The Republic of Nauru is a dwarf state on the coral island of the same name in the Western Pacific Ocean with an area of ​​21.3 km² and a population of 10,084 people (2011). The independence of the state was proclaimed in 1968.

Nauru Island is located 42 km south of the equator. The nearest island - Banaba - is located 288 km to the east and belongs to the Republic of Kiribati. Nauru is the smallest independent republic on Earth, the smallest island state, the smallest state outside Europe and does not have an official capital (the unofficial capital of the country is the city of Yaren, where the country's parliament and airport are located).

The state is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. On September 14, 1999, the Republic of Nauru was admitted to the UN. Nauru is a member of the South Pacific Commission and the Pacific Islands Forum.


Nauru Island lies in the western part of the Pacific Ocean about 42 km from the equator. The nearest island - Banaba (Ocean) - is located 288 km east of Nauru and belongs to the Republic of Kiribati. The area of ​​the exclusive economic coastal zone (EEZ) is 308,480 km², of which 570 km² falls on territorial waters.

Nauru Island is a raised coral atoll, confined to the top of a volcanic cone. The island has an oval shape, the coast is concave from the east - Anibar Bay is located there. The area of ​​the island is 21.3 km², length - 6 km, width - 4 km. The coastline is about 18 km long. The highest point - 65 meters (according to various sources, 61-71 meters) - is located on the border of Aivo and Buada districts. About 1 km from the coast, the depth of the ocean reaches more than 1000 meters. This is due to the fact that in this place there is a steep cliff, reaching the ocean floor.

The surface of the island is a narrow coastal plain 100–300 meters wide, surrounding a limestone plateau, whose height in the central part of Nauru reaches 30 meters. The plateau used to be covered with a thick layer of phosphorites (Nauruit), which was formed, presumably (for other versions, see below), from the excrement of seabirds. The island is bordered by a narrow reef (width - about 120-300 meters), exposed at low tide and dotted with reef peaks. There are 16 canals dug in the reef, allowing small boats to approach directly to the coast of the island.