Papua New Guinea

 

Papua - New Guinea (full name: Independent State of Papua New Guinea) - a state in Oceania, in the southwestern Pacific Ocean, occupies the eastern part of New Guinea island, the Bismarck archipelago, the northern part of the Solomon Islands (Bougainville island, Bougainville,) D'Antrcasto Islands and others. Area - 462,840 km². The population is 7,275,324 (2011), mainly Papuans and Melanesians. The urban population is 15.2% (1991).

The official languages ​​are English, Tok-Pisin, and Hiri-Motu. Most of the population is Christians, the rest adhere to local traditional beliefs. Administrative division: 20 provinces. The capital is Port Moresby. Included in the Commonwealth of Nations. The head of state is the British Queen, represented by the Governor General. Legislature - National Parliament.

 

Etymology

The name "Papua" comes from the Malay word "papuva", which translated into Russian means "curly" (according to another version - from "orang papua" - "curly black-headed man"). This name was given to the island of New Guinea by the Portuguese Jorge de Menezes in 1526, noting the shape of the hair of the locals. In 1545, Iñigo Ortiz de Retes visited the island and gave it the name "New Guinea", because, in his opinion, the locals were similar to the natives of Guinea in Africa (he may have seen the similarity between the outlines of the coasts of the new island and the territory of African Guinea).

From the beginning of European colonization until independence, the country changed its official name several times. The southeastern part in 1884-1906 was called British New Guinea, and in 1906-1949 - Papua (under the control of Australia). The northeastern part was at first a colony of Germany and in 1884-1920 was called German New Guinea (from 1914 under the control of Australia), and in 1920-1949, according to the decision of the League of Nations, it was renamed the Territory of New Guinea, mandated by Australia. In 1949, the two Australian colonies were united into one - the Territory of Papua and New Guinea. In 1972, the province was renamed the Territory of Papua New Guinea. Since 1975, the name Papua New Guinea has become the official name for the new independent state.

 

Physical and geographical characteristics

Geographical position and relief
The state of Papua New Guinea is located in the western part of the Pacific Ocean, north of Australia and not far from the equator. The country occupies the eastern part of the island of New Guinea, located to the northeast of it, the Bismarck archipelago (which includes the large islands of New Britain, New Ireland, as well as the Admiralty Islands, Tabar, Lihir, Tanga, Feni, St. Matthias and others), located to the east, the northern part of the Solomon Islands (with the largest islands of Bougainville and Buka), located southeast of the main island of D'Entrecasteaux, Murua (Woodlark), Trobriand, the Louisiade archipelago, as well as other nearby islands and reefs (over 600 in total) .

Papua New Guinea is washed by the Arafura, Coral, Solomon and New Guinea Seas, as well as the Pacific Ocean. The country is separated from Australia by the Torres Strait, about 160 km wide. The state has a land border only with Indonesia (in the west), which is drawn along the 141 meridian and only in a small area deviates to the west along with the Fly River. It borders Australia (to the south), Solomon Islands (to the southeast), Nauru (to the east) and the Federated States of Micronesia (to the north) by sea.

The island of New Guinea and most of the country's other islands are mountainous. The height of a significant part of the territory is more than 1000 m above sea level, and some peaks of New Guinea reach 4500 m, that is, the belt of eternal snow. Many of the mountain ranges are chains of volcanoes. Papua New Guinea has 18 active volcanoes. Most of them are located in the north of the country. Strong, sometimes catastrophic earthquakes are also associated with volcanic activity.

The main ranges of the eastern part of the island of New Guinea begin with a strip of 50 km directly from the border with Indonesia (the Star Mountains, which are a continuation of the Snowy Mountains), gradually expanding to 250 km in the central part (the Central Range, the Bismarck Range with the country's highest point - Mount Wilhelm - 4509 m high, Schroeder Ridge, Muller Ridge and others). Further to the southeast, the mountains become narrower and lower (they pass into the Owen Stanley Range, with a maximum height of 4072 - Mount Victoria) and at the southeastern tip of the island they submerge under water. Some peaks rise above the water, forming the Louisiade archipelago. The northern slopes of these mountains are steep, while the southern slopes are gentle. The southern foothill zone of the Central Range is commonly referred to as the Papua Plateau. The closer to the sea, the lower this plateau is, and gradually turns into a swampy lowland.

Parallel to the central mountains, the low spurs of the Northern Coastal Mountains enter the territory of Papua New Guinea from Indonesia: partly the Bevani Mountains (up to 1960 m high), the Torricelli Mountains (the highest point is Sulen Mountain, 1650 m high), the Prince Alexander Mountains (the highest point is Mt. Turu, 1240 m high). Coastal mountains end in lowlands (valleys of the Sepik and Ramu rivers). As part of these mountains, the Adelbert Mountains (the highest point is Mount Mengam, 1718 m high), lying on the right bank of the Ramu River near the mouth, as well as the Finistere and Saruvaged Mountains located on the Huon Peninsula, with the highest height of 4121 m (Mount Bangeta ). In addition to the main island, there are significant ridges on the islands of New Britain (Whiteman Ridge, Nakani and Baining Mountains, with the highest height of 2334 m - Ulawun Volcano) and New Ireland (Scheinitz and Worron Ranges, with heights up to 2340 m).

 

Geology

Papua New Guinea is located in a geologically active region at the junction of the Australian (moving north at a speed of 7 cm/year) and the Pacific (moving west at a speed of 10 cm/year) lithospheric plates. The island of New Guinea is located at the northern tip of the Australian Plate and is part of the prehistoric supercontinent Sahul (Meganesia). Geologically, the country is divided into two main geological provinces: the Fly platform, located on the Australian Plate, and the New Guinea orogenic zone, located at the junction of the plates.

The Fly platform is a lowland composed of sedimentary deposits accumulating from the Mesozoic era to the Quaternary period. The orogenic zone of New Guinea consists of various deformed sedimentary, metamorphic and volcanic rocks (including intrusive ones). This zone includes areas of folding (Papuan, New Guinean thrust belt, Oeun-Stanley thrust belt), island arcs (Melanesian arcs), and inland small marine basins.

The Papua folded region with the Central Range and the Papua Plateau is formed by horizontal compression of rocks and is covered with a thick layer of sedimentary carbonate deposits of the Miocene time. The New Guinean thrust belt is located north of the Papuan folding and is represented in the relief by the Coastal Mountains. It is composed mainly of gneisses formed at moderate pressures during the metamorphism of sedimentary and volcanic rocks. Less common are gneisses formed at high pressures. The thrust belt was formed in two stages: in the southern part, activity was noted in the Late Cretaceous, and in the northern part, the Eocene-Oligocene (with the formation of intrusive gabbro and basalt minerals in the Torricelli Mountains). The Owen-Stanley thrust belt was formed southwest of the Papuan folded area as a result of a strike-slip, which is hardly noticeable in the modern relief. The belt is composed of sedimentary rocks accumulated from the Cretaceous to the Miocene, with inclusions of high-pressure metamorphic rocks. The islands of the Melanesian arc (New Britain, New Ireland, the Admiralty Islands and other smaller ones) are composed mainly of intrusive volcanic rocks of the Eocene-Oligocene time with small inclusions of remains of older rocks. In the Miocene and early Pliocene, volcanic processes in this area weakened and the surface of the islands was covered with a series of carbonate deposits. From the Pliocene to the present, volcanic activity has been observed only on New Britain and the Umboy-Manam chain of islands. The lavas are predominantly carbonate in composition.

Minerals
The country has industrially significant reserves of some minerals. The first of the mineral deposits (gold) was discovered back in 1888 on the island of Vanatinai, but it was soon exhausted. As of 2008, copper, gold, molybdenum, silver, tellurium, nickel, cobalt, natural gas, oil and cement raw materials are commercially mined.

4 large copper deposits are known: Nena (Sandaun province, reserves are estimated at 32 million tons of ore with a copper content of 2.3%), Ok-Tedi (Western province, reserves are estimated at 510 million tons of ore with a copper content of 0.69%), Panguna (Autonomous Region of Bougainville, reserves are estimated at 710 million tons of ore with a copper grade of 0.4%), Wafi (Province of Morobe, reserves are estimated at 19 million tons of ore with a copper grade of 1.4%). Commercial production is carried out only at the Ok-Tedi field, where development is carried out in an open pit. In 2008, 187,000 tons of copper were mined from this deposit. The Panguna field has not been developed since May 1989 due to civil conflicts on the island. It is planned to resume production.

In 2008, 65 tons of gold were mined in the country. According to the US Geological Survey, Papua New Guinea ranks 11th in the world in gold mining, and the total gold reserves are estimated at 2300 tons. The largest deposits are: Lihir (Province of New Ireland, reserves are estimated at 188 million tons of ore with a gold grade of 3, 6 g/t; 24 tons of gold mined in 2008), Ok-Tedi (reserves are estimated at 510 million tons of ore with a gold grade of 0.63 g/t; 16 tons of gold were mined in 2008), Panguna (reserves are estimated at 710 million tons of ore with a gold grade of 0.49 g/t), Porgera (Enga province, reserves are estimated at 65.4 million tons of ore with a gold grade of 4.6 g/t; 19 tons of gold were mined in 2008), Tolukuma (Central province, reserves are estimated at 700 thousand tons of ore with a gold grade of 13.3 g/t, 2 tons of gold were mined in 2008) and others. Mining is carried out both in open pits and in mines. According to the results of geological exploration, new deposits are discovered, many of which may be of industrial importance.

 

The largest silver deposit in the country was the Mishima mine, located on the island of the same name in the province of Milne Bay. In 1991, 100 tons of silver were mined on it. The deposit had reserves of 35.7 million tons of ore with a silver content of 11.0 g/t. Due to the depletion of reserves in 2001, the mine was closed. In 2008, 52 tons of silver were mined at two mines: in the Ok-Tedi deposit (48 tons of silver) and in the Porgera deposit (4 tons of silver). The large Panguna deposit remains mothballed (reserves are estimated at 530 million tons of ore with a silver content of 1.18 g/t). There are also industrially significant deposits of molybdenum (reserves are estimated at 21,300 tons), tellurium, nickel and cobalt (it is reported that they are ready to mine 31,500 tons of nickel and 3,300 tons of cobalt annually for 20 years), which have not yet been developed.

Papua New Guinea also has significant hydrocarbon reserves. There is one natural gas field (Hydes Gasfield, Southern Highlands province) - in 2008, 135 million m³ of gas was produced here; and several oil fields - mainly in the area of ​​​​Lake Kutubu (as of 2008, reserves are estimated at 12.1 million tons; crude oil production - 12.400 million barrels).

Hydrology
The islands that make up Papua New Guinea have a fairly dense river network. Rivers originate in the mountains and flow into the ocean. During heavy rains, rivers overflow and flood large areas, turning many areas into swamps. There are especially many swamps on the island of New Guinea. With the wide distribution of wetlands, the spread of malaria is also associated.

 

Climate

The climate of the country is tropical, in most of the territory it is humid. Temperature changes throughout the year are insignificant. The average daily temperature is about 26°. Seasons differ only in the amount of precipitation - the dry season and the rainy season. In different places, these seasons fall on different months.

However, only coastal areas can be considered hot climate. The mountainous regions are significantly different in their climate from the plains. The temperature is lower there, there is more rainfall. Above 2500-3000 m, the average daily air temperature is not more than 10 °C. There almost all the time there is a fine, drizzling rain, sometimes hail falls. These areas are not populated.

 

Flora and fauna

The flora and fauna of Papua New Guinea are rich and varied. More than 20 thousand plant species grow there. Along the coast of the island of New Guinea, a wide (in some places up to 35 km) strip of mangrove vegetation stretches. This swampy zone is completely impassable and can only be crossed by sailing along the rivers. Thickets of wild sugarcane grow along the rivers, and groves of sago palms grow in wetlands.

Dense rainforests, formed by hundreds of tree species, rise up the slopes of the mountains. However, now there are also plantations and orchards. Grow coconut palms, bananas, sugar cane, melon tree, tubers - taro, yams, sweet potatoes, cassava and other crops. Gardens alternate with forests. Plots of land are cultivated for only 2-3 years, then overgrown with forest for 10-12 years. Thus fertility is restored.

Above 1000-2000 m, the forests become more uniform in composition; conifers, especially araucaria, begin to predominate in them. These trees are of economic importance: their wood is a valuable building material. However, the delivery of sawn timber is difficult due to the paucity of good roads.

The highlands of New Guinea are covered with shrubs and meadows. In the intermountain basins, where the climate is drier, herbaceous vegetation is widespread, which arose in place of forests mainly as a result of fires.

The fauna of the country is represented by reptiles, insects and especially numerous birds. For the fauna of mammals, as in neighboring Australia, only representatives of marsupials are characteristic - bandicoot (marsupial badger), wallaby (tree kangaroo), couscous, etc. In the forests and on the coast there are many snakes, including poisonous ones, and lizards. Crocodiles and turtles are found near the sea coasts and in large rivers. Of the birds, cassowaries, birds of paradise, crowned pigeons, parrots, weed chickens are characteristic. Europeans brought domestic chickens, dogs and pigs to the island. Feral pigs, as well as rats, field mice and some other animals have spread widely throughout the country.

 

History

By the time of European colonization, the territory of present-day Papua New Guinea was inhabited by Papuans and Melanesians. They lived in the conditions of the Stone Age, hunting, fishing and gathering.

New Guinea was discovered in 1526 by the Portuguese navigator Jorge de Menezes. The name of the island was given by the Spanish navigator Iñigo Ortiz de Retes in 1545, seeing the similarity of the population with the population of African Guinea.

The exploration of the island and the penetration of Europeans there began only in the 19th century. Thus, the Russian researcher N. Miklukho-Maclay lived among the Papuans for a total of almost four years (in the 1870s and early 1880s).

In the 19th century, Papua New Guinea was also visited by other Europeans - merchants, whalers, missionaries. Europeans brought the first iron tools to Papua New Guinea.

Since 1884, the southeastern part of about. New Guinea (Papua) was under the rule of the British Empire, which at the beginning of the 20th century transferred it to Australia.

The northeastern part with the adjacent islands - the Bismarck Archipelago and others (later the name New Guinea was assigned to this territory) was captured by Germany in the 1880s, after the First World War, in 1920 transferred to Australia as a mandated territory of the League of Nations (later - UN Trust Territory).

In 1949, both parts (Papua and New Guinea) were administratively united by the Australian authorities.

In 1973, the territory of Papua New Guinea received internal self-government. In September 1975 it became an independent state.

In 1988-1997, a guerrilla war was going on on the island of Bougainville - the Revolutionary Army of Bougainville fought for the separation of the island from Papua New Guinea. To fight against the partisans, the government of Papua New Guinea used almost all the country's armed forces (about 2 thousand soldiers and officers), and also asked Australia for help, which sent a small military contingent, and hired a group of professional mercenaries. During this war, about 20 thousand people died.

In 2012, a cannibal sect disrupted the elections by terrorizing the local population.

1824 Holland declared the lands of the island of New Guinea to the west of 141°E. e. their property.
1884 November 3 Germany declares a protectorate over the north-eastern part of the island (east of 141 ° E), called German New Guinea.
1884 On November 6, Great Britain declares a protectorate over the southeastern part of the island (east of 141 ° E), called British New Guinea.
1885 April Germany establishes a protectorate over the northern part of the Solomon Islands (Buka Island, Bougainville Island, Choiseul Island, Shortland Island, Santa Isabel Island, Ontong Java (Lord Howe) Atoll).
1886 British New Guinea becomes a British colony.
1899 November 14 Germany hands over Ontong Java Atoll, Choiseul Island, Shortland Island and Santa Isabel Island to the British Protectorate of the Solomon Islands. Buka Island and Bougainville Island are included in the colony of German New Guinea.
1906 On September 1, Great Britain transferred to the Commonwealth of Australia the colony of British New Guinea, renamed Papua.
1914 November 11 German New Guinea occupied by Australia, renamed North East New Guinea.
1920 December 17 Australia receives a League of Nations mandate to administer North East New Guinea, named Territory of New Guinea.
1942 January 21 The beginning of the Japanese occupation of the island of New Guinea.
1942 April 10, Australia territorially united Papua and the Territory of New Guinea, under the name - Territory of Papua and New Guinea.
1949 Administrative association of the lands.
1971 July 1 Australian authorities gave a new name: Territory of Papua New Guinea.
1973 December The territory of Papua New Guinea became self-governing.
1975 September 16 The independent state of Papua New Guinea is proclaimed as part of the Commonwealth, a constitution is adopted.

 

Culture

There is a world-famous tradition of woodcarving on the Sepik River. These carvers create forms of plants or animals because they believe they are their ancestors and because they feel beautiful. They also create traditional skull portraits. Also, the Malagan artistic traditions of New Ireland are widely represented in the collections of museums around the world.

Population
The population of Papua New Guinea is 8,947,027 as of 2020.

Urbanization
As of 2021, the population of Papua New Guinea is concentrated in the highlands and on the eastern coastal regions of the island of New Guinea; almost the entire population of the country is rural, only a fifth of the population lives in urban areas; only 13.5% of Papua New Guinea's population lives in cities.

Age and sex structure of the population
0-14 years old: 31.98% (boys 1,182,539 / girls 1,139,358);
15-24 years old: 19.87% (men 731,453 / women 711,164);
25-54 years old: 37.68% (men 1,397,903 / women 1,337,143);
55-64 years: 5.83% (men 218,529 / women 204,717)
65 years and older: 4.64% (male 164,734 / female 171,916) (2020 figures)

Average age
Overall indicator: 24 years
Men: 24 years old
Women: 24 years (2020 figures)

Population growth
The population has grown by 1.61% from 2020 to 2021;
Fertility rate: 22.08;
Mortality rate: 5.97;
Net migration is 0 migrant per 1,000 inhabitants (91st in the world, 2021 data)

Gender composition of the population
At birth: 1.05 males / female
0-14 years old: 1.04 men / female
15-24 years old: 1.03 men / female
25-54 years old: 1.05 men / female
55-64 years old: 1.07 men / female
65 years and over: 0.96 men / female
The ratio of the total number: 1.04 male. / female (as of 2020)

infant mortality rate
Overall rate: 40.33 deaths/1000 births
Male: 45.32 deaths/1000 births
Female: 35.09 deaths/1000 births (as of 2021)

Average life expectancy
Overall indicator: 69.86 years
Men: 67.37 years
Women: 72.48 years (as of 2021)

total fertility rate
The total fertility rate for 2021 is 2.79 births per woman

Ethnic composition of the population
Ethno-racial composition - Melanesians, Papuans, Negrito, Micronesians, Polynesians

The linguistic composition of the population
Languages ​​- official: Tok Pisin (the most common), English (knows 1% -2%), Hiri Motu (knows less than 2%). There are over 839 indigenous languages. The country with the most languages ​​(about 12% of the total number of languages ​​in the world), many languages ​​are spoken by less than 1000 people. One of the explanations is the lack of communication between peoples living in valleys fenced off by mountains.

Religion
Protestantism - 64.3% (Lutherans - 18.4%, Adventists - 12.9%, Pentecostals - 10.4%, United Church of Papua New Guinea - 10.3%, Evangelicals - 5.9%, Anglicans - 3 .2%, Baptist 2.8%, Salvation Army 0.4%); Catholics - 27%; other Christians, 5.3%; other religions - 1.4%; n.a. 3.1% (2011 est.).

Education
According to The World Factbook, which defines literacy as the percentage of the population aged 15 and over who can read and write, as of 2015, 64.2% of Papua New Guinea's population; men - 65.6%, women - 62.8%, was competent. This figure is the lowest in Oceania.

 

Politic system

A constitutional monarchy. The head of state is King Charles III, represented by the Governor General (since February 28, 2017 - Bob Dadae). The Governor General is appointed by the King at the choice of the Parliament of Papua New Guinea.

Parliament - unicameral, 109 seats, of which 89 deputies are elected by the population for 5 years, another 20 are appointed from the provinces.

Represented in Parliament:
National Alliance - 30 seats;
Party of Papua New Guinea - 8 seats;
People's Action - 6 seats;
Pangu - 5 seats;
People's Democratic Movement - 5 seats;
United Resources Party - 5 seats;
People's Progress Party - 5 seats;
People's National Congress - 5 seats.
12 parties have from 4 to 1 seats in parliament, and 16 deputies are non-partisan. The composition of party factions often changes as deputies change party affiliations. In total, before the parliamentary elections in July 2007, 45 political parties were officially registered in Papua New Guinea.

 

Foreign policy

Papua New Guinea's foreign policy is based on close ties with Australia and other traditional allies, as well as cooperative relations with neighboring countries. Her views on international political and economic issues are generally moderate. Papua New Guinea has diplomatic relations with 56 countries.

Papua New Guinea is a member of a number of regional organizations, including:
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC);
Asian Development Bank
ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) In the ASEAN+2 format (Australia and New Zealand) - Papua New Guinea is an observer member of ASEAN;
East Asia Summit (EAS) - Papua New Guinea emerges as a potential candidate
East Asia Community (EAC) - Papua New Guinea - Candidate
Secretariat of the Pacific Community or Commission for the South Pacific (SPC);
Pacific Islands Forum (PHOTO);
Plan of Colombo;
Commonwealth of Nations;
Secretariat of the Pacific Community;
Asia-Pacific Security Cooperation Council (APSC);
South Pacific Regional Program for Environmental Protection, etc.

Relations with countries
Australia
Relations with Australia strained in 2006 when Prime Minister Michael Somare was accused of aiding the escape of Julian Moti to the Solomon Islands. Moti was wanted in Australia on serious charges of alleged child sex crimes. In retaliation, the Australian government banned Somara from Australia; all negotiations between Canberra and Port Moresby were suspended. Relations thawed in September 2007 and in December 2007 the new Australian Prime Minister Kevin Rudd met Sir Michael in Bali. Rudd announced, “This relationship has gone through a very difficult period of late. In reality, there was a freezing of contacts between the governments at the ministerial level of the two countries. I don't believe this is a viable option for a future relationship."

Cuba
In the late 2000s, Papua New Guinea began to strengthen its relationship with Cuba. Cuba provides medical assistance to the country. In September 2008, the Government of Papua New Guinea hosted the first Ministerial Meeting of Cuba and the Pacific Islands in Havana to "strengthen cooperation" between Cuba and the Pacific island countries, in particular in combating the effects of climate change.

Fiji
Start date of relationship: 1976.

As of November 2005, relations with Fiji's Pacific neighbor were tense, as a number of Fiji mercenaries operated illegally on Bougainville, arming and training the militia.

France
Official diplomatic relations were established in 1976. Papua New Guinea is a member of the UN Special Committee on Decolonization. The French government noted that it finds Port Moresby's "moderate" attitude towards the decolonization of New Caledonia - which, like Papua New Guinea, is in Melanesia. The French National Assembly maintains friendly relations with Papua New Guinea.

Indonesia
Indonesia shares a 760-kilometer land border with Papua New Guinea, which has kept diplomatic relations tense for decades. Indonesia is represented in Papua New Guinea by an embassy in Port Moresby and a consulate in Vanimo.

People's Republic of China
The Independent State of Papua New Guinea and the People's Republic of China (PRC) established formal diplomatic relations in 1976, shortly after Papua New Guinea's independence. The two countries currently maintain diplomatic, economic and, to a lesser extent, military relations. Relations between the countries are quite warm, China is a major investor, and also provides assistance in the development of Papua New Guinea.

Philippines
In March 2009, the Philippines and Papua New Guinea entered into a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) that will enhance cooperation between the two countries in fisheries development. The MoU will promote technology transfer in aquaculture development, promotion of shipping ventures, investment, technical training, joint research, and "strategic complement" plans of each country in the Coral Triangle. In the same year, Papua New Guinea turned to the Philippines for help in facilitating its entry into ASEAN.

Great Britain
Papua New Guinea and Great Britain are under the rule of King Charles III. Diplomatic relations with England have been established since 1975, when Papua New Guinea gained independence from Australia.

 

USA
The US and Papua New Guinea signed the US-Pacific Islands Multilateral Tuna Fishing Treaty, under which the US pays $63 million a year to the islands and they grant US access to their fishing vessels. The US also supports Papua New Guinea's biodiversity efforts; International Coral Reef Initiative to protect reefs in tropical countries such as Papua New Guinea.

Papua New Guinea and the Commonwealth of Nations
Papua New Guinea has been a member of the Commonwealth of Nations since 1975 when it gained independence from Australia.
Papua New Guinea is a member of the British Commonwealth, and in other member states of this organization, its embassies are headed by "high commissioners" with the rank of ambassador.

 

Armed forces

The armed forces of Papua New Guinea are recruited on a voluntary contract basis by males over the age of 16 (with parental consent and after graduating from 12 grades of school), forced conscription is not carried out.

 

Economy

Papua New Guinea is very rich in natural resources, but their use is difficult due to the conditions of the terrain and the high costs of infrastructure development. Nevertheless, the development of deposits of copper ore, gold and oil provides almost two-thirds of foreign exchange earnings.

GDP per capita in 2017 - 2.782 thousand dollars (158th place in the world).

Industry (37% of GDP) - oil extraction and processing, gold, silver, copper ore mining, copra processing, palm oil production, wood processing, construction.

Agriculture (33% of GDP, 85% of employees) - coffee, cocoa, copra, coconuts, tea, sugar, rubber, sweet potatoes, fruits, vegetables, vanilla; seafood, poultry, pigs.

Service sector - 30% of GDP.

 

International trade

Exports - $8.522 billion in 2017 - liquefied natural gas, oil, gold, copper ore, nickel, cobalt, palm oil, coffee, cocoa, copra, spices (turmeric, vanilla, ginger and cardamom), seafood.

Main export buyers: Australia - 18.9%, Singapore - 17.5%, Japan - 13.8%, China - 12.7%, Philippines - 4.7%, Netherlands - 4.2%, India - 4, 2%.

Imports - $1.878 billion in 2017 - machinery, equipment and vehicles, manufactured goods, food, fuels, chemicals.

The main suppliers of imports: Australia - 30.1%, China - 17.3%, Singapore - 10.2%, Malaysia - 8.2%, Indonesia - 4%.

It is a member of the international organization of African, Caribbean and Pacific countries.

 

Social sphere

Human rights violations
Claims of world human rights activists are caused by cases of police use of force against children, bullying and sexual abuse of children in police stations. Children affected by police injuries often do not receive medical care. The practice of ritual murders of women suspected of witchcraft persists. According to statistics, two-thirds of women in Papua New Guinea are constantly exposed to domestic violence, half of the women, according to surveys, have experienced forced sex. Witchcraft is prosecuted by law, usually cases of witchcraft are dealt with by village courts, which are deliberately biased against the defendants. This practice is opposed by local human rights activists and the Catholic Church. There have been cases of missing and murders of human rights activists, including those who campaign for women's rights.

Crime
According to the United Nations Human Settlements Program, the crime rate in the country as a whole is quite high, which "is one of the most serious problems affecting urban development and governance in Papua New Guinea."

Large cities are especially criminogenic (for example, Port Moresby, Lae), which is largely due to the presence in these cities of such a social and criminal phenomenon as reskolizm.

The death penalty
The death penalty in the country was banned from 1954 to 1991, in 1991 the parliament introduced the death penalty for premeditated murder, but in fact there is a moratorium, not a single death penalty was carried out during this period. However, the murder of a mother of four of her children in 2009 raised the question of lifting the moratorium in society.

witchcraft law
The Witchcraft Act was passed in Papua New Guinea in 1971. Although he does not claim that sorcerers and witchcraft actually exist, however, the text of this act establishes that people who consider themselves "bewitched" are not responsible for their actions. This provision is used as a mitigating circumstance in court in cases where the alleged sorcerer is killed. Often, women who came from other tribes and had no relatives became victims of lynching in connection with accusations of witchcraft. In February 2013, a 20-year-old girl was lynched in the city of Mount Hagen. She was accused of killing the boy with the help of witchcraft, after which the relatives of the child burned the suspect alive in front of the crowd. UN officials condemned the deed. In 2012, a cult of witch hunters was operating in the country, who killed sorcerers of both sexes and ate fragments of their bodies. According to the gang members, spirits helped them to distinguish a sorcerer from an ordinary person. Due to the actions of cannibals, the country's authorities even had to extend the elections taking place in the country, as many residents were afraid to go to the polls, for fear that they would be eaten.

In April 2013, the Prime Minister of Papua New Guinea, Peter O'Neill, promised to repeal the witchcraft law in force in the country. In May of the same year, it was reported that this legal act was canceled in the state; in addition, the authorities of the country decided after a break of 60 years to resume the death penalty in an attempt to stem the tide of violent crime.