Papua - New Guinea (full name: Independent State of Papua New
Guinea) - a state in Oceania, in the southwestern Pacific Ocean,
occupies the eastern part of New Guinea island, the Bismarck
archipelago, the northern part of the Solomon Islands (Bougainville
island, Bougainville,) D'Antrcasto Islands and others. Area -
462,840 km². The population is 7,275,324 (2011), mainly Papuans and
Melanesians. The urban population is 15.2% (1991).
official languages are English, Tok-Pisin, and Hiri-Motu. Most of
the population is Christians, the rest adhere to local traditional
beliefs. Administrative division: 20 provinces. The capital is Port
Moresby. Included in the Commonwealth of Nations. The head of state
is the British Queen, represented by the Governor General.
Legislature - National Parliament.
The state of Papua New Guinea is located in the western Pacific
Ocean, north of Australia and close to the equator. The country
occupies the eastern part of the island of New Guinea, located to
the northeast of it the Bismarck archipelago (which includes the
large islands of New Britain, New Ireland, as well as the islands of
the Admiralty, Tabar, Likhir, Tanga, Feni, St. Matthias and others),
located to the east the northern part of the Solomon Islands (with
the largest islands of Bougainville and Buka), located southeast of
the main island of D'Antrkasto, Murua (Woodlark), Trobrian, the
Louisiana Archipelago, as well as other nearby islands and reefs
(more than 600 in total) .
Papua New Guinea is washed by the Arafura, Coral, Solomon and New
Guinean seas, as well as the Pacific Ocean. The country is separated
from Australia by the Torres Strait, about 160 km wide. The state
has a land border only with Indonesia (in the west), which is drawn
along the 141 meridian and deviates to the west along with the River
Fly only in a small area. Borders by sea to Australia (in the
south), Solomon Islands (in the southeast), Nauru (in the east) and
the Federated States of Micronesia (in the north).
of New Guinea and most of the other islands of the country have
mountainous terrain. The height of a significant part of the
territory is more than 1000 m above sea level, and some peaks of New
Guinea reach 4500 m, that is, the belt of eternal snow. Many of the
mountain ranges are volcanic chains. Papua New Guinea has 18 active
volcanoes. Most of them are located in the north of the country.
Strong, sometimes catastrophic earthquakes are associated with
The main ridges of the eastern part of the
island of New Guinea begin with a strip of 50 km directly from the
border with Indonesia (Star Mountains, which are a continuation of
the Snow Mountains), gradually expanding to 250 km in the central
part (Central Range, Bismarck Range with the highest point of the
country - Wilhelm Mountain - 4509 m high, Schroeder ridge, Mueller
ridge and others). Further to the southeast, the mountains become
narrower and lower (they pass into the Owen-Stanley ridge, with a
maximum height of 4072 - Mount Victoria) and at the southeastern tip
of the island they are submerged. Some peaks rise above the water
forming the Louisiana Archipelago. The northern slopes of these
mountains are steep, and the southern gently sloping. The southern
foothill zone of the Central Range ridge is usually called the Papua
Plateau. The closer to the sea, the lower this plateau, and
gradually turns into a swampy lowland.
In parallel with the
central mountains, the low spurs of the Northern Coastal Mountains
enter the territory of Papua New Guinea from Indonesia: partially
the Bevani Mountains (up to 1960 m high), the Torricelli Mountains
(the highest point is Mount Sulen, 1650 m high), the Prince
Alexander Mountains (the highest point is Mount Turu, 1240 m high).
Coastal mountains end in lowlands (valleys of the Sepik and Ramu
rivers). As a part of these mountains, the Adelbert Mountains are
often considered (the highest point is Mount Mengam, 1718 m high),
located on the right bank of the Ramu River near the mouth, as well
as Mount Finister and Saruvaged, located on the Huon Peninsula, with
the highest height of 4121 m (Mount Bangeta ) In addition to the
main island, there are significant ridges on the islands of New
Britain (the Whiteman Range, the Nakani and Baining Mountains, with
the highest height of 2334 m - the Ulawun Volcano) and New Ireland
(the Sheinitz and Vorron Ranges, with heights up to 2340 m).