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World War II Sites

Krasnaya Gorka Fort

Krasnaya Gorka Fort

Krasnaya Gorka Fort is an old abandoned coastal artillery fortress situated west of town of Lomonosov in Leningrad Oblast in Russia. Its name can be translated as a Red Hill or Beautiful Hill, although the second meaning seem more appropriate given the beauty of the nature that now overtakes ruins of the formidable defense.

 

 

Location: West of Lomonosov, Leningrad Oblast  Map

More pictures here

 

 

 

 

Description of Krasnaya Gorka

Krasnaya Gorka Fort was originally constructed in the 18th century on the coast of the Baltic sea to protect capital of the Russian Empire, Saint Petersburg. However it underwent massive reconstruction in the late 19th and early 20th century. Most of the structures dated to 1909- 14. In addition several small outlying defenses and forts like Seraya Loshad (Grey Horse) and Obruchev were added in addition to the main citadel. The site is massive. It has a lot of remains from the original fort, guns from the World War II, remains of the original Soviet cruise missiles and of course miles of underground structures. However, you have to be careful about where you step. Tunnels have not been secured and there are still a lot of ammunition lying around. Some of the lower levels are flooded and judging by the testimonies of some of the divers who dared to explore them, there is still a lot of ammunition hidden below ground. Use your brains, and try to stay safe. There have been a lot of casualties among local explorers who were killed by explosions, cave ins and other surprises. You don't want to became a statistic.

 

Krasnaya Gorka Fort Map

1. Battery 4*12 inch guns in armoured turrets

2. Battery 4*12 inch guns in concrete casemates

3. Light station

4. Headquarters

5. Battery 8*10 inch guns

6. Battery 8*6 inch Canet guns

7. Battery 4*11 howitzers

8. Memorial

9. Railroad guns B- 130

10. Railroad station "Krasnoflotsk"

 

A. I line of ground defenses

B. II line of ground defenses

C. Museum (reserve powder store)

 

 

 

 

 

 

History of Krasnaya Gorka

Most of structures in the Krasnaya Gorka Fort were constructed in 1909- 1914 during major reconstruction of the original 18th century fortress. It was carried out under supervision of General- Major Apollo Alekseevich Schischkin. During World War I guns of the fort defended capital of the Russian Empire Petrograd (changed from German sounding Saint Petersburg in 1914) that stands on the shores of the Baltic Sea. The garrison consisted of 2000 infantry, 2000 artillery personnel and another 500 soldiers. Fortress was defended by 25 guns of various sizes that ranged from 76 mm to 305 mm in diameter. German advancement forced Russian army to put mines in gun batteries. The enemy was stopped and fort was saved, but on August 20, 1918 during a strong thunderstorm several explosives went off killing personnel who slept next to their battle stations. Many pieces of the original concrete defenses are now found on the shores of the Baltic Sea several kilometers away from the epicenter of the blast.

 

After the Revolution in June 1919 the garrison of Krasnaya Gorka mutinied against the Bolsheviks one party rule in the Revolutionary Russia. Sailors and soldiers were led by General- Leutenant Aleksandr Pavlovich Rodzyanko (Александр Павлович Родзянко). The revolt was suppressed and soldiers have left the fortress. Later in autumn and October of 1919 Estonian 1st Division with the help of the British Royal Navy ship HMS Erebus attempted to take Krasnaya Gorka away from the Bolsheviks, but failed to breach remaining defense line. Guns that survived were later used against rebellion of sailors in Kronstadt.

 

Saint Petersburg or Petrograd was renamed to Leningrad and military decided that it still needed protection from the possible attacks from the West. In the 1930's Soviet government invested large amounts of man power and material to rebuild destroyed military base. Krasnaya Gorka became a key defense fortification in the protection of the city. New headquarters and living quarters were added for the soldiers and officers. New rail guns were added to the defense. It was an important strategic location in the defense of besieged Leningrad. It help to maintain Oranienbaum Bridgehead and keep German and Finnish armies away from the Soviet second largest city. The fort was active until 1960 when it was decommissioned and partially demolished. There are discussions about turning this location into a military museum, but this has been going on since the Soviet times and little has been done to actually carry on with the project.

 

Railroad 305 mm gun from the World War II in Krasnaya Gorka

 

Krasnaya Gorka Fort  Krasnaya Gorka Fort

Gun is pulled by TM-3-12 in front and transporter TM-1-180 behind. It was constructed in the late 30's on Leningrad Metallurgy plant. It was mobile and used railroads to move its locations. Germans couldn't figure out the exact location of the fire point and couldn't take it out. Gun barrel is 16 meters long and could fire at a range of 40 km.

 

Railroad 180 mm Gun (1935) in Krasnaya Gorka

 

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Flying rocket KS 1 Komet in Krasnaya Gorka

 

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Krasnaya Gorka Fort

Trenches for soldiers. It also had metal shields that protected the shooters, but most of them were stolen after the for was decommissioned.

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           Headquarters of Krasnaya Gorka

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Seraya Loschad (Grey Horse)

Seraya Loschad

Seraya Loschad  Seraya Loschad  Seraya Loschad  Seraya Loschad  Seraya Loschad  Seraya Loschad  Seraya Loschad  Seraya Loschad

 

 

 

 

 

 

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