History of United
54 BC Julius Caesar lands in Britain
with his legions, but withdraws later.
43AD Roman army during reign of Emperor Claudius invade the
island and establish their presence.
Queen Boadicea leads rebellion against the Romans. She captures
and burns down Saint Albans and Colchester. Eventually she was
defeated by the Roman army.
conquer Wales and the North.
Agricola wages war against tribes of Scotland. Eventually he
retreats with his legions.
Wall of Hadrian
is constricted on the border with Scotland during reign of
140- 143 Romans invade
Southern Scotland, acquire new lands and construct
Antonine Wall to
mark new frontier between Roman Empire and barbaric tribes.
254 Saint Alban in beheaded and becomes the first Christian
martyr of Britain.
306 Roman soldiers in
York make Constantine a new Roman Emperor.
350- 69 Picts and Scots attack the Roman outposts on the
410 Roman begin their
withdrawal from the island.
Saxon, Jute tribes invade the island as Roman influence
470- 495 Saxons and Angles
settle Essex, Sussex and East Anglia.
563 Saint Columba lands on Iona.
Saint Augustine is sent by Rome to convert pagan tribes to
617- 85 Northumbrian
kingdom gains influence in the region.
635 Saint Aidan establishes a monastery on Lindisfarne.
867 Northumbria is captured by the invading groups of the
878 King Alfred defeats the
Vikings, but then allows them to settle in Eastern England.
1016 Danish king Canute becomes king of England.
1034 Duncan I becomes the king of Scotland.
1066 William the Conqueror crosses the English Channel from
France and invades Britain. He defeats Anglo- Saxon king Harold
at the battle of Hasting and becomes the first Norman king of
England and is crowned in Westminster.
1071 Hereward the Wake leads Anglo- Saxon resistance against the
Normans. He is defeated at Ely.
Domesday Book is compiled for tax purposes.
1154 Henry II, the first Plantagenet king, destroys castles and
collects money from the aristocracy as an exempt from military
1215 King John is forced
by his barons to sign Magna Carta.
First British Parliament that includes commoners.
1282- 83 Edward I conquers Wales.
Edward I invades Scotland and fights Scottish resistance that
includes such famous heroes as William Wallace (aka"The
1314 Battle of Bannockburn.
Scottish army under Richard the Bruce defeats English armies.
1348 Black Death kills large European population.
1381 Peasants' revolt against imposition of poll taxes on
everyone in the country over 14.
Chaucer starts writing The Canterbury Tales.
1415 Battle of Agincourt, English are victorious.
1453 Hundred Years' War against France is over.
1485 Battle of Bosworth ends Wars of the Roses.
1497 John Cabot explores North America.
John Colet denounces the corruption of the church clergy. He is
supported by Sir Thomas More and Erasmus.
1513 Battle of Flodden. English defeat the Scottish army.
1533- 34 Marriage troubles of Henry VIII forces the king to
separate from Catholic Church and form Church of England.
1535 Act of Union with Wales.
Monasteries in England are abandoned by royal edict. Remaining
monks are expelled by force.
Queen Mary, Queen of Scots rules Scotland.
1549 First Book of Common Prayer is published.
1553 Edward VI dies, throne passes to the Catholic Mary I.
1558- 1603 Reign of Elizabeth I, Virgin Queen and daughter of
1559 Queen Mary lays claim
to English throne.
1570 Sir Francis
Drake takes his first voyage to the West Indies, the Carribean.
1584 Sir Walter Raleigh attempts to colonize Virginia in the New
1587 Mary, Queen of Scots, is
executed by the orders of Elizabeth I.
1588 Spanish Invincible Armada is defeated.
1591 Shakespeare's first play is performed.
1600 East Indian Company is found.
Union of England and Scotland. James VI of Scotland becomes
James I of England.
Plot" against the Parliament is foiled.
1611 King James Version of the Bible is published.
1614 "Addled Parliament" refuses to vote money for James I.
1620 Mayflower trip of Pilgrim Fathers to the New World.
1638 Scots sign National Covenant against Catholic leanings of
king Charles I.
1642 English Civil War
between Royalists and supporters of Parliament.
1649 King Charles I is executed outside Banqueting House and
1653- 58 Oliver Cromwell
is proclaimed as Lord Protector.
King Charles II, son of executed Charles I, becomes a new king
upon Restoration of the Monarchy.
66 Great Plague.
1666 Great Fire of
1688 The Glorious Revolution.
Catholic James II is deposed by the British Parliament.
1690 Battle of the Boyne. William's joint English and Dutch army
defeat James II who leads Irish and French armies.
1692 Glencoe Massacre of Jacobites (Stuart supporters) by troops
of William III.
1707 Act of Union with
1721 Robert Walpole becomes
first Prime Minister of Great Britain.
1776 American Declaration of Independence
1788 First convicts are sent to Australia.
1805 Battle of Trafalgar. Admiral Lord Nelson defeat French
1815 Battle of Waterloo. Duke
Wellington blows a final defeat to Napoleon Bonaparte.
1825 Railway between Stockton and Darlington opens.
1839 Catholic Emancipation Act is passed.
1837- 1901 Reign of Queen Victoria.
1854- 56 British join Allies in a war against Russia during
1863 London Underground
Subway system is open.
1899- 1902 Boer
War. Britain defeats Dutch settlers in South Africa. First
massive concentration camps were constructed by the British
1908 Old age pensions are
introduced by Liberal Government of British Prime Minister Henry
Asquith (1852- 1928).
1914- 18 World War
1918 All women over 30 get a right to
1924 First Labour government.
1928 Men and women over 21 can vote.
1936 Abdication of Edward VIII. He chooses to marry American
divorcee Wallis Simpson instead of taking up a throne.
1939 UK joins World War I after Hitler invades Poland.
1940 German air force Luftwaffe attempts to bomb the country
into submission and future invasion. It failed.
1944 Allied invasion of mainland France from England.
1945 World War II ends. Partition of Berlin and most of Europe
between the Allies and the Soviet side.
1947 India and Pakistan gain their independence.
1948 National Health Service is introduced.
1973 Great Britain joins European Community.
1999 Scottish Parliament and Welsh Assembly are formed.
2005 Terrorist bomb attacks in London kill 52 people, hundreds