Wallis and Futuna (sometimes Wallis and Futuna; Territoire des Iles Wallis et Futuna; Wallis and Futuna Islands) are islands in the South Pacific, about 2⁄3 of the way between Hawaii and New Zealand. In the north it borders with the territorial waters of Tuvalu, in the east with the territorial waters of Samoa, in the southeast with Tonga, in the west and south with Fiji. The exclusive economic zone of the territory is about 266,000 km². The territory includes three large islands (Uvea, Futuna, Alofi) and 22 small ones. Only Uvea and Futuna live. The total area is 274 km², the population is 12 197 people (2013), (together with the temporary population - 12 867 people (2013)). The capital of the territory is Mata-Utu. The Dutch Jacob Lemer and Willem Schauten discovered some of the islands of the territory (Futuna and Alofi) in 1616. Since 1961, the territory had the status of the overseas territory of France, and in 2003 it was changed to the Overseas Community of France. Wallis and Futuna are members of the Pacific Community Secretariat (since 1947), the Pacific Regional Environmental Program, and an observer to the Pacific Islands Forum (since 2006).
The Wallis Islands got their name in honor of the English navigator
Samuel Wallis, who visited them (the first European) during his
circumnavigation of 1766-1768. The Polynesian name for these islands,
Uvea, means "far, far island" in Wallisian. Probably, the islands got
their name from the colonizers from Tonga, for whom the island was
located far enough away.
The Futuna Islands got their name from the local name of the Asian barringtonia tree (Barringtonia asiatica), a futu growing on the coast of the islands. Another common name for these islands - Horn - they were given by the Dutch Jacob Lemaire and Willem Schouten in honor of their hometown.
The Wallis and Futuna Islands are located in the southwestern part of
the Pacific Ocean and consist of two island groups located at a distance
of 230 km from each other (Wallis - 13 ° 16' S. 176 ° 12' W. HGЯO; Horn
( Futuna) - 14°30′ S 178°10′ W HGЯO). The closest archipelagos are Tonga
in the southeast (400 km from Uvea), Samoa in the east (370 km from
Uvea) and Fiji in the southwest (280 km from Futuna). The total area of
the islands is 274 km² (in other sources, the area of the islands is
indicated in the range of 210-274 km²).
The Wallis group consists of the relatively large island of Ouvea (area 77.9 km²) and smaller islands. The total area of the group (including the lagoon) is 159 km². Uvea is a low volcanic island. The highest point is Mount Lulu-Fakahega (fr. Lulu-Fakahega) with a height of 151 m.
The hills in the center and south of the island of Uvea (Loka, Afafa, Lulu Luo, Jolo, Khologa, Atalika and others) are formed by the cones of craters of extinct volcanoes. The northern part of the island is a plain filled with ancient lava flows. Extreme points: northern - the coast near the village of Vailala, eastern - Cape Tepako, southern - Cape Fogo'one, western - Cape Waha'i'utu. The Wallis Islands are surrounded by a barrier reef. The reef is cut by four passages, through the main of which, Honikulu (fr. Honikulu), in the south, leads the fairway to the port of Mata-Utu, the administrative center of the territory. The greatest width of the lagoon is 5 km. There are two high and low tides during the day. The lagoon is dotted with 22 small islands (Nukufotu, Nukulaelae, Nukufufulanoa, Nukuloa, Uluiutu, Nukuteatea, Nukutapu (northern), Luaniva, Tekaviki, Nukuhione, Nukuatea, Faioa, Fenua Fu, Fugalei, Nukuhifala, Nukutapu (southern), Nukumotu, Nuku' taaki'moa, Nukuaofa, Nukufetau, Nukutaakemuku, Haofa), some of which are coral, and the other is of volcanic origin.
The Horn (Futuna) group consists of the islands of Futuna and Alofi, separated by 1.7 km. Futuna area - 83 km², Alofi - 32 km². These are high volcanic islands. The highest points are Mount Puke (Fr. Puke) 524 m on Futuna and Mount Kolofau (Fr. Kolofau) 417 m on Alofi. The islands have undergone recent uplift and have a highly rugged topography. With the exception of a few small coastal plains, the coasts of these islands are steep. The relief of the island of Futuna is represented by a series of low plateaus, gradually rising to Mount Puke, separated by small plains. The extreme points of Futuna Island: northern - Cape Fatua; eastern - Cape Vele; southern - the coast near the Vele airfield; the western one is the coast near the village of Toloke. On Alofi, Mount Kolofau is surrounded by a plateau 150–200 m high. eastern - Cape Sauma; southern - Cape Afaga; western - Cape Mafa'a. The Horn Islands are geologically young, so the reefs are located close to the coast (about 50 m) and do not form a lagoon. Only the northern part of the island of Alofi has a small lagoon.
The islands are located near the Fijian fault zone (one of the most
active in tectonic terms, located between the Australian and Pacific
tectonic plates), and due to the existence of a fault passing through
Futuna and Alofi (some researchers distinguish the Futuna tectonic
microplate here), these islands regularly occur earthquakes. The
strongest recorded earthquake had an intensity of 6.5 on the Richter
scale and occurred on March 13, 1993 (5 people died and 20 were
injured). The last (on November 15, 2009) earthquake occurred on
September 29, 2009. A magnitude 5.2 tremor was recorded in the Wallis
Islands (no tremors were felt on Futuna). There were no casualties or
The high islands of the Wallis Group are composed of olivine basaltic lavas and pyroclasts, with the exception of one extinct crater on Uvea and associated lava flows composed of oligoclase andesites. The low islands are composed of calcareous sand or are the eroded remains of tuff cones and lava domes. The lavas of the Wallis Islands belong to the group of alkaline lavas of the Central Pacific volcanoes.
Ouvea Island was formed by the pooling of lava flows from 19 volcanic craters. With the exception of two young lava flows covered only by soil, most of the island is composed of mid-Pleistocene lava flows. Lavas of intermediate age have not been found.
The formation of the Horn Islands began in the Pliocene (the formation of three ancient volcanoes). Their volcanic activity ceased in the Pleistocene. After the cessation of volcanism, the islands experienced a significant uplift (up to 500 m).
The hydrographic network on the island of Uvea is poorly developed.
The island has 7 large lakes by local standards (Lano, Lalolalo,
Lanumaha, Lanutavake, Lanutoli, Kikila, Alofivai). All of them, except
for Lanutoli, are fresh and fill the craters of extinct volcanoes
(except for Kikila). The largest lake is Kikila (17.9 ha). In addition,
there are about 20 salt marshes along the northern and eastern coasts.
Many short streams and springs. The island is covered with reddish
lateritic soils, rich in iron oxide and alumina, but poor in nitrogen
and phosphorus, and therefore infertile. The same soils are
characteristic of other volcanic islands of the Wallis group. The soil
of the rest of the islands of the group is represented by carbonate
Futuna has about 50 short rivers, the largest of which are Wainifao, Gutuvai, Wai Lasi and Leawa. The coast is swampy. There are no permanent streams on Alofi. The soils are similar to the volcanic soils of the Wallis Islands.
The climate of the islands is tropical trade wind, humid, constantly warm, without a pronounced dry season. Average monthly temperatures throughout the year fluctuate between 25-26 °C. The hottest month is February (average temperature +30 °C), the coldest month is July (average temperature +24 °C). Extreme temperatures recorded over the entire period of observation: the minimum is 18.4 °C, the maximum is 33.4 °C. Annual precipitation is 2500-3000 mm on the Wallis Islands (80% humidity) and almost 4000 mm on Futuna. The greatest amount of precipitation falls between November and April. During this period, weak winds blow, but the formation of hurricanes is also possible. Since 1970, 12 hurricanes have hit the islands, the strongest of which (Raja, December 1986) was accompanied by squalls reaching 137 km / h. The driest month is August with less than 134 mm of precipitation.
In the past, the islands of Ovea, Futuna and Alofi were completely
covered with natural forests - dense, humid inland forests and sparse
coastal forests. However, they were cut down for agricultural needs
(mainly for the still practiced rainfed slash-and-burn agriculture). As
of 2009, primary forest covered 13% of the area of Ouvea Island, 23%
of Futuna Island and 66% of Alofi Island.
Wet forests are low. The upper layer rarely exceeds 20 m with a trunk diameter of less than 80 cm. The species are not evenly distributed, but depending on the type of soil - limestone or not. In total, 50 species of plants are found in the humid forests of the islands, including 3 endemics (Aglaia psilopetala, Medinilla racemosa, Meryta sp.). In coastal forests there are mangroves (on the small islands of the Wallis group); psammophiles, acacias, coconut palms and others grow on the sands.
Secondary forests were formed on the site of the primary ones as a result of human activities and now occupy 44% of the total area of the islands. Acalypha grandis, Decaspermum fructicosum, Hibiscus tiliaceus, Homolanthus nutans, Macaranga harveyana, Melastoma denticulatum, Morinda citrifolia, Scaevola taccada are most common in them. Specific is the "toafa"-type vegetation - fern thickets on ferralitic soils (predominantly represented by Dicranopteris linearis). Since 1974, artificial afforestation with Caribbean pine began, which continues to this day. The 30 hectares of forest around Lake Lalolalo form the Wao-tapu (Wallisan for “Sacred Forest”) nature reserve. Here, special attention is paid to fire-fighting measures and hunting restrictions apply.
Terrestrial fauna is poor. In addition to domestic animals (cats, dogs, pigs, chickens), 37 species of birds (including shepherds, pigeons, terns, cormorants, frigatebirds) have been registered on the islands, 27 of which are permanent residents of the islands. The territory is home to a native species of flying fox (bat) - known as peka. Of the reptiles, the striped Fijian iguana (Brachylophus fasciatus) and three species of lizards of the skink family of the emoya genus are common: the Polynesian emoya (Emoia adspersa), the green-blue emoya (Emoia cyanura) and Emoia tongana. Futuna is endemic to the white kingfisher, the Polynesian whistler larvae, and the rare blue-capped loris hermit parrot found on Alofi. On the territory of the islands there are also several packs of feral dogs. Gardens are sometimes devastated by snails. Lots of insects, especially mosquitoes (which can carry dengue).
The marine fauna is richer. There are only 2 poisonous fish in the lagoon of Wallis Island: the stingray and the rockfish. Sharks are extremely rare.
According to 1988 ethnographic research (the discovery of Lapita
pottery in the south of Uvea), it is generally accepted that the islands
were inhabited between 1000 and 1500 (presumably around 1300). During
the first half of the second millennium, the Tongans dominated Ouvea,
while the people of Futuna resisted their conquest.
According to oral tradition, the Tongans established their kingdom on Uvea - ʻUvea - around 1400. The first hau (king) of Uvea was Tauloko. Founded in 1565, the Kingdom of Alo (Alo; in some sources Tuʻa) was the first kingdom in Futuna. Fakavelikele was the first king. Later, in 1784, the kingdom of Sigawe was founded, with Tuikamea as its first king. Between 1839 and 1841, the Alo Kingdom occupied Sigawa.
Europeans first saw these islands on April 28, 1616. Not far from the islands of Futuna and Alofi, the Dutch navigators Jakob Lehmer and Willem Schouten sailed on the ship Eendracht. They named the islands Hoorn, after the city they were from. The next time these islands were visited on May 11, 1768 by Louis Bougainville, however, the isolation of the inhabitants was broken only 50 years later by whaling ships.
The islands of Uvea were discovered by the Englishman Samuel Wallis (the islands got their name in honor of him), who on August 16, 1767 on the ship HMS Dolphin anchored in front of the island. On April 21, 1781, Francisco Antonio Morell (Maurelle) stopped on the island of Uvea and named it the Island of Solace. In 1791, the English captain of the Pandora, Edward Edwards, came here looking for the rebellious Bounty. Subsequently, various ships occasionally stopped on the islands until the arrival of whalers in 1828.
The first Europeans to settle here, beginning in November 1837, were the French missionaries of the Society of Mary (French: Les Sœurs Missionnaires de la Société de Marie). They converted the local population to Catholicism. The first missionary of the island of Futuna, Pierre Marie Chanel, was martyred on April 28, 1841 and was canonized on June 12, 1954 (declared Patron Saint of Oceania).
On April 5, 1842, after an uprising by part of the local population, the missionaries asked for protection from France. In November 1842, Wallis and Futuna, separately, were declared "free and independent under the protection of France" with the signing of treaties of friendship. On November 19, 1886, Queen Amelia of the Wallis Islands signed a treaty formally establishing a French protectorate. The kings of Sigawe, Joab Manua Musulanu and Alo Aliasegi of the islands of Futuna and Alofi, also signed the treaty establishing a French protectorate on September 29, 1887. The United Protectorate of the Wallis and Futuna Islands was established on March 5, 1888 by decision of the Minister of Colonies.
In 1917, three traditional territories ruled by local chiefs were annexed by France and became the Colony of Wallis and Futuna, which was administered by the Colony of New Caledonia. In 1928, the first car appeared on the islands (it was a small Ford truck), and the radio began to work. During World War II (since June 1942), the islands served as a base for the US Air Force (for part of the "Navy 207"). On their territory at the same time there were up to 6,000 soldiers who left behind a modern infrastructure.
In a referendum on December 27, 1959, 94.4% of voters (4307 out of 4564) voted for the Wallis and Futuna Islands to be integrated into the French Republic as an overseas territory. The status of an overseas territory was established by the Law of July 29, 1961. After the constitutional reform of March 28, 2003, this status was changed to an overseas community.
Wallis and Futuna are divided into 3 territorial districts, coinciding with the boundaries of the historical kingdoms, the largest of which - Uvea, in turn, is divided into three districts. Most of the border between Alo and Sigawa on Futuna Island runs along the Wainifao River. The names of the districts of the Uvea territorial district are borrowed from the Tongans and translated into Russian mean: hahake - east or sunrise; hihifo - west or sunset; Mua - the front of the island (since the only sea passage to the island is located in the south, we will see the Mua area first).
Number and placement
According to the 2008 census, the population of Wallis and Futuna Territory is 13,445. In 2003, this number was 14,944. During the time between censuses, the population decreased by 1499 people, or almost 10%. The decrease in population was noted for the first time since 1969, when the first census was taken. The population on the island of Futuna is declining faster (especially in the Sigav district, where the losses were 15.8%) than on Uvea (the smallest losses in the Hahake region - 5.1%). The main reasons for this are a decrease in the birth rate and mass emigration of the population (in particular, to New Caledonia). The emigration of the population is caused by the limited labor market on the islands and the desire of young people to get a better education. However, the population of Wallis and Futuna is projected to remain unchanged and reach 15,100 by 2050.
Approximately one third of the population lives on Futuna and two thirds on Uvea (this distribution has been maintained since 1969). On the island of Alofi, according to the last census, there lived one elderly person.
The largest settlement of the territory is its capital - Mata-Utu, where 1126 people live. In addition to it, there are 35 more villages on the islands.
In 2008, men accounted for 49.60% (6669) of the population (in 2003 - 50.15%, or 7494 people), women - 50.40% (6776; in 2003 - 49.85%, or 7450 people). The population of Wallis and Futuna forms 3100 families (in 2003 - 3089 families). The average number of people in a family is 4.3 (in 2003 - 4.8).
The proportion of children under 19 years old in 2008 was 41%, of the adult population from 19 to 59 years old - 47.7%, over 60 years old - 11.3%. The average life expectancy of the inhabitants of the territory was 74.3 years: men - 73.1, women - 75.5.
Almost 85% (12,725 people) are the indigenous Polynesian population (Wallis and Futunans). The share of foreigners is only 1.7% (most of them are immigrants from Vanuatu). The rest of the population is French (8.1% of them were born in New Caledonia).
The official language of Wallis and Futuna is French. It is spoken by
84% of the population. Moreover, only 6% of the population speaks
Widespread are the languages of the Polynesian group - Wallisian and Futunan.
Wallis is spoken by 64% (9617 people) of the population. It is also spoken in Fiji, New Caledonia and Vanuatu. The position of the language within the Polynesian group has long been debatable (due to the partial influence of the Tongan language). Now it is customary to attribute it to the nuclear-Polynesian subgroup. The language has 12 consonants and 5 vowels, which can be long or short. After contacts with Europeans, the vocabulary was enriched with borrowings from English, French and Latin. The author of the first Wallisian-French dictionary was the first missionary of the Marie Battalion Society (published only in 1932). In everyday life, Wallisians speak only the Wallisian language; when communicating with Europeans, they switch to French.
Futunan is spoken by 24% of the population (3600 people). It is often referred to as Eastern Futunan to distinguish it from Western Futunan, which is spoken on the island of Futuna in Vanuatu. It is also spoken in New Caledonia. The language belongs to the Polynesian group of languages, a subgroup of nuclear-Polynesian languages. The phonology of the language is simple: 11 consonants and 5 vowels, which can be long or short. The syntax is rather complicated. The missionary Isidore Grezel (published in 1878) was the author of the first Futunan-French dictionary. All village councils are held only in Futunan.
English is being taught more and more in schools. Now it is owned by about 14% of the population.
According to the 2003 census, 99% of the population are Catholics, only 1% adhere to traditional beliefs. Every village has a Catholic church. However, even residents who consider themselves Catholics perform some local pagan rituals. So before the arrival of the Europeans, the locals believed in supernatural power. The most revered: Tagaloa - the god of the sky; Mafuike - the one who brought fire to the islands; the demigods Sina and Maui; ancestral and animal souls such as Feke (octopus), Fonou (tortoise), Tafoloaa (whale). The priests on the islands are both Europeans and locals. Wallisians and Futunans study at the Pacific Theological College in Fiji to take holy orders. Since June 25, 2005, the Diocese of Wallis and Futuna has been headed by French Bishop Guillen de Razilly.
According to Article 1 of Law No. 61-814 of July 29, 1961 and the
constitutional reform of May 28, 2003, the Wallis, Futuna, Alofi Islands
and nearby islands under the name "Territory of the Wallis and Futuna
Islands" have the status of an overseas community of France
(Collectivité d'Outre- Mer), equipped with the rights of a legal entity
and administrative and financial independence. According to article 2 of
the same document, all natives of Wallis and Futuna are French citizens
and have the rights and obligations of French citizens. As a territory
of France, the islands are subject to the French Constitution of 28
September 1958 and the French legal system. There is universal suffrage
for persons over the age of 18.
The head of state is the President of France (elected for a five-year term) Emmanuel Macron. On the territory of the overseas community, he is represented by the Supreme Administrator, appointed by him on the advice of the Ministry of the Interior. Since September 8, 2008, it has been Philip Paolantoni. The head of government is the President of the Territorial Assembly. Since December 11, 2007, Victor Brial, born in Sigawa, has taken over his duties.
He holds this post for the second time (before that, from March 16, 1997 to January 14, 1999). The Territory Council consists of three traditional kingdom kings and three members appointed by the Supreme Administrator on the nomination of the Territorial Assembly. The council has an advisory role, while traditional kings, village chiefs and the Supreme Administrator have the real control.
The main legislative body is the unicameral Territorial Assembly, which consists of 20 members elected by popular vote for a term of 5 years. The territory is divided into 5 electoral districts (in accordance with the administrative-territorial division). So Mua district elects 6 deputies, Hahake district - 4, Hihifo - 3, Alo - 4, Sigav - 3.
The Territorial Assembly decides on civil law matters and administers the territory's budget. All decisions of the assembly must be approved by the Supreme Administrator.
The territory of Wallis and Futuna elects one senator to the French Senate (now Robert Lofoolhu) and one deputy to the National Assembly (mandate for 2007-2012 is the representative of the Socialist Party of France, Albert Likuvalyu)
In addition to some French parties (the Union for a Popular Movement - in the last elections to the Territorial Assembly received 12 seats, the Socialist Party - in the last elections to the Territorial Assembly received 8 seats, the Union for French Democracy - a democratic movement and others), three local Parties: The Voice of the Peoples of Wallis and Futuna (La Voix des Peuples Wallisens et Futuniens), the Union for Wallis and Futuna (Union Populaire pour Wallis et Futuna) and the Sigave L'Association Nationale.
Justice is administered according to French law by the Court of First Instance in Mata Utu. However, the three traditional kings have the right to administer justice according to "customary law" (this does not apply to criminal cases). The Court of Appeal is located in Noumea, New Caledonia. The area has an extremely low crime rate. Thus, in the first half of 2006 there were 64 violations.
Unlike the metropolis, the overseas departments, and other overseas communities, the territory is not divided into districts, but into districts, within boundaries that exactly coincide with the traditional kingdoms of the islands. Each district enjoys the rights of a legal entity and has a budget, which is managed by a district council, which includes traditional chiefs, and is headed by the king. The Wallisian kingdom of Uwea, and both the Futunan kingdoms of Alo and Sigaw, are aristocratic monarchies - the noble families, the aliki, elect or dismiss kings.
King Ouvea holds the title of Lavelua (since 1858, when Queen Falakika Sailala adopted the name of her predecessor and brother). After the death of Tomasi Kilimoetoke II, Kapilile Faupala has been king since July 25, 2008. He is assisted by the Prime Minister - Emeni Leulagi (bears the title of nod) and 5 other ministers. At the suggestion of the population, the king appoints three heads of districts (faipule), who have authority over 21 village chiefs chosen by the population. Village chiefs may impose duties for the performance of community service. They are elected/removed by majority vote at the general meeting of the village (fono), which takes place every Sunday in the meeting hut (fale fono).
The organization of the two Futunan kingdoms is similar. Since
November 6, 2008, King Alo has been a representative of the Lalolalo
dynasty, Petelo Vikena (having the title Tuʻi Agaifo). On January 22,
2010, Petelo Vikena abdicated the throne due to the ever-increasing
social tension in society. A new king has not yet been chosen. The
functions of the Prime Minister (Tiafoi) since 2008 are performed by
Atonio Tuiseka. Since March 10, 2004, Vesesio Moeliku (having the title
Tuʻi Sigave) has been King of Sigawa. Due to social tensions in society,
he recanted at the end of 2009, a few months before King Alo. Its prime
minister has been Luciano Soko (Kaifakaulu) since 2006. The ministers in
these kingdoms act as spokesmen for the kings, and their power is
limited to the village chiefs, who are appointed by noble families and
can easily overthrow the king.
Kings, ministers and village chiefs are supported by the French Republic.
Armed forces and police
All men who reached the age of 18 before 2003 had to serve 2 years in the French armed forces. Some residents of the islands use their military service to emigrate to France. So, for example, John Babin on August 1, 2003 became the first Wallisman - the captain of the French army (he served in Alsace).
Wallis and Futuna are members of the Secretariat of the Pacific Community (since 1947), the Pacific Regional Environmental Program and an observer in the South Pacific Forum (since 2006).
The Territory's economy remains largely traditional and relatively little monetized. Most of the production is consumed on the islands themselves, and exports are limited. The main branch of the economy is agriculture, which is represented mainly by pig and poultry farming (chickens and eggs). Fisheries, the development of which is given great attention to the authorities of the territory, have not yet developed enough even to meet local demand. Although in the medium term it is planned to grow this industry and build a fishing port. Forests that have been over-cut in the recent past are being restored and timber harvesting will soon be possible again.
Agriculture and livestock
Agriculture and animal husbandry occupy the first place for almost all the inhabitants of the islands. Agricultural products are mainly intended for self-sufficiency and in most cases do not enter the market. The traditional regime of land ownership, based on the indivisibility of the land plot of each family, whose land is inalienable and non-transferable, is the main characteristic of the exploitation of arable land. Each member of the family can use all the property of the family farm. Thus, the agriculture of the territory is very fragmented. According to the first agricultural inventory carried out in 2001, there were 1167 households on Uwea and 755 on Futuna. 1922 of these farms united 13,283 people. Families have their own equipment.
The total area of farms is estimated at 1350 hectares, which is 9.5% of the area of the islands, with 620 hectares used on Futuna and Alofi and 730 on the Wallis Islands.
Food crops occupy 6.7% of the area of the islands (950 ha). Residents grow their staple food: yams (25 ha), taro (100 ha), banana (140 ha), breadfruit (160 ha). Significant areas are under cassava (530 ha) and coconut palm (over 4000 ha). Due to the complexity of growing vegetables, they are imported (in particular, in 2007, 313 tons of vegetables were imported for the amount of 67 million CFP). However, attempts to grow them are being made, and 7 farms are already successfully cultivating lettuces. Bread, pasta, potatoes, rice familiar to Europeans are imported.
Fruits are successfully grown, mainly bananas, lemons and papayas, which bear fruit all year round. At the same time, pineapples, avocados, mangoes, oranges and grapefruits are seasonal products.
Animal husbandry is represented almost exclusively by pig and poultry farming. At the same time, the share of pig farming is increasing, while that of poultry farming is decreasing.
Pig breeding satisfies local specific needs (traditional sacrifices and family celebrations). Therefore, almost every family contains several pigs. According to the 2001 agricultural census, 71% of pigs weighing more than 25 kg are used for sacrifice, and 53% of pigs weighing less than 25 kg are used by the owners themselves. Only 10% of pigs and piglets enter the market. The 2,146 inhabitants of the Territory reported having 30,100 pigs, representing 2.26 pigs per capita. The annual production of meat is estimated at 2000 tons according to the 2001 census. In accordance with the Europeanization of the way of life, the population consumes more and more canned meat, which is imported.
The methods of breeding poultry are exclusively traditional. The chickens are intended for family consumption, but most of the demand is met by imports (in 2007, 923 tons of poultry meat was imported). There are 2 large local farms (one on Uvea and one on Futuna). The production volume is estimated at 10 tons / year, and the demand for their products is great.
In 2007, the 2,500 laying hens available on these two farms produced 250 dozen eggs per day, approximately 1 million eggs per year (50 tonnes). This covered local needs by 60%. 33 tons of eggs were imported.
In addition to pig and poultry farming, the breeding of other animals is scarce: the local bishopric keeps a few heads of cattle. Beef is imported (330 tons/year), as are dairy products (260 tons/year).
In 1989, an agricultural college was established on Wallis and Futuna in the village of Lavegahau. In 2007 it had 63 students.
The Territory has a significant exclusive economic zone, with an area of 266,000 km² (some sources indicate an area of 300,000 km²). In 2002, experts from New Caledonia estimated the potential of this zone at 2-3 thousand tons of fish per year, including 1,352-2,35 thousand tons of tuna. In 2008, construction began on a fishing port in the harbor of Halalo village in the south of Ouvea.
At the same time, the small lagoon of the Wallis Islands remains a fishing zone. Fishing on an industrial scale is not carried out. Fishermen (there are 333 of them on the islands according to the 2001 census) mainly use nets, as well as spearguns and darts. Fishing is carried out from the side of the pirogue and motor boats. However, only 20% of them go to sea more than 2 times a week. The total catch is estimated at 600-800 tons per year and is entirely consumed by the population of the islands. In view of the depletion of fish stocks in the lagoon, the Territorial Assembly encourages fishing on the high seas: fishermen are given a discount on fuel, materials, maintenance. The development program for 2007-2011 provides for the equipment of small enterprises for the production, transportation and sale of frozen seafood.
An important industry is the extraction of trochus molluscs, used to make buttons. This is one of the types of export economic activity (supplied to Italy).
Traditional crafts, which are exclusively performed by women, are no longer found on the Wallis and Futuna Islands. The products of the crafts were previously used mainly during traditional ceremonies, and after the opening of the territory to the rest of the world, they turned into decorative crafts.
Various crafts, including wooden sculptures decorated with floral ornaments, are highly valued in the Pacific region. One- or multi-colored mats, various wickerwork and shell necklaces are also made. These products, which are produced by about 300 people, are exported to Noumea and Tahiti.
Wallis and Futuna's handicraft industry suffers from a lack of markets and competition from Fiji and Samoa, who can produce similar products in larger quantities and at more competitive prices. Almost every village now has its own craft workshop. This activity makes it possible to produce with very few resources. However, despite the efforts of society, the development of this activity runs into problems with delivery to France and Europe, which makes it very difficult to sell products.
There are several talented wood sculptors living on the islands, who, however, do not even satisfy the local demand.
Trade on the islands is developing dynamically. The market includes both large importers and wholesalers and retailers. The first appeared on Wallis and Futuna about 10 years ago and continue to develop their business. They enjoy a regular clientele and are convinced of the sustainability of their markets.
So on the Wallis Islands there is 1 importer of building materials
and 1 importer of food products, which share the market among
themselves. On Futuna 3, enterprises share a large part of the market
among themselves. In total, 281 people at 125 enterprises are employed
in trade on the islands.
The consumption of the population increases due to the increase in their amount of money. The growth of the purchasing power of the inhabitants is well illustrated by the opening of the first supermarket in the islands in 2002 ("Fenuarama"). The demand for vehicles is growing especially fast.
Tourist activity in the territory is still very little developed. This is primarily due to the isolation of the Wallis and Futuna Islands, as well as the lack of external investment on the islands and limited access to bank credit. At the same time, the territory has certain advantages. The inhabitants of the islands live in an authentic traditional way and hold crowded gatherings and rituals. The natural landscapes are well preserved on the islands: crater lakes, islands and lagoons of the Wallis Islands, forests and beaches of the Horn Islands. The cultural heritage is also great: the burials of the Tongans on Wallis and the tomb of the holy father Chanel in Poi on Futuna. However, these advantages are poorly used, and so far all that the islands can offer tourists is a 6-hole golf course, a diving club and an flying club (ultralight aircraft).
There are only 6 hotels on the islands (4 on Uvea and 2 on Futuna), which can accommodate a total of 140 people. The clients of hotels are mainly specialists and businessmen.
Sea transport. Maritime transport is received at three ports: Mata Utu (goods) and Halalo (fuel) on the island of Uvea; Leawa on the island of Futuna. The Wallis and Futuna area is served by three shipping companies: Moana Navigation (since 2001 called Moana Shipping; its office is in Mata Utu), Pacific Direct Line (based in Auckland, New Zealand) and Sofrana (visits the islands every 25 days). The first two companies have a partnership agreement and provide for charter the vessel Southern Moana, with a carrying capacity of 5320 tons, which sails under the flag of Italy (calls to the islands every 20 days). Since 2007, all three companies have been using a single ship, the Southern Pasifika, which can take on board 512 containers (calls to the islands every 24 days). With a few exceptions, all ships that call at the Wallis Islands also call at Futuna.
Air Transport. Due to the isolation of the islands, air transport is of great importance. Both external and internal air transportation is carried out by one company - Air Calédonie International (Aircalin). The territory is served by the only international airport - Hihifo - located in the north of the island of Uvea. The length of the runway allows you to take aircraft such as the Airbus A320. On the island of Futuna there is a local airport - on Cape Vele - with a length of a dirt runway of 1100 m. It is planned to reconstruct this airport.
Ground transport. All villages are connected by roads of different levels, mainly along the coast. The total length of the roads is 120 km (on Uvea - 100 km, on Futuna - 20 km), of which only 16 km are paved (all on Uvea).
The state-owned Postal and Telecommunications Service (SPT) operates
on the territory. This company provides mail delivery on the islands,
issues a small number of stamps, and provides telephone and Internet
services. The main post office is located in Mata Utu. Uvea has two more
branches in the districts of Mua and Hihifo. On the island of Futuna,
there is a post office only in Leava. Initially, postal communication
with the islands was carried out through the New Hebrides or New
Caledonia, but was irregular, depending on the frequency of ships
calling on the islands. Regular postal service was established only in
1935 by mail ships on the line connecting Wallis and Futuna with Sydney
via Port Vila (now Vanuatu) and Noumea (New Caledonia).
In 1986, the local TV channel RFO Wallis et Futuna (since 2010 Wallis et Futuna 1re Radio Télé Internet) began broadcasting from a studio in Mata Uta (initially only on Wallis, and only from 1994 on Futuna). Initially, most of the broadcasting was occupied by the programs of the television groups of the metropolis (France Télévisions, TF1 and Arte), broadcast via satellite. Currently, at least 25% of the airtime is occupied by locally produced programs in French, Wallis and Futunan, focused on the realities of life of the population of the islands and the region, of which the largest audience is collected by the evening thirteen-minute news at 19.00 JT Wallis et Futuna in French and, after the forecast weather, at 7.15 pm in Wallisian, and a Saturday broadcast with an invited guest from the L'invité de la semaine studio from 7.15 pm to 7.45 pm. The program also includes daily morning rebroadcasts of Nouvelle-Calédonie 1re (from New Caledonia) and Polynésie 1re (from Tahiti), as well as their monthly news magazines. A weekly television magazine produced by Wallis and Futuna Television is broadcast by the French channel FranceÔ, which specializes in regional programming.
In 1978, the French government, with the consent of King Thomasi Kulimoetoki II and with the participation of the France Régions 3 channel, decided to open the FR3 Wallis et Futuna radio station (since 2010 Wallis et Futuna 1re Radio Télé Internet) on the islands, which began broadcasting in April 1979 from Mata - Utu. The station broadcasts both programs of its own production in French, Wallisian and Futunan, as well as those prepared on Polynésie 1ère, Nouvelle-Calédonie 1ère, Radio Ô and Radio France. In addition to broadcasting on FM frequencies, there is streaming on its own Internet site. In the metropolitan area, Wallis and Futuna radio programs are carried by Freebox TV.
As of June 2010, there were 1300 (about 8.5% of the population) Internet users on the islands. There is no mobile communication in the territory, although it is planned to create a network in the future.
Foreign economic relations
Export. During 2007 exports were 0, while in 2006 19 tons of trochus shells were exported with a total value of 11.6 million CFP. Consequently, the trade deficit is equal to the value of imports, and the percentage of imports covered by exports is negligible.
Import. The volume of imports is increasing and in 2007 amounted to 32,228 tons of products worth 5.386 billion CFP francs. Imports are dominated by food (1.537 billion CFA francs), minerals (900.4 million CFA francs), vehicles (770.9 million CFA francs) and chemicals (461 million CFA francs).
The main supplier of imports recorded in 2007 is France - supplied goods worth 1.5 billion CFP francs (28% of the total value of imported goods). In second place is Singapore - supplied goods for 802 million CFP francs (14%), followed successively by Australia - supplies of 703 million CFP francs (13%), New Zealand - 520 million CFP francs (9%), Fiji and New Caledonia - supplies by 321 million CFP francs (6%).
Monetary system and finance
The monetary unit of the Wallis and Futuna Islands is the French Pacific franc (CFP franc). As of January 30, 2010, 1 US dollar was worth 86 CFP francs. According to the EOM, the Territory's planned budget expenditures for 2008 are 2.726 billion CFP francs (approximately $33.43 million). In 2006, the real expenditures of the budget amounted to 2.850 billion CFP francs ($29.83 million), and its revenues - 2.683 billion francs ($28.08 million).
The main items of expenditure are: the maintenance of personnel (including teachers and doctors) - salaries, benefits, subsidies, social insurance - 37%; other management costs - 36%; external services - 14%; purchases and replenishment of strategic stocks - 3%; financial expenses - 5%; investment - 6%.
Main income items: services and trade - 10%; taxes and fees - 68%; subsidies from the metropolis - 21%; income from financial transactions - 1%.
The banking system of the islands is based on three institutions: the Wallis and Futuna Bank, the State Treasury and the French Development Agency. The Bank of Wallis and Futuna (BWF), the territory's only real commercial bank, is a branch of BNP Paribas Nouvelle-Calédonie and was opened in 1991.
The traditional hierarchy continues to exist on the islands (for more details, see Local self-government).
There is a gender division of labor. Women are mainly engaged in agriculture and raising children. Only a small number of women work in public institutions, but a significant number of senior positions in government and society are held by women.
The basic unit of society is the complex family. The household of a complex family, as a rule, consists of several houses in which siblings and their spouses live. When a young couple gets married, they join the household of one of their families. However, new houses are rarely built. The household is usually headed by the father or eldest son, although sometimes the eldest sister takes over this role. Food and other things, the upbringing of children are evenly distributed among the members of a complex family. Especially reverent attitude in such families to small children.
weddings. Marriages are created only with the consent of families and are formalized by the church. The first marriages on the islands were arranged by missionaries who raised boys and girls outside their families. Today, young people meet in high school and are blessed or frowned upon by families. There are also civil marriages, but they are not approved by either the families or the church. Illegitimate children are raised by aunts and grandmothers.
Houses and other structures
In total, according to the 2008 census, there are 3467 houses on the islands (320 of them are empty). Most of the houses on Uvea are built of concrete and covered with corrugated iron. However, there are still traditional dwellings with walls made of pandanus leaves and thatched roofs.
Floors in rooms can have several levels, and people prefer to sit on the floor. Food is usually prepared outdoors. Toilets are only in new buildings.
The buildings of the Futunans are mostly built in the Polynesian fale style. The sleeping house is made with open walls, a thatched roof, and straw curtains that are drawn down during bad weather. The floor or a low wall can be concrete so that pigs do not run into the house. Food is prepared either in the kitchen, which is located behind the sleeping house, or in an earthen oven. Plumbing and electricity were installed in 1990, although few islanders can afford electricity.
Each village has a small shop, in Mata Utu there is the only supermarket on the islands.
The basis of the diet of most islanders, both before and now, is
taro, yams and sweet potatoes. In the villages on the island of Ovea,
located on the coast, fish is widely eaten. If there is no man in the
family for any reason, then the women collect edible crustaceans from
the lagoon. Pigs and chickens are brought up mainly for festive
As a rule, families eat twice a day. For breakfast, they usually eat bread and drink coffee. Dinner consists of taro or yams and fish (in the Wallis Islands) and sometimes thawed chicken and boiled corned beef. The most common drink is tea.
Pork, chicken and turtle are a mandatory attribute of the festive table. At the same time, kava and imported alcoholic beverages are consumed.
The main symbols of the Wallisan and Futunan cultures are the kava
drink and the tapa cloth.
Kava is an intoxicating drink made from the roots of the Piper methysticum plant. The Futunans have a legend explaining how this plant appeared on their island. According to her, at first there was no kava. At that time, the islanders worshiped nine gods: two upper and seven lower (located in the underworld of Pulot). The leaders were completely dependent on the latter and turned to them for help. Once one of the lower deities - Fitu - came to people to live with them. Fitu brought kava roots with him and planted one of them in the ground, and since then this plant has been growing in Futuna. And now kava is grown using ancient methods, using wooden devices to protect the roots of the plant. Between planting and harvesting takes 12-18 months. Currently, kava does not grow on the Wallis Islands, and it is imported from the Horn Islands.
The preparation of the drink is carried out as follows: the roots, peeled from the ground, are cut and crushed with a pestle. The latter procedure can be replaced by chewing by specially selected people (often virgin girls). The resulting slurry is mixed with water in a small rounded wooden vessel. When preparing kava for the king, the presence of the king, the council of chiefs, and the religious and administrative authorities is a prerequisite. Previously, kava was drunk to create a connection between the worlds of the living and the dead, as well as in the negotiations of the leaders. Now the kava ceremony means unity between different social categories of the population and leaders and kings. Since 2002, the cultivation of kava has been limited by the administration of the islands, but the residents do not pay any attention to the ban.
Tapa is made by women for exchange in rituals that families perform
together. She, along with fragrant oils, symbolizes the wealth of women.
It is often sold to tourists.
A cultural symbol of the island is also the Lomipeau canoe, which symbolizes the connection between the Wallisians and the maritime empire of Tonga four hundred years ago. On such canoes they made trips to Tonga, Samoa and other islands.
Literature. The literature of the islands is represented by a few attempts to record the myths and legends of the inhabitants of the islands, as well as the history of the territory. But gradually the situation should change, as education becomes more accessible to the islanders.
Fine Arts. Images on siapo and tapa are the main form of artistic expression for Wallis and Futunan women. To create them, they use a template carved from the bark of a tree and brown (traditional) and black paints (both local and imported). Mats woven from these fabrics with brown wool fringe are used as offerings at the funeral of relatives.
Sports in the territory are underdeveloped. There is only one stadium
with equipped seats for spectators - the multifunctional Stade de
Mata-Utu. It can accommodate 1500 spectators and is mainly used for
The territory has competed in the South Pacific Games since 1966. So at the last games, held in 2007 in Samoa, the team of Wallis and Futuna won 3 gold and one bronze medal and took 13th place in the overall standings. In the entire history of participation, the territory has won 22 gold, 35 silver and 77 bronze medals, and takes 10th place in the overall standings. Best result - 5th place at the 1995 games in Tahiti
The islands of Wallis and Futuna also participate in the Pacific Mini Games and will host them in 2013. At the last games, held in 2009 in the Cook Islands, the Wallis and Futuna team finished 18th overall with one bronze medal (javelin throw). Throughout the history of participation in the games (since the first games in 1981), the Wallis and Futuna team has won 5 gold, 2 silver and 6 bronze medals.
Some of the most famous athletes on the islands are Samuel Tua (a native of Mata Utu) and Toafa Takaniko (a native of Futuna), who are players of the French national volleyball team and the French volleyball clubs Cannes and Toulouse, respectively. Toafa Takaniko, as part of his club, won the 2007 French Volleyball Cup, and both of them, as part of the French team, became silver medalists of the 2009 European Championship.
Football. The territory has its own national team, which, however, is neither a member of FIFA nor the Oceania Football Confederation, and therefore does not take part in the World Cup. In total, the team played 20 matches (all at the South Pacific Games): 4 wins and 16 losses. First match: December 13, 1966, New Caledonia - Wallis and Futuna 5:0; last (as of October 2009) match: August 20, 1995, New Caledonia - Wallis and Futuna 10:0. Biggest win 5:1 (December 12, 1988 with New Caledonia), biggest defeat 0:17 (September 1991, from Papua New Guinea). The highest achievement at the South Pacific Games was the quarter-finals in 1983.
Rugby. The Wallis and Futuna rugby team played its first match on December 1, 1966 against the team of Papua New Guinea and lost it 5:54. In total, the team played 7 matches (only one victory - over Tahiti on September 1, 1971 with a score of 3: 0) and has not played since 1971.
Official holidays of Wallis and Futuna:
January 1 New Year Jour de l'an
the day after Easter Holy Monday Lundi de Pâques
April 28 St. Pierre Chanel Day Saint Pierre-Chanel
1 May Labor Day Fête du travail
May 8 Victory 1945 Victoire 1945
40th day after Easter Ascension Ascension
50th day after Easter Trinity Lundi de Pentecôte
June 29 Saints Peter and Paul Day Saint Pierre et Saint Paul
July 14 National holiday (Bastille Day) Fête nationale
29 July Territorial Fête du Territoire
August 15 Assumption of the Virgin Assomption
November 1 All Saints Day Toussaint
11 November Armistice 1918 Armistice 1918
25 December Christmas Noël
Religion occupies a significant place in the life of the locals and almost every county or village celebrates the day of their patron saint. All feast days, both religious and secular, always begin with a celebratory mass followed by a cava ceremony. They end with traditional dances. If it is the day of the Saint patron, then the procedure for distributing gifts prepared by the inhabitants in honor of their Saint patron is mandatory. The gifts consist of umu (pigs and yams) from men, and moe'aga (pandanus mats - gatu) from women.
On the island of Uvea, for example, the following days are celebrated:
May 1 - Saint Joseph's Day (Saint patron of Mua district, which has 10 villages in the south of the island). Celebrated in 6 villages (located on the coast)
June 8 - Heart of Jesus (is the other Patron Saint of Mua County). Celebrated by 4 other villages closer to the center of the island.
June 29 - Day of Saints Peter and Paul (patron saints of the Hihifo district in the north of the island). Celebrated in 5 villages.
August 15 - Assumption of the Virgin. She is the patroness of the central district of Hahake, which has 6 villages.
Wallis Islands. A beautiful view of the islands opens from the top of
Mount Lulu-Fakahega, where there is a tiny ruined chapel. Lake Lalolalo
is located on the southwestern edge of Ouvea Island. Located in the
crater of an ancient volcano, it has shores that rise 30 m above the
mirror of the lake and make it inaccessible. You can swim in the
Lunatawake crater lake.
In the southeast of the island of Uvea, between Mala'efo'ou and Halalo, the ruins of a 15th-century Tongan settlement, Talietumu (or Kolo Nui), have recently been found and restored.
The inhabitants of the island of Ovea prefer the beaches not of their island, but of the small islands surrounding it. The beaches of Faioa Island are especially famous for their white sand.
Futuna. The most famous view of Futong is the church of Pierre Chanel in Poi on the east coast of the island. This is a specific church with a stepped tower. It was built to honor Polynesia's first and only Catholic saint (canonized in 1954). Chanel's relics were returned here from France in 1976 and are now kept in an octagonal chapel next to the main church. His bones are placed in a glass case near the entrance, and in a nearby silver box is the skull of the saint. Stones on the floor of the church mark the exact spot where he was killed. In the small room of the museum behind the showcase there are things that belonged to the holy father.
The villages of Ono and Nuku also have old Catholic churches.
Alofi. Although now only 1 person permanently lives on Alofi, people appear here quite often. The people of Futuna come here to take care of their gardens. In the former village of Alofitai, there are a number of electrically connected thatched huts where they can spend the night. The sights of the island are its beautiful beaches and the Loca cave with the grotto of St. Bernadette, located in the very east of the island.
All residents of the islands are guaranteed a minimum pension when they reach the age of 55. However, since 2010 this age has been raised to 60 years.
Health care is completely free and is the concern of the state. As of
2004, there was one hospital and three dispensaries on Ouvea Island, and
one hospital and two dispensaries on Futuna Island. The hospital on Uvea
has an emergency department, a 21-bed general medicine department, a
16-bed surgical department with two operating rooms, a maternity
department with two rooms, and a pharmacy. Futong Hospital also has an
emergency department, a 15-bed general medicine department, a 7-bed
maternity ward, and a pharmacy.
In total, 79 medical staff work in the Territory, of which 46 are nurses. All medical care is provided free of charge. In addition, since 1981, France has taken care of helping old people. The guaranteed monthly benefit is 66,725 CFP francs, i.e. 559.16 euros.
Traditional medical care is provided mainly by women, who use massages with local oils, potions, etc. It is mainly local traditional healers who take delivery. According to the World Health Organization, the most common non-communicable diseases on the islands are diabetes, obesity, rheumatism/gout and dental disease. Contagious diseases include leptospirosis, brucellosis, dengue fever, filariasis, tuberculosis, leprosy, hepatitis B, dysentery, and salmonellosis.
The following outbreaks of dengue fever have been reported on Wallis and Futuna:
1989/1990 - 2361 cases;
1998/1999 - 395 cases;
2002/2003 - 2045 cases (of which 280 were hospitalized and in two cases the disease led to death).
This disease does not provoke such complications as in the countries of southeast Asia.
According to the 2003 census, 40% of the total population is enrolled
in school. All children under 14 go to school. Basic school education
has 90% of all residents.
Public primary education is provided by the Catholic Mission of the Islands. However, the classes in the villages are very large and are not regularly attended by children (this is especially true for girls who help adults with housework). Teaching is conducted only in French, although the first steps are being taken to teach children in their native languages. The first school on the islands was opened in 1847 in Lano (it was a junior seminary).
Secondary education, also entirely public, may be provided in Wallisian or Futunan (1 hour per week).
On the territory there is a lyceum, several colleges that provide general technological and vocational education corresponding to CETAD (Centre for Technical Education and Development).