateries with pies, pancakes, potatoes. On the
first floor of the long-distance ticket office, and behind them, in
the old building, are several large waiting rooms. Here, the 24-hour
dining room Dobroe Delo, located in one of the old halls with stucco
work, is, if not the best, then certainly the most interesting place
for a snack, the hottest here is 150-200 rubles (2014). On the
second floor, which is a "balcony", there are several beautiful and
expensive places like the restaurant Il Patio and even a wine bar.
Manual lockers are located on the ground floor (170 rubles / day),
there are also modern automatic cells in one of the waiting rooms
(110 rubles / h, 250 rubles / day). In addition to everything
already listed at the Kursk railway station, there are such
uncharacteristic objects for Russian railway stations as a laundry
and a shoe store. In general, the situation is more pleasant and
well-groomed than at most other Moscow railway stations. Free wifi.
From the second floor, the gallery leads to the Atrium shopping
center, located in front of the station, which is a typical Moscow
shopping center with expensive shops. On the lower floor there is a
supermarket "Crossroads", on the 3rd floor there is a food court
with all the options of fast food you can think of. There are
several restaurants there. 9 Kievsky Station. Located near the
metro station 3 4 5 Kievskaya. Serves trains of the south-west
direction from the direction of Bryansk. On international trains you
can get from the territory of Ukraine (Kiev, Odessa, Lviv and
others), Moldova, Bulgaria, Serbia, Montenegro, Croatia. Electric
trains go to Naro-Fominsk, Maloyaroslavets, Kaluga and other
direction stations. The station is served by aeroexpress to Vnukovo
airport. 10 Savyolovsky station. One of the two stations located
on the side of the Koltsevaya metro line, metro station 9
Savyolovskaya. Recently, the station does not serve long-distance
trains. On trains, including express trains, you can come to Moscow
from the northern direction from Dubna, Dmitrov, Savyolovo.
11 Belorussky Station. Located near the metro station 2 5
Belorusskaya. Serves trains mainly western directions. The most
"international" station of the capital. From the territory of Russia
to Belorussky railway station you can come from Smolensk and
Kaliningrad. After the transfer of trains from Savyolovsky station,
passenger trains leave from here to Uglich and Rybinsk. The station
is the final destination for trips from Berlin, Warsaw, Paris, Nice,
Prague, Minsk, Brest and other European cities, often trains are
formed from trailer cars from different directions. From the
station, trains also depart in the direction of Odintsovo, Kubinka,
Zvenigorod, Mozhaisk, Gagarin and Vyazma. The station is served by
Aeroexpress to Sheremetyevo-2. 12 Paveletsky railway station.
Located on the square of the same name on the Garden Ring, near the
metro station 2 5 Paveletskaya. Long-distance trains go to the
southeast to the Volga region (Saratov, Volgograd, Astrakhan), to
the Caucasus (Stavropol, Baku, Makhachkala). By train you can get to
Kashira, Necklaces, Uzunovo. Aeroexpress follows to Domodedovo
Airport (journey time: 40-45 minutes). 13 Riga station. One of
the two stations located on the side of the Koltsevaya metro line,
metro station 6 Rizhskaya. Recently, the station has a small number
of serviced long-distance trains. It is the final destination for
trains from Velikie Luki, Posini and Riga (Latvia). From the Rizhsky
railway station, electric trains head westward toward Volokolamsk,
Shakhovskaya and other stations. Sometimes it is convenient to
get on electric trains not at train stations, but at distant metro
stations: Dmitrovskaya and Tushinskaya for the Riga direction,
Timiryazevskaya for Savelovsky, Elektrozavodskaya, Aviamotornaya and
Vykhino for Kazan and Ryazan, Nagatinskaya and Warsawavskaya for
Paveletsky, Textile workers and Tsaritsyno for Kursky, Begovaya and
Kazan Fili for Belarusian. Long-distance trains, as a rule, depart
from the stations, while for nearby directions, there are through
trains from the Kursk direction to Riga and Belarus, as well as from
Belarus to Savyolovsky.
The main point of departure of buses in Moscow is the Central Bus
Station (3 Schelkovskaya), in addition, buses leave from most
railway stations (the directions roughly coincide with the most
popular railway routes, for example, Lipetsk, Voronezh, Volgograd
from Paveletsky Station, Rostov-on-Don, Stavropol from the Kazan
International bus routes cover the nearest
countries: Ukraine (Kiev, Odessa), Poland, the Baltic States,
Part of the suburban routes goes from the metro
stations, among which should be noted station 6 VDNH (Yaroslavl
direction), 1 South-West and some others.
Bus stations in
Moscow: 14 Mezhdunarodny Avtovokzal - International Bus Station
(South Gate), MKAD, 19th km (2 Krasnogvardeyskaya, 2 Alma-Atinskaya,
2 Domodedovskaya, 2 Tsaritsyno, 10 Bratislavskaya, 10 Marino, 7
Kotelniki (travel by free route taxis)). ☎ +7 (499) 940-08-43, 8
(800) 200-08-41. The new project of the metropolitan government,
aimed at optimizing passenger traffic. As of 2015, the development
of the bus station is at an early stage. 15 Central Bus Station
(Schelkovsky), Schelkovskoe Highway 75 (3 Schelkovskaya). ☎ +7 (495)
468-04-00. The main bus station in Moscow and the largest in Russia.
16 Krasnogvardeyskaya Bus Station, 46 Orekhovy Boulevard (2
Krasnogvardeyskaya 10 Zyablikovo). ☎ +7 (495) 395-54-87, +7 (495)
395-89-35, +7 (495) 395-88-35. 17 Teply Stan Bus Station,
Novoyasenevsky Avenue, 4 (6 Teply Stan). ☎ +7 (495) 753-55-55. 18
Bus station at Paveletsky railway station, Dubininskaya street, 7 (2
Paveletskaya). 19 Bus station "VDNH", Mira Avenue, VDNH (VVC),
Northern entrance (6 VDNH). ☎ +7 (495) 760-27-44. 20 Bus station
Kotelniki, Novoryazanskoye Highway 1 (7 Kotelniki). ☎ +7 (495)
371-98-60. 21 Domodedovskaya Bus Station, Orekhovy Boulevard, 14g
(2 Domodedovskaya). ☎ +7 (495) 397-06-00, +7 (495) 399-90-27. Buses
and route taxis depart from the bus station to Domodedovo Airport.
22 Partizanskaya Bus Station, Izmailovskoye Highway 71 (3
Partizanskaya). ☎ +7 (495) 166-11-79. 23 Kuzminki Bus Station,
Zhigulevskaya Street, 7 (7 Kuzminki). ☎ +7 (495) 657-74-70. 24
River Station Bus Station, Festivalnaya Street 2a (2 Rechnoy
vokzal). ☎ +7 (495) 457-11-11. Buses and route taxis depart from the
bus station to Sheremetyevo Airport 25 Bus station "Tushinskaya",
travel Stratonautov, 9 (7 Tushinskaya). ☎ +7 (495) 490-24-24. 26
Glider Bus Station, 7 Planernaya (7 Planernaya). Buses and route
taxis depart from the bus station to Sheremetyevo Airport 27 Bus
Station Yugo-Zapadnaya, Vernadsky Avenue, 86 (1 Yugo-Zapadnaya). ☎
+7 (495) 434-82-27. Buses and route taxis depart from the bus
station to Vnukovo Airport. International flights are operated
from Schelkovskogo bus station, Teply Stan and some others.
Moscow is the beginning of more than a dozen international,
federal and regional routes. However, driving into the capital, you
can probably get stuck in traffic, so you should avoid the most
likely time of their occurrence near the Moscow Ring Road (rush
hours): on weekdays (in the morning to the city, in the evening from
the city), on Saturday morning from the city, Sunday evening to the
city. In order to have time to leave before the formation of the
morning traffic jam, you need to have time to drive until 7 am, in
order to wait out the evening one - you need to go after 10-11 pm.
You can try to drive to the evening traffic (about 17 hours on
weekdays, 15 hours on Friday and Sunday), but the traffic during the
day is not much weakened, so you should count on delays from an hour
to three to reach the Moscow Ring Road from the immediate vicinity.
In addition, a number of tracks, in particular, Yaroslavl highway
has narrowings on the first 10-20 km from the Moscow Ring Road,
which additionally holds back traffic.
The main directions of
M1 (Minskoe highway) - from Europe, Brest, Minsk,
Smolensk M2 (Simferopol highway) - from the Crimea, Kharkov,
Belgorod, Kursk, Orel, Tula M3 (Kiev highway) - from southern
Europe, western and central Ukraine, Bryansk, Kaluga M4
(Kashirskoye Highway) - from the Caucasus, from Rostov-on-Don,
Voronezh, east of the Tula region Starokashirskoye Highway - from
Domodedovo Airport M5 and M7 - depending on the direction - from
Siberia and the Far East M5 (Novoryazanskoye Highway) - also from
Kazakhstan and Central Asia, Chelyabinsk, Ufa, Samara, Saratov,
Penza, Ryazan Ryazan highway - from Lyuberets - old highway M5
M7 (Entuziastov Highway, then Gorky Highway) - from Ekaterinburg,
Izhevsk, Kazan, Nizhny Novgorod, Vladimir M6 (merges with M4 in
Kashira) - from Astrakhan, Volgograd, Tambov, the south of the
Ryazan region M8 (Yaroslavl highway) - from the north-west of
Russia, from Vologda, Yaroslavl and Kostroma M9 (Novorizhskoe
highway) - from Lithuania, Latvia, Great Bow, Rzhev M10
(Leningradskoye Highway) - from Finland, St. Petersburg, Veliky
Novgorod, Tver A101 (Kaluzhskoe highway) - from Roslavl, Obninsk,
Troitsk A103 (Schelkovskoe highway) - from Schelkov,
Chernogolovka, Fryanova A104 (Dmitrovskoye Highway) - from the
eastern regions of the Tver region, Kimr, Dubna, Dmitrov If there
is no strict need to travel around Moscow by car, it is easier and
safer to leave it on the outskirts of the city, at the end metro
stations and then use public transport.
On the ship
Moscow is called the “port of the five seas”, which means that
through the canal systems the Moscow River is connected with the
White, Baltic, Caspian, Azov and Black seas. The city has two ports
- the main North, and the rarely used South.
shipments from abroad are not carried out. On cruise ships you can
get to Moscow mainly from St. Petersburg.
Transport Around Moscow
Moscow has several independent, but partially integrated with
each other transport systems:
Metro, Monorail and Moscow
Central Ring City street transport (buses, trolley buses and
trams) Suburban train There is no official route planner in
Moscow. Of the informal ones, the Yandex-maps service works slightly
better than others. Yandex-Metro, Yandex-Transport and Yandex-Trains
mobile applications are equally in demand, covering various aspects
of Moscow transport.
With the exception of early morning,
late evening and weekends, Moscow transport is heavily overloaded.
If ground transportation is in traffic jams, then in the metro
traffic jams arise from passengers, so it is impossible to predict
the trip time with confidence, no matter what path you take. If you
need to get there on time, and you are not very familiar with Moscow
transport, you must get out in advance.
For a long time,
ground transportation in all respects was inferior to the metro, and
even one station was more convenient to go underground than by bus
or trolleybus. The city authorities are trying to remedy this
situation by launching the main routes that follow the selected
lanes, and on major highways, ground transportation began to go
relatively quickly, although it still has no visible advantages over
Opening hours: Moscow transport operates from 5:30
am to 1:00 am. In the metro at 1:00, the transitions between the
lines are closed, and the last train leaves from the last station,
so you can get out of the metro after 1 am. At night, you can only
travel around Moscow by taxi or special night buses.
charts: in 2016, a city electric train was launched, and Mosgortrans
engaged in a radical reform of land transport routes. For this
reason, any maps, charts and atlases have lost all relevance, new
ones will not be available until 2017. Use mobile applications and
charts in subway cars - in an era of great change, only they are
updated in a timely manner.
In Moscow, there are single tickets for all types of transport
except commuter trains. Buying tickets for 1-2 trips is much less
profitable than travel or reusable payment cards. In practice, this
means that by entering the subway or bus, you can always buy a
ticket, but pay substantially more than if you take care of the
ticket in advance.
The main types of tickets (prices 2018):
The Troika card works on the principle of an electronic wallet.
Putting money on the card, you can pay for trips at a price of 36
rubles. If you are traveling with a transfer, then pay 36 + 20 = 56
rubles - this is the “90 min” tariff, which includes an unlimited
number of trips by land transport and no more than one trip by metro
for 90 minutes from the moment of the first passage through the
turnstile. Mortgage card value: 50 rubles. This is the most
convenient option for those who come to Moscow for a few days and
use transport not too often. Also, you can charge travel cards to
the Troika card, but they are easier to buy as a separate card
(without a deposit value) so as not to get confused. Daily ticket
costs 218 rubles, valid for 24 hours from the time of the first
pass; ticket for 3 days - 415 rubles, for 7 days - 830 rubles.
Tickets for 1-2 trips cost 55 and 110 rubles, respectively.
Drivers of land transport sell only tickets for 1 trip for 55
Ticket offices operate all the time, from opening to
closing. Kiosks selling tickets for ground transportation are found
in the city less and less, have unpredictable mode of operation,
most often only during the day. Ticket machines are available at all
metro stations and city trains, and they gradually appear at major
land transport stops. Machines accept cash (bills no larger than 500
rubles) and credit cards, allow you to charge your Troika card or
buy a ticket for 1-2 trips.
A ticket for a suburban electric
train is easier to buy separately than to try to charge it to the
Troika card, although such an opportunity, in principle, exists. The
system of electronic wallet and urban travel in trains do not work.