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History of United Kingdom:












Brief Timeline of United Kingdom

54 BC Julius Caesar lands in Britain with his legions, but withdraws later.

43AD Roman army during reign of Emperor Claudius invade the island and establish their presence.

61 Queen Boadicea leads rebellion against the Romans. She captures and burns down Saint Albans and Colchester. Eventually she was defeated by the Roman army.

70 Romans conquer Wales and the North.

74- 84 Agricola wages war against tribes of Scotland. Eventually he retreats with his legions.

120 The Wall of Hadrian is constricted on the border with Scotland during reign of Emperor Hadrian.

140- 143 Romans invade Southern Scotland, acquire new lands and construct Antonine Wall to mark new frontier between Roman Empire and barbaric tribes.

254 Saint Alban in beheaded and becomes the first Christian martyr of Britain.

306 Roman soldiers in York make Constantine a new Roman Emperor.

350- 69 Picts and Scots attack the Roman outposts on the frontier.

410 Roman begin their withdrawal from the island.

440s- Angle, Saxon, Jute tribes invade the island as Roman influence decreases.

470- 495 Saxons and Angles settle Essex, Sussex and East Anglia.

563 Saint Columba lands on Iona.

597 Saint Augustine is sent by Rome to convert pagan tribes to Christianity.

617- 85 Northumbrian kingdom gains influence in the region.

635 Saint Aidan establishes a monastery on Lindisfarne.

867 Northumbria is captured by the invading groups of the Vikings

878 King Alfred defeats the Vikings, but then allows them to settle in Eastern England.

1016 Danish king Canute becomes king of England.

1034 Duncan I becomes the king of Scotland.

1066 William the Conqueror crosses the English Channel from France and invades Britain. He defeats Anglo- Saxon king Harold at the battle of Hasting and becomes the first Norman king of England and is crowned in Westminster.

1071 Hereward the Wake leads Anglo- Saxon resistance against the Normans. He is defeated at Ely.

1086 The Domesday Book is compiled for tax purposes.

1154 Henry II, the first Plantagenet king, destroys castles and collects money from the aristocracy as an exempt from military royal service.

1215 King John is forced by his barons to sign Magna Carta.

1256 First British Parliament that includes commoners.

1282- 83 Edward I conquers Wales.

1296 Edward I invades Scotland and fights Scottish resistance that includes such famous heroes as William Wallace (aka"The Braveheart")

1314 Battle of Bannockburn. Scottish army under Richard the Bruce defeats English armies.

1348 Black Death kills large European population.

1381 Peasants' revolt against imposition of poll taxes on everyone in the country over 14.

1387 Chaucer starts writing The Canterbury Tales.

1415 Battle of Agincourt, English are victorious.

1453 Hundred Years' War against France is over.

1485 Battle of Bosworth ends Wars of the Roses.

1497 John Cabot explores North America.

John Colet denounces the corruption of the church clergy. He is supported by Sir Thomas More and Erasmus.

1513 Battle of Flodden. English defeat the Scottish army.

1533- 34 Marriage troubles of Henry VIII forces the king to separate from Catholic Church and form Church of England.

1535 Act of Union with Wales.

1536- 40 Monasteries in England are abandoned by royal edict. Remaining monks are expelled by force.

1542- 67 Queen Mary, Queen of Scots rules Scotland.

1549 First Book of Common Prayer is published.

1553 Edward VI dies, throne passes to the Catholic Mary I.

1558- 1603 Reign of Elizabeth I, Virgin Queen and daughter of Henry VIII.

1559 Queen Mary lays claim to English throne.

1570 Sir Francis Drake takes his first voyage to the West Indies, the Carribean.

1584 Sir Walter Raleigh attempts to colonize Virginia in the New World.

1587 Mary, Queen of Scots, is executed by the orders of Elizabeth I.

1588 Spanish Invincible Armada is defeated.

1591 Shakespeare's first play is performed.

1600 East Indian Company is found.

1603 Union of England and Scotland. James VI of Scotland becomes James I of England.

1605 "Gunpowder Plot" against the Parliament is foiled.

1611 King James Version of the Bible is published.

1614 "Addled Parliament" refuses to vote money for James I.

1620 Mayflower trip of Pilgrim Fathers to the New World.

1638 Scots sign National Covenant against Catholic leanings of king Charles I.

1642 English Civil War between Royalists and supporters of Parliament.

1649 King Charles I is executed outside Banqueting House and Commonwealth.

1653- 58 Oliver Cromwell is proclaimed as Lord Protector.

1660 King Charles II, son of executed Charles I, becomes a new king upon Restoration of the Monarchy.

1665- 66 Great Plague.

1666 Great Fire of London.

1688 The Glorious Revolution. Catholic James II is deposed by the British Parliament.

1690 Battle of the Boyne. William's joint English and Dutch army defeat James II who leads Irish and French armies.

1692 Glencoe Massacre of Jacobites (Stuart supporters) by troops of William III.

1707 Act of Union with Scotland.

1721 Robert Walpole becomes first Prime Minister of Great Britain.

1776 American Declaration of Independence

1788 First convicts are sent to Australia.

1805 Battle of Trafalgar. Admiral Lord Nelson defeat French fleet.

1815 Battle of Waterloo. Duke Wellington blows a final defeat to Napoleon Bonaparte.

1825 Railway between Stockton and Darlington opens.

1839 Catholic Emancipation Act is passed.

1837- 1901 Reign of Queen Victoria.

1854- 56 British join Allies in a war against Russia during Crimean War.

1863 London Underground Subway system is open.

1899- 1902 Boer War. Britain defeats Dutch settlers in South Africa. First massive concentration camps were constructed by the British forces.

1908 Old age pensions are introduced by Liberal Government of British Prime Minister Henry Asquith (1852- 1928).

1914- 18 World War I.

1918 All women over 30 get a right to vote.

1924 First Labour government.

1928 Men and women over 21 can vote.

1936 Abdication of Edward VIII. He chooses to marry American divorcee Wallis Simpson instead of taking up a throne.

1939 UK joins World War I after Hitler invades Poland.

1940 German air force Luftwaffe attempts to bomb the country into submission and future invasion. It failed.

1944 Allied invasion of mainland France from England.

1945 World War II ends. Partition of Berlin and most of Europe between the Allies and the Soviet side.

1947 India and Pakistan gain their independence.

1948 National Health Service is introduced.

1973 Great Britain joins European Community.

1999 Scottish Parliament and Welsh Assembly are formed.

2005 Terrorist bomb attacks in London kill 52 people, hundreds are injured.