Papua New Guinea


Papua - New Guinea (full name: Independent State of Papua New Guinea) - a state in Oceania, in the southwestern Pacific Ocean, occupies the eastern part of New Guinea island, the Bismarck archipelago, the northern part of the Solomon Islands (Bougainville island, Bougainville,) D'Antrcasto Islands and others. Area - 462,840 km². The population is 7,275,324 (2011), mainly Papuans and Melanesians. The urban population is 15.2% (1991).

The official languages ​​are English, Tok-Pisin, and Hiri-Motu. Most of the population is Christians, the rest adhere to local traditional beliefs. Administrative division: 20 provinces. The capital is Port Moresby. Included in the Commonwealth of Nations. The head of state is the British Queen, represented by the Governor General. Legislature - National Parliament.


The state of Papua New Guinea is located in the western Pacific Ocean, north of Australia and close to the equator. The country occupies the eastern part of the island of New Guinea, located to the northeast of it the Bismarck archipelago (which includes the large islands of New Britain, New Ireland, as well as the islands of the Admiralty, Tabar, Likhir, Tanga, Feni, St. Matthias and others), located to the east the northern part of the Solomon Islands (with the largest islands of Bougainville and Buka), located southeast of the main island of D'Antrkasto, Murua (Woodlark), Trobrian, the Louisiana Archipelago, as well as other nearby islands and reefs (more than 600 in total) .


Papua New Guinea is washed by the Arafura, Coral, Solomon and New Guinean seas, as well as the Pacific Ocean. The country is separated from Australia by the Torres Strait, about 160 km wide. The state has a land border only with Indonesia (in the west), which is drawn along the 141 meridian and deviates to the west along with the River Fly only in a small area. Borders by sea to Australia (in the south), Solomon Islands (in the southeast), Nauru (in the east) and the Federated States of Micronesia (in the north).

The island of New Guinea and most of the other islands of the country have mountainous terrain. The height of a significant part of the territory is more than 1000 m above sea level, and some peaks of New Guinea reach 4500 m, that is, the belt of eternal snow. Many of the mountain ranges are volcanic chains. Papua New Guinea has 18 active volcanoes. Most of them are located in the north of the country. Strong, sometimes catastrophic earthquakes are associated with volcanic activity.

The main ridges of the eastern part of the island of New Guinea begin with a strip of 50 km directly from the border with Indonesia (Star Mountains, which are a continuation of the Snow Mountains), gradually expanding to 250 km in the central part (Central Range, Bismarck Range with the highest point of the country - Wilhelm Mountain - 4509 m high, Schroeder ridge, Mueller ridge and others). Further to the southeast, the mountains become narrower and lower (they pass into the Owen-Stanley ridge, with a maximum height of 4072 - Mount Victoria) and at the southeastern tip of the island they are submerged. Some peaks rise above the water forming the Louisiana Archipelago. The northern slopes of these mountains are steep, and the southern gently sloping. The southern foothill zone of the Central Range ridge is usually called the Papua Plateau. The closer to the sea, the lower this plateau, and gradually turns into a swampy lowland.

In parallel with the central mountains, the low spurs of the Northern Coastal Mountains enter the territory of Papua New Guinea from Indonesia: partially the Bevani Mountains (up to 1960 m high), the Torricelli Mountains (the highest point is Mount Sulen, 1650 m high), the Prince Alexander Mountains (the highest point is Mount Turu, 1240 m high). Coastal mountains end in lowlands (valleys of the Sepik and Ramu rivers). As a part of these mountains, the Adelbert Mountains are often considered (the highest point is Mount Mengam, 1718 m high), located on the right bank of the Ramu River near the mouth, as well as Mount Finister and Saruvaged, located on the Huon Peninsula, with the highest height of 4121 m (Mount Bangeta ) In addition to the main island, there are significant ridges on the islands of New Britain (the Whiteman Range, the Nakani and Baining Mountains, with the highest height of 2334 m - the Ulawun Volcano) and New Ireland (the Sheinitz and Vorron Ranges, with heights up to 2340 m).