New Zealand (Aotearoa Maori) is a country in Polynesia. The
population, according to the results of the official 2013 census, is
more than 4 million people (according to estimates at the beginning
of 2017 - more than 4.8 million people), the territory is 268,680
km², according to both of these indicators it is the largest country
in Oceania. It ranks 121st in the world in terms of population and
75th in terms of territory.
The capital is Wellington. The official languages are English, Maori and New Zealand Sign Language.
Unitary state, constitutional monarchy.
It is divided into 17 districts, 9 of which are located on the North Island, 7 on the South Island, and 1 on the Chatham Archipelago. The Kingdom of New Zealand includes the governmentally independent but loosely associated island nations of the Cook Islands and Niue, as well as the Non-Self-Governing Territory of Tokelau and the Antarctic Ross Territory.
Located on two large islands (North and South) and a large number (approximately 700) adjacent smaller islands, in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. One of the main features of New Zealand is its geographical isolation. The closest neighbors of the country: to the west - Australia, separated by the Tasman Sea (the shortest distance is about 1700 km); to the north - the island territories of New Caledonia (about 1450 km), Tonga (about 1850 km) and Fiji (about 1900 km).
Industrialized country with a developed economy. The volume of GDP at purchasing power parity for 2017 amounted to 189 billion US dollars (about 39,000 US dollars per capita). The monetary unit is the New Zealand dollar.
In the XI-XIV centuries, the country was settled by people from other islands of Polynesia, European explorers discovered the islands in 1642. The active development of land by Great Britain began in 1762.
The name given to the Maori country before the first Europeans
appeared here did not survive, but it is known that the North Maori
island was called Te Ika-a-Maui (Maori Te Ika-a-Māui), which can be
translated as "fish belonging to Maui". Maui is a demigod in the
Maori legends, who caught a huge fish in the ocean, which after that
turned into an island. South Island had two common names: Te Wai
Paunamu (Maori Te Wai Pounamu) and Te Waka-a-Maui (Maori Te Waka a
Māui). The first name can be translated as “jade water”, and the
second as “boat belonging to Maui”, already mentioned above the demi
god of Maori legends. Until the beginning of the 20th century,
Severny Island was often referred to as the native inhabitants of
Aotearoa, which can be translated as “the country of a long white
cloud” (ao = cloud, tea = white, roa = long), and later this name
became the generally accepted name in the language Maori for the
The first European navigator to visit the coast of New Zealand, the Dutchman Abel Tasman, called it “Staten Landt”, thinking that in the south New Zealand is connected to the island of the Tierra del Fuego archipelago of the same name, located in southern South America. It was this name that was transformed by Dutch cartographers into the Latin Nova Zeelandia in 1645 in honor of one of the provinces of the Netherlands - Zealand (Dutch. Zeeland) and the Dutch name Nieuw Zeeland. Later, British explorer James Cook used the English version of the name, New Zealand, in his notes, and it was it that became the official name of the country. The Russian name, New Zealand, is an exact translation of a historically established name.
Early European cartographers called the islands Northern, Middle (present Southern) and Southern (Stuart or Rakiura). In 1830, the two main islands became known as the North and the South, and by 1907 these names had settled. In 2009, the New Zealand Geographic Names Board found that the names of the main islands had never been formally established. In 2013, they were officially named Northern (or Te Ika-a-Maui) and Southern (or Te Vaipounama). Names in Maori and English can be used interchangeably.
New Zealand is one of the most recently settled territories. Radiocarbon analysis, evidence of deforestation, and mitochondrial DNA variability among the Maori suggest that the first eastern Polynesians settled here in 1250-1300 after extensive travel to the South Pacific islands. Gradually, the settlers formed their own culture and language, they were divided into iwi (tribes) and hapu (clans), who cooperated, competed and fought. Part of the Maori migrated to the Chatham archipelago (called Rekohu by them), where they turned into the Moriori people with a separate culture. Moriori were almost completely destroyed in 1835-1862 as a result of the conquest of the Maori from iwi Taranaki and diseases introduced by Europeans. In 1862, only 101 Moriori survived, and the last known purebred Moriori, Tommy Solomon, died in 1933.
The first Europeans to reach New Zealand arrived by ship with the Dutchman Abel Tasman in 1642. As a result of skirmishes with the locals, four members of the team were killed, and at least one Maori was wounded by buckshot. The next visit of Europeans took place only in 1769: the British explorer James Cook mapped almost the entire coastline of the islands. Following Cook, many European and North American whalers and sealers visited New Zealand, as well as trading ships that exchanged food, metal tools, weapons and other goods for timber, food, artifacts and water. These merchants brought potatoes and a musket to the Maori, which radically changed the agricultural and military way of this people. Potatoes became a reliable source of food, allowing for longer military campaigns. As a result of intertribal musket wars, which united more than 600 battles in 1801-1840, from 30 to 40 thousand Maori were killed. From the beginning of the 19th century, Christian missionaries began to settle in New Zealand, converting most of the natives to their faith. In the 19th century, the autochthonous population of the country was reduced to 40% of the pre-contact level; imported diseases were the main reason for this.
In 1788, Captain Arthur Phillip took over as governor of the new British colony of New South Wales, which at that time included New Zealand. The British government appointed James Busby as British Resident in New Zealand in 1832 after receiving a petition from northern Māori. Three years later, upon learning of the appearance of the French settlement of Charles de Thierry, the confederation of Maori tribes sent a declaration of independence to King William IV, asking for protection. Unrest, a proposal to settle in New Zealand by the New Zealand Company, which by that time had already sent a ship to the islands to acquire land from the Maori, and the ambiguous legal status of the declaration of independence, forced the Colonial Office to send Captain William Hobson to New Zealand to establish British sovereignty there and sign agreements with Maori. The Treaty of Waitangi was signed at the Bay of the Islands on February 6, 1840. In response to attempts by the New Zealand Company to establish an independent settlement at Wellington and French settlers to acquire land at Akaroa, Hobson declared British sovereignty over all of New Zealand on 21 May 1840, although by that point not all copies of the Treaty had been signed by the Māori. After that, the number of immigrants, especially British ones, began to grow.
New Zealand became a colony of the same name separate from New South Wales on May 3, 1841. In 1852, the colony received a representative government, and two years later the first meeting of the first Parliament was held. In 1856, the colony received self-government, and all internal issues, except for policy towards the native population, were resolved there independently. New Zealand gained control of colonial policy in the mid-1860s. Fearing that the South Island might want to form a separate colony, Alfred Domett, head of the colony, issued a decree moving the capital from Auckland to Cook Strait. Wellington was chosen as the new capital for its location in the center of the country and a convenient bay. Parliament first met in Wellington in 1865. With the increase in the number of migrants, conflicts over land broke out, resulting in the New Zealand land wars of the 1860s and 1870s, as a result of which many lands were confiscated from the Maori.
In 1891, the first political party came to power in the country - the
Liberal Party, chaired by John Ballance. The Liberal government, later
headed by Richard Seddon, passed many important socio-economic laws. In
1893, New Zealand became the first country in the world to give all
women the right to vote, and in 1894, for the first time in the world,
it passed a law on the procedure for settling disputes between employers
and trade unions. In 1898 the government of Seddon passed the Old Age
Pension Act, the first in the British Empire.
In 1907, at the request of the Parliament of New Zealand, King Edward VII proclaimed it a dominion of the British Empire, which reflected its de facto self-government. The Statute of Westminster was passed in 1947, removing New Zealand from the obligation to act by the British Parliament.
New Zealand participated in world politics, taking part in the First and Second World Wars as part of the British Empire, and also suffered from the Great Depression. As a result of the depression, the first Labor government was elected and the construction of a welfare state with a protectionist economy began. The prosperity of New Zealand began after the end of the Second World War, at the same time the Maori began to move to the cities from the villages in search of work. A Maori protest movement emerged that criticized Eurocentrism and dealt with issues such as raising the profile of Maori culture and settling disputes over the Treaty of Waitangi. In 1975, the Waitangi Tribunal was organized to investigate alleged violations of the terms of the treaty, and a decision was made ten years later. The government claims the end of settling disputes with many iwi, but already in the 2000s there were tensions over the ownership of the tidal strip of the coast and the seabed.
In 1987, New Zealand for the first time in the world legally proclaimed its territory a nuclear-free zone. As a result of the adoption of this status, New Zealand introduced a ban on the entry into its territorial waters of ships with nuclear weapons on board and with nuclear power plants, which significantly limited the possibility of US Navy ships entering New Zealand ports.
In April 2013, same-sex marriage was legalized in the country.
New Zealand continues to develop as an independent democratic country and an active participant in international economic and political relations, paying special attention to the development and strengthening of relations among the countries of the Pacific-Asian region.
On March 15, 2019, the largest terrorist attack in the history of the country took place: mass executions in mosques in the city of Christchurch. The attack killed 50 people.
New Zealand is one of the most stable and well-governed countries in
the world. As of 2014, New Zealand was the world's fourth strongest
democratic institution and the second least corrupt, after Denmark. New
Zealand has a high electoral turnout (77% compared to an OECD average of
Fundamentals of the state system
New Zealand is a unitary state based on the principles of constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy. The system of government is based on the principle of the Westminster model of parliamentarism, which consists in the fact that political power is exercised by a democratically elected parliament: the queen reigns, but the government rules as long as it has the support of the House of Representatives. In 1840, the Treaty of Waitangi was signed, under which the islands of New Zealand became a colony of Great Britain. The New Zealand monarchy is legally distinct from the British monarchy, as in 1947 New Zealand ratified the 1931 Statute of Westminster, giving the country the power to make its own laws.
New Zealand, together with its dependencies of Tokelau, the Ross Antarctic Territory, and the freely associated states of the Cook Islands and Niue, constitute the Kingdom of New Zealand.
New Zealand does not have a codified constitution. The constitution includes the prerogatives of the queen, the constitutional acts and statutes of the United Kingdom, which have been incorporated into New Zealand's constitutional framework (the Magna Carta). Important constitutional acts are the Constitutional Act of 1986, which recognizes the Queen of Great Britain as the head of state and designates three branches of power: the executive (government), legislative (Parliament) and judiciary, the Bill of Rights of 1990, which sets out the fundamental rights and freedoms of a person and the law on elections in 1993, confirming free and democratic elections.
The head of state is the monarch of New Zealand, who since September 2022 is King Charles III. The status of the monarch is defined by the constitutional principle "reigns but does not rule", and the monarch does not have significant political influence, retaining a ceremonial and symbolic role. However, a number of functions are legally assigned to the monarch and can only be performed by him. Among the most important powers are the appointment of the Governor-General and the signing of the Decree on such appointment; announcement of the convocation or dissolution of the Parliament of the country. New Zealand, along with a number of other Commonwealth countries, embodies the principle of the separation of the monarch, laid down in the Balfour Declaration of 1926.
The interests of the monarch in the country are represented by the governor-general (the official title is the governor-general and supreme commander in New Zealand, Governor-General and Commander-in-Chief in and over New Zealand), appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the prime minister, as a rule, for a period of five years. The Chief Justice of New Zealand takes the oath of the Governor-General. The main duty of the Governor General is to represent the interests of the monarch, and his functions are limited to the role of guarantor of constitutional rights, ceremonial duties (for example, appointing ministers on the advice of the prime minister) and social activity. As the guarantor of constitutional rights, the Governor-General ensures the legitimacy and consistency of the government of the country and executes a number of formal legislative actions taken on the advice of the Prime Minister and royal prerogatives, such as the dissolution of Parliament before the next elections or the appointment of the Prime Minister. In the performance of his ceremonial functions, the Governor General attends the opening ceremony of the meetings of the new session of Parliament, receives the credentials of newly appointed ambassadors of other states in New Zealand, and leads the receptions of heads of state and government of other countries in New Zealand. As part of community service, the Governor General and her/his spouse serve on the boards of trustees of many charitable societies and participate in civic ceremonies. Since 1967, only New Zealand citizens have been appointed to the post of Governor-General. The power of the queen and the governor general is limited by the constitution, and usually requires the approval of the country's cabinet.
From September 28, 2016 to September 28, 2021, the post of Governor General of New Zealand was held by Patsy Reddy (Patricia Lee "Patsy" Reddy). Since October 21, 2021, Cindy Kiro has been the Governor General.
The Parliament of New Zealand is a unicameral legislative body,
consisting of the country's monarch (represented in everyday activities
by the Governor General) and the House of Representatives. Previously,
New Zealand also had a second chamber of parliament - the Legislative
Council - which was abolished in 1951. The role of the monarch in the
work of Parliament is determined by the functions of convening and
dissolving Parliament itself and by imposing royal sanctions on
legislative acts adopted by the House of Representatives. The supremacy
of Parliament over the Crown originally appeared in the UK in the Bill
of Rights, and was later enshrined in New Zealand by a separate law. The
country's first parliament was formed in 1852. The speaker controls the
sittings of the Parliament.
The House of Representatives is elected by the citizens through democratic elections, after which the winning party or coalition forms the government. In the absence of such an opportunity and a corresponding vote, a minority government is obtained. The prime minister is usually the leader of the winning party or coalition. The Cabinet, consisting of the prime minister and ministers, is the highest legislative body of the state, it is responsible for the most important actions of the government. By tradition, cabinet members are bound by collective responsibility for decisions.
House of Representatives
The New Zealand House of Representatives has 120 members, of which seven are reserved for Maori. Members of the House of Representatives are elected in accordance with the Elections Act 1993 (once every three years in a general national election based on the principles of a mixed proportional electoral system). From among its members, the House of Representatives elects members of the Cabinet of Ministers and the Prime Minister of the country. In 1936, New Zealand became the first country in the world to regularly broadcast parliamentary meetings on the radio.
Since 1951, the House of Representatives has been the only chamber of the country's parliament. After the adoption of the Statute of Westminster in 1947, the House of Representatives became the country's highest elected legislative body. Based on historical tradition, the New Zealand House of Representatives in its structure and organization was based on the principles of the Westminster model of parliamentarism. Significant changes in this model began to occur only in the 1950s - in 1951, the supreme Legislative Council with appointed members was abolished, and the parliament became unicameral and fully elected; the procedure of the Chamber's work has changed.
Head of the government
The head of government in New Zealand is the Prime Minister. The leader of the party faction that received the majority (including the coalition majority) in the course of the election of members of the House of Representatives becomes the prime minister of the country. The Prime Minister is appointed to his post by the Governor General.
As in many other codes that determine the role of certain statesmen of New Zealand, the duties of the prime minister of the country do not have a legislative description and are largely determined by constitutional customs. His position among other members of the House of Representatives is determined by the principle of "First among equals" and, while holding the highest administrative position, the Prime Minister, nevertheless, is obliged to adhere to the decisions of the Cabinet of Ministers. Among the main rights and duties of the Prime Minister of New Zealand are:
the right to determine the agenda of the meetings of the House of Representatives;
the right to present to the Governor-General candidates for appointment and dismissal from their ministerial posts;
the right to appoint and dismiss the Deputy Prime Minister;
the right to ask the Queen of the Governor-General to propose a date for new elections to Parliament;
the right to recommend to the monarch a candidate for the post of governor-general.
In October 2017, Jacinda Ardern, leader of the Labor Party, became prime minister.
Cabinet of Ministers
The Cabinet of Ministers is the executive body of the House of Representatives and the country's highest executive body. The head of the Cabinet of Ministers is the Secretary of the Cabinet. All members of the Cabinet of Ministers are simultaneously members of the Executive Council. Cabinet ministers are appointed by the Governor General on the advice of the Prime Minister and are New Zealand Cabinet Ministers, although in some cases a government minister may not be a member of the Cabinet. In its work, the Cabinet of Ministers is divided into sectoral committees that prepare draft decisions, which are then submitted for final discussion by the Committee. Decisions of the Committee of Ministers are taken by a simple majority of votes.
The Executive Council is an advisory body to the Governor General. Only a Member of Parliament can be a member of the Executive Council. Members of the Executive Council are Ministers of the Crown, whether or not they are members of the Cabinet. The decisions of the Executive Council are usually presented directly by the Governor General himself (although the Governor General is not a member of the Council), and are formed on the basis of policy determined by the Cabinet.
New Zealand's legal system is based on the common law. Appointments of judges and judiciaries are not influenced by political considerations and are subject to strict tenure controls to ensure that the judiciary remains independent of the government, as required by the constitution. Theoretically, this means that the judiciary can interpret the law on the basis of the legislative acts of Parliament alone, without being influenced by outsiders. The London Judicial Committee of the Privy Council was the final court of appeal until 2004, when the Supreme Court of New Zealand came into being. The judiciary is headed by the Chief Justice of New Zealand, including the Court of Appeal, the High Court and all lower courts subordinate to them.
In addition, there are 62 District Courts in New Zealand, which deal with all cases where the defendant does not face life imprisonment or the amount of damage does not exceed 200,000 New Zealand dollars.
There is also a system of specialized judicial institutions in the country - the Family Court, dealing with cases related to parental responsibilities, the Youth Court for hearing cases against persons aged 12 to 16 years old, the Environmental Court (Environment Court) , Employment Court and a number of others.
The head of the Judiciary is the Queen.
Almost all parliamentary elections in New Zealand in 1853-1993 were held under the system of relative majority. Since the 1930s, the country's political horizon has been dominated by two parties, the National and Labor. Since 1996, a type of proportional voting has been used - a mixed electoral system. Each voter has two votes: one for voting in single-member districts (with some seats reserved for Maori), and the other for the party. Since 2014, 71 seats in the country have been reserved for single-member deputies (including 7 for the Maori), and the remaining 49 are distributed so that the number of seats in the party corresponds to the number of voters who voted for it (however, to enter parliament, the party must either overcome the 5% qualification , or win one seat in a single-member district). Such a system makes it virtually impossible for any one party to take all the seats in the House and makes important the issue of party coalitions, which are often announced even before elections are held.
From March 2005 to August 2006, New Zealand was the only country in the world where all the most important positions in government (Head of State, Governor General, Prime Minister, Speaker of Parliament and Chief Justice of the Supreme Court) were held exclusively by women.
Every New Zealand citizen over the age of 18 has the right to stand for election to the House of Representatives. Every citizen of New Zealand and its permanent resident (Permanent Resident) has the right to participate in elections. Elections are held every three years.
Major political parties
As of 2015, there are 15 registered political parties in New Zealand, 7 of which are represented in the country's Parliament. In addition, about 15 more unregistered political parties operate in the country. The largest parties in the country are considered to be both the center-right National Party and the center-left Labor Party.
In terms of representation in Parliament, the most influential parties are:
"National Party" (National Party);
The Labor Party of New Zealand;
Green Party of Aotearoa New Zealand;
"New Zealand First" (New Zealand First);
"Maori Party" (Maori Party);
United Future New Zealand;
ACT New Zealand.
The Liberal Party, officially founded in 1891 and defunct in 1927, was the first political party to be established in the country.
In the early period of history, foreign trade and foreign policy were
given over to the British colonial government. The Imperial Conferences
of 1923 and 1926 agreed that New Zealand could sign political treaties
itself, and the first such treaty (with Japan) was ratified in 1928. On
September 3, 1939, New Zealand joined Britain and declared war on
In 1951, Great Britain began to pay more and more attention to its interests in Europe, while New Zealand, Australia and the United States concluded the ANZUS treaty.
New Zealand's participation in the political life of the Pacific island states is noticeable. Much of New Zealand's humanitarian aid goes to these countries, with many locals moving to New Zealand in search of work. Under the Samoan Quota Acts 1970 and Pacific Visa Acts 2002, up to 1,100 Samoans and up to 750 people from other Pacific nations can become New Zealand permanent residents each year. 2007 also saw the introduction of a temporary work visa for seasonal work, and in 2009 it brought about 8,000 Pacific residents.
The New Zealand Armed Forces are divided into three types of troops:
the New Zealand Navy, the New Zealand Army and the Royal New Zealand Air
Force. National security does not require large expenditures due to the
low probability of a direct attack, the cost of maintaining the armed
forces and the defense of the country is about 1% of GNP. The country
took part in both world wars, including the Dardanelles operation, the
Crete operation, El Alamein and the battle of Monte Cassino. The
Dardanelles campaign was instrumental in shaping New Zealand's national
identity and reinforcing the Australian experience of ANZAC. According
to Mary Edmond-Paul, "The First World War left scars on New Zealand
society: about 18,500 people died as a result of the war, more than
41,000 were injured, many were psychologically traumatized, out of a
total of 103,000 soldiers sent overseas and a population of slightly
more than a million ". New Zealand played a key role in the naval battle
of La Plata and the air battle for Britain. During World War II, the
United States deployed over 400,000 troops to New Zealand.
In addition, New Zealand took part in the Korean, Anglo-Boer, Malayan, Afghan wars and the Persian Gulf War. New Zealand regional and global peacekeeping missions have participated in missions in Cyprus, Somalia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Sinai, Angola, Cambodia, the Iran-Iraq border, Bougainville, East Timor, and the Solomon Islands.
New Zealand was ranked 8th in the 2012 Center for Global Development ranking of the most developed countries in terms of their involvement in improving the welfare of poorer states. New Zealand is fourth in the 2014 Peace Index.
The flag of New Zealand, approved on March 24, 1902, is a rectangular
panel with a ratio of 1:2. The prototype of the current flag, with a
blue ensign and the flag of Great Britain in the corner, appeared in
1865 as a result of a government decree that ships of all British
colonies should have such a flag. In the years 1867-1869, there were red
letters NZ in the lower right corner, and in the years 1869-1902, four
red stars with a white border. The blue background of the flag is
associated with the blue color of the sky and the sea surrounding the
country. The stars of the Southern Cross communicate with the country's
location in the South Pacific. The symbolism of the flag of Great
Britain speaks of the historical heritage that the country was a former
The first state coat of arms of New Zealand was put into circulation in 1911, the current coat of arms was adopted in 1956. The coat of arms is a shield held on one side by a blond woman holding the flag of New Zealand and on the other side by a Maori warrior. Above the shield is the crown of St. Edward. Under the shield are two branches of a fern. The coat of arms is associated with the unity of all cultures and peoples inhabiting the country, and with the commitment to the New Zealand monarchy.
Two national anthems are recognized in New Zealand - "God, protect New Zealand" (Eng. God, Defend New Zealand) and "God Save the Queen" (Eng. God, Save the Queen). Although both have equal status, "God Defend New Zealand" is more commonly used.
The text "God Defend New Zealand" was written in 1870 by Thomas Bracken. John Joseph Woods won the 1876 competition for music to the text. The song gained popularity, and in 1940 the government of the country acquired the copyright for it and designated it as the national anthem. But only in 1977 the song was legally approved as the second national anthem.
The text of the anthem "God Defend New Zealand" consists of five verses. The original text is written in English, the official version also has a Maori translation. Traditionally, only the first verse is sung at state events: first the Maori version is played, then the English version.
New Zealand is located in the Southwest Pacific Ocean in the
Polynesian Triangle in the Central Region of the Water Hemisphere. The
main territory of the country is made up of two islands with the
corresponding names - the South Island and the North Island, which are
separated by the Cook Strait, the width of which is 22.5 km at its
narrowest point. The western coast of the islands is washed by the
Tasman Sea, the rest of the coast of the country by the Pacific Ocean.
In addition to the two main islands, New Zealand owns about 700 islands
of a much smaller area, most of which are uninhabited. The largest of
these are Stewart Island, the Antipodes Islands, Auckland Island, the
Bounty Islands, the Campbell Islands, the Chatham Archipelago and the
Kermadec Islands. The total area of the country is 268,680 km². This
makes it slightly smaller than Italy or Japan, but somewhat larger than
the UK. The coastline of New Zealand is 15,134 kilometers long.
The South Island is New Zealand's largest island and the 12th largest island on the planet, with an area of 150,437 km². About one-fourth of the country's population lives on the island. Along the island from north to south stretches the ridge of the folded mountains of the Southern Alps, the highest peak of which is Mount Cook (43 ° 35′44 ″ S 170 ° 08′27 ″ E, another official name is Aoraki) with a height of 3724 m. In addition to it, on the South Island there are 18 more peaks with a height of more than 3000 m. The eastern part of the island is more flat and almost completely occupied by agricultural land. The west coast of the island is much less densely populated. Significant tracts of almost untouched nature with virgin flora and fauna have been preserved here. The western part is also famous for its numerous national parks, fjords and glaciers descending from the slopes of the Southern Alps right into the Tasman Sea. The island's largest lake is Te Anau (the second largest lake in New Zealand).
North Island, with an area of 113,729 km², is the 14th largest island on the planet. The island is much less mountainous than the South, and more convenient for the creation of settlements and seaports, which is why the majority of the population lives on it and the largest cities of the country are located here. The highest point on the North Island is the active volcano Ruapehu (39°16′ S 175°34′ E) at 2797 meters. The northern island is characterized by high volcanic activity: out of the six volcanic zones of the country, five are located on it. In the heart of the North Island is Lake Taupo, the largest lake in New Zealand. It is the source of the Waikato River, which is 425 kilometers long, making it the longest river in New Zealand.
New Zealand's terrain is mostly steep hills (on the North Island) and mountains (on the South Island). More than 75% of the country's territory lies at an altitude of more than 200 m above sea level. Most of the mountains of the North Island do not exceed 1700 m in height. 19 peaks of the South Island are higher than 3000 m. The coastal zones of the North Island are represented by spacious valleys. Fjords are located on the western coast of the South Island. Plains occupy about 10% of the country's territory.
New Zealand's climate varies from warm subtropical in the north of
the North Island to cool temperate in the south and central regions of
the South Island; in mountainous areas, a harsh alpine climate prevails.
The chain of the high Southern Alps divides the country in half and,
blocking the way to the predominant westerly winds, divides it into two
different climatic zones. The west coast of the South Island is the
wettest part of the country; the eastern part, located just 100
kilometers from it, is the driest.
The East Australian Current, passing through the Tasman Sea between Australia and New Zealand, makes the climate of the islands and the east coast of Australia warmer and more humid, tropical instead of subtropical; contributes to the spread of tropical marine life to subtropical areas along the southeast coast of Australia and New Zealand.
Most of New Zealand has rainfall between 600 and 1600 millimeters per year. They are distributed relatively evenly throughout the year, with the exception of the drier summer period.
The average annual temperature ranges from +10°C in the south to +16°C in the north. The coldest month is July and the warmest months are January and February. In the north of New Zealand, the differences between winter and summer temperatures are not very significant, but in the south and in the foothills the difference reaches 14°C. In the mountainous regions of the country, with increasing altitude, the temperature drops sharply, by about 0.7 ° C every 100 meters.
Auckland, the country's largest city, has an average annual
temperature of +15.1°C, with the highest recorded temperature being
+30.5°C and the lowest being -2.5°C. In the capital of the country,
Wellington, the average annual temperature is +12.8°C, the highest
recorded temperature is +31.1°C, the lowest is -1.9°C. The lowest
temperature in all of Oceania was observed precisely in New Zealand,
since it is located farthest from the equator among the countries of
Oceania (up to 47 parallels south latitude), in the city of Ranfurly on
July 18, 1903 and was −25.6 degrees.
The absolute maximum temperature in New Zealand was recorded in the city of Rangiora, equal to +42.4 degrees, in the northeast of the South Island, between 43 and 44 parallels, closer to 43. The absolute minimum and maximum temperatures in the country were observed in the South Island, where more continental climate than the North Island.
The number of hours of sunshine per year is relatively high, especially in areas protected from westerly winds. In most of the territory, it is at least 2000 hours. Peak solar radiation in the country is about 40% higher than in North America due to the thin ozone layer over Antarctica, which is why New Zealand has one of the highest rates of skin cancer in the world.
Snowfall is extremely rare in the coastal regions of the north of the country and in the western part of the South Island. In other regions, slight and short snowfalls are possible in the winter months.
The islands that form New Zealand are located in the Pacific
geosynclinal belt between two lithospheric plates - the Pacific and
Australian. Over long historical periods, the fault site between the two
plates has been subjected to complex geological processes, constantly
changing the structure and shape of the earth's crust. That is why,
unlike most of the islands of the Pacific Ocean, the islands of New
Zealand were formed not only as a result of volcanic activity, but also
as a result of discharges and are composed of geological rocks of
different composition and different ages.
Active tectonic activity in the earth's crust of this region continues at the present geological stage of the formation of our planet. And its results are noticeable even in a historically short period from the beginning of the development of the islands by Europeans. So, for example, as a result of a devastating earthquake in 1855, the coastline near Wellington rose by more than one and a half meters, and in 1931, also as a result of a strong earthquake near the city of Napier, about 9 km² of land rose to the water surface.
The location of New Zealand is historically associated with active volcanic activity on its territory. Researchers suggest that it began in the early Miocene, and the period of formation of modern zones of increased volcanic activity was completed in the late Pliocene. The largest volcanic eruptions, presumably, took place during the late Pliocene - early Pleistocene, when about 5 million cubic kilometers of rock could erupt to the Earth's surface.
At the present stage, the zone of increased tectonic activity and the associated high number of earthquakes is the western coast of the South Island and the northeast coast of the North Island. The annual number of earthquakes in the country is up to 15,000, most of them are small and only about 250 annually can be classified as noticeable or strong. In modern history, the most powerful earthquake was recorded in 1855 near Wellington, with a magnitude of about 8.2 points; the most devastating was the 1931 earthquake in the Napier region, which claimed 256 human lives.
Volcanic activity in modern New Zealand is still high and 6 volcanic zones are active in the country, five of which are located on the North Island. In the area of Lake Taupo in 186 BC. e. the largest documented volcanic eruption in the history of mankind, Hatepe. The consequences of the eruption are described in the historical chronicles of places as far away as China and Greece. At the site of the eruption, there is now the largest freshwater lake in the Pacific region, Taupo, with its area comparable to the territory of Singapore.
New Zealand is located on the border of the Indo-Australian and
Pacific seismic rings. The processes of their interaction, including the
rapid uplift of mountain ranges and active volcanic activity for two
million years, determined the geology of the land mass of the islands.
Despite the diversity of natural resources, only deposits of gas, oil, gold, silver, iron sandstone and coal are industrially developed. In addition to the above, there are extensive reserves of limestone and clays (including bentonite clay). Aluminum, titanium iron ore, antimony, chromium, copper, zinc, manganese, mercury, tungsten, platinum, heavy spar, and a number of other minerals are often found, but their explored industrial reserves are small.
Since 1997, all deposits and all the extraction of jade have been given to the management of the Maori, due to the important historical role that pounamu jade products play in the culture of this people.
New Zealand's proven gold reserves are 372 tons. In 2002, gold production amounted to a little less than 10 tons.
New Zealand's proven silver reserves are 308 tons. In 2002, silver production amounted to almost 29 tons.
The proven reserves of ferruginous sandstone are 874 million tons. Its commercial production began in the 1960s. In 2002, production amounted to about 2.4 million tons.
New Zealand's proven natural gas reserves are 68 bcm. Commercial gas production started in 1970. In 2005, natural gas production in the country amounted to approximately 50 million m³.
Oil reserves are approximately 14 million tons, its industrial production began in 1935. Oil production in the country has been declining markedly in recent years. In 2005, oil production in the country amounted to just over 7 million barrels.
Coal production, which has been steadily increasing for many decades, is stabilized in the first decade of the 21st century thanks to programs aimed at reducing the consumption of solid fuels. About a third of the coal produced is exported. 60 coal mines continue to operate in the country.
New Zealand is isolated from other islands and continents by large sea distances. The Tasman Sea washing its western coast separates the country from Australia for 1700 km. The Pacific Ocean washes the east coast of the country and separates the country from its closest neighbors, in the north - from New Caledonia for 1000 km; in the east - from Chile at 8700 km; in the south - from Antarctica for 2500 km.
The length of the coastal strip of New Zealand is 15,134 km. Territorial waters - 12 nautical miles. Exclusive economic zone - up to 200 nautical miles. The area of the maritime exclusive economic zone is approximately 4,300,000 km², which is 15 times the land area of the country.
In the area of New Zealand, there are two permanent sea currents - the warm East Australian and the West Winds. East Australian, following to the north and northeast, washes the western part of the North Island. The course of the West Winds is noticeable in the south, and its main stream passes south of the South Island in an easterly direction.
Up to 700 small islands are located in the coastal waters of the country, most of them are located at a distance of up to 50 km from the main islands. Of the total, only about 60 are habitable or currently occupied.
Due to the special geological and geographical conditions in New Zealand, there are many rivers and lakes. Most of the rivers are short (less than 50 km), originate in the mountains and quickly descend to the plains, where they slow down their flow. Waikato is the largest river in the country with a length of 425 km. The country also has 33 rivers with a length of more than 100 km and 6 rivers with a length of 51 to 95 km. The total length of rivers and other inland waterways in the country is 425,000 km.
In New Zealand, there are 3280 lakes with a water surface area of more than 0.01 km², 229 lakes have a water surface of more than 0.5 km² and 40 - more than 10 km². The country's largest lake is Taupo (area - 623 km²), the deepest lake is Hauroko (depth - 462 meters). Most of the lakes in the North Island are formed by volcanic activity, while most of the lakes in the South Island are formed by glacial activity.
New Zealand is one of the few countries in the southern hemisphere that has glaciers on its territory (Tasmanian, Fox, Franz Josef, etc.). The Tasmanian glacier forms a narrow tongue of ice 27 km long, up to 3 km wide in places; its total area is 52 km². In some parts, it reaches a thickness of 610 m and is the largest glacier in New Zealand.
The average annual volume of renewable water resources, according to
statistics from 1977-2001, in New Zealand is estimated at 327 km³, which
is about 85 m³ / year per capita. In 2001, river and lake resources were
about 320 km³, glacier resources were about 70 km³, atmospheric moisture
resources were about 400 km³, and groundwater resources were estimated
at about 613 km³.
The protection and management of water resources and the water supply system for the population and economic facilities in New Zealand is the responsibility of local governments. The cost of the main production assets of the water management complex is estimated at more than 1 billion New Zealand dollars. Centralized water supply systems provide drinking water for about 85% of the country's population. About 77% of fresh water consumed in the country is used in irrigation systems.
In general, the soils of the country are relatively infertile and not rich in humus. The following 15 soil types are most common:
allophaneous - volcanic clay soils,
melanic - fertile soil with a black arable layer
Long historical isolation and remoteness from other continents have
created a unique and in many ways inimitable natural world of the
islands of New Zealand, which is distinguished by a large number of
endemic plants and birds.
About 1000 years ago, before the appearance of permanent human settlements on the islands, mammals were historically completely absent. The exceptions were two species of bats and coastal whales, the New Zealand sea lion (Phocarctos hookeri) and the New Zealand fur seal (Arctocephalus forsteri).
Simultaneously with the arrival of the first permanent residents, the Polynesians, the small rats (Rattus exulans) and dogs appeared on the islands. Later, the first European settlers brought pigs, cows, goats, mice and cats. The development of European settlements in the 19th century caused the appearance in New Zealand of more and more new species of animals.
The appearance of some of them had an extremely negative impact on the flora and fauna of the islands. Such animals include rats, cats, ferrets, rabbits (brought into the country for the development of hunting), stoats (brought into the country to control the rabbit population). Possums were also brought in to develop the fur industry. When it was necessary to release the animals into the wild, they began to climb on the poles with wires and gnaw them. As a result, the city remained without electricity, and the animals died. I had to upholster all the posts with tin so that the opossums could not climb up. People have also thoughtlessly introduced black swans, woodpeckers, canaries, larks, geese (both wild and domestic), and many other species of birds. Introduced rats and small birds serve as food for the ueke shepherd, endemic to New Zealand. In addition, the man brought deer, pigs and other large mammals to New Zealand, which he released into the wild, believing that the forests would look more beautiful this way. Having no natural enemies in the surrounding nature, the populations of these animals reached such proportions that the natural representatives of the flora and fauna of New Zealand were under serious threat. Only in recent years, through the efforts of the environmental departments of New Zealand, some coastal islands were spared from these animals, which made it possible to hope for the preservation of natural natural conditions there.
Of the representatives of the fauna of New Zealand, the most famous are the kiwi birds (Apterygiformes), which have become the national symbol of the country. Among the birds, it is also necessary to note kea (Nestor notabilis) (or nestor), kakapo (Strigops habroptilus) (or owl parrot), takahe (Notoronis hochstelteri) (or wingless sultan).
Only in New Zealand, the remains of giant flightless moa birds (Dinornis) exterminated about 500 years ago, reaching a height of 3.5 m, were preserved. wings up to 3 meters and weighing up to 15 kg.
New Zealand is home to 123 species (many undescribed) of amphibians and reptiles. Among them, 89% are endemic, 8% are migratory marine, and the remaining 3% are introduced. Amphibians are represented by the endemic Leiopelmatidae family (3 species considered among the most primitive frogs) and 3 introduced species of the tree frog family (Hylidae). New Zealand is home to the only surviving member of the beakhead (Rhynchocephalia) order, the Hatteria (Sphenodon punctatus). New Zealand lizards belong to two families - Diplodactylidae (43 species) and Skinks (Scincidae) (64 species; all except the introduced Lampropholis delicata belong to the genus Oligosoma). All lizards of the country, with the exception of two species of skinks, are viviparous. In the waters of New Zealand, sea turtles and snakes from the subfamilies of sea snakes and flattails are found.
The European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) is the only representative of insectivores brought to the country and adapted to free living conditions in it.
Of the spiders, only the katipō are venomous.
29 species of fish live in the fresh waters of the country, 8 of which are on the verge of extinction (such as the New Zealand Prototroct). Up to 3,000 species of fish and other sea creatures live in coastal seas.
There are 40 species of ants in New Zealand.
The flora of New Zealand has about 2,000 plant species.
The country's forests are divided into two main types - mixed subtropical and evergreen. The forests are dominated by legcarps (Podocarpus). The thickets of New Zealand agathis (Agathis australis) and cypress dacrydium (Dacrydium cupressinum) have survived, although they have been sharply reduced during the industrial development of forests.
In artificial forests, the total area of which is about 2 million hectares, mainly radiant pine (Pinus radiata), brought to New Zealand in the middle of the 19th century, is grown. The plantation of radiant pine in the Kaingaroa Forest area has created the world's largest artificially grown forest.
New Zealand has the largest amount of liverworts in comparison to other countries. On the territory of the country there are 606 species of them, 50% of them are endemic.
Leafy mosses are widespread, New Zealand's bryoflora includes 523 species of leafy mosses.
Among the approximately 70 species of forget-me-nots (Myosotis) known in nature, about 30 are endemic to New Zealand. Unlike forget-me-nots in other parts of the world, only two species of these plants in New Zealand are blue - Myosotis antarctica and Myosotis capitata.
Of the 187 species of flowering herbaceous plants in the natural flora of New Zealand, 157 are endemic.
In New Zealand, there is an unusually large number of ferns in comparison with other territories with similar climatic conditions. The silver cyathea (Cyathea dealbata) (also known as the silver fern in the country) is one of the generally accepted national symbols and is depicted on the country's national emblem.
One of the main symbols of New Zealand is its carefully maintained
green and clean (. Green and Clean New Zealand) and 100% clean (100%
Pure New Zealand) image. That is why the issues of protection and
environmental protection are among the priorities in the development of
In 2005, New Zealand became the first country in the world to introduce a carbon tax. As one of the important promising areas, it plans to become the first country in the world to have a neutral balance of carbon emissions into the atmosphere by 2020, and thereby achieve recognition for itself as the cleanest country in the world.
The country's legislation defines about 60 types of natural areas to be protected and preserved, among them the largest and most significant forms are national parks (including marine parks), natural, scientific, ecological and tourist reserves and reserves. The country has 14 national parks, 4 marine parks, 21 marine and coastal reserves and more than 3,000 reserves. The total area of national parks, reserves and natural areas under protection is about 6.5 million hectares, or about 25% of the total territory of the country.
There are several zoos and botanical gardens in the country, the largest of which is the Auckland Zoo, opened in 1922 and containing more than 170 species of animals on its territory. In addition, large zoos are open in the cities of Wellington and Auckland, and the only free-range zoo operates in Christchurch. A unique park, aimed at preserving the animals of the big cat subfamily, was created near the city of Whangarei.
A strong earthquake with a magnitude of 7.1 in the Canterbury region, on the South Island of New Zealand, occurred on September 4 at 4 hours 35 minutes local time (UTC + 12). The epicenter was located 40 km west of Christchurch, near the town of Darfield. The hypocenter was at a depth of only 10 km.
An earthquake of magnitude 6.3 occurred on February 22, 2011 off the coast of New Zealand. The epicenter of the earthquake was in close proximity to the second largest city in the country, Christchurch on the South Island. 147 people died. According to J.P. Morgan, an earthquake in New Zealand could cost insurance companies $12 billion.
A series of earthquakes with a magnitude of 6.2 to 7.4 occurred on November 13, 2016 in the South Island. The epicenter of the tremors was located about 39 km southwest of the city of Kaikura at a depth of 10 km. Two people died.
The problem of the ozone layer
Due to the existing giant ozone hole over Antarctica, New Zealand has very strong ultraviolet radiation. As a result, skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in New Zealand. 67,000 cases of this disease are registered annually, while there are only 16,000 cases of other types of cancer per year. The number of melanoma patients in New Zealand and Australia is about four times higher than in Canada, the US and the UK. The situation is aggravated by the fact that many residents are descendants of the British, who have always been distinguished by fair skin. And for a fair-skinned person, fifteen minutes is enough to get burned in New Zealand. People with fair skin should use a protective cream.
New Zealand is located in two time zones. The South and North Islands and the adjacent small islands use New Zealand Standard Time (NZST) and are 12 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). The Chatham Islands use Chatham Standard Time or CHAST and are 12 hours 45 minutes ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. During the summer period, the clocks move forward one hour and the difference with UTC during this period is 13 hours for NZST and 13 hours 45 minutes for CHAST.
The first European settlers who settled in New Zealand divided the
country into provinces. To create a more centralized system of financial
management of the territories, the division of the country into
provinces was abolished in 1876. As a result of this, New Zealand still
does not have a system of intrastate administrative-territorial division
similar to the fact that in other countries a province, state, region
can be called. The existing system of territorial subordination is based
on the principle of local self-government. Since 1989, a system has been
in place based on the use of Regional Councils and Territorial
Modern New Zealand has 12 regional councils that exercise local self-government and are responsible for environmental issues and the regional transport system. In addition, there are 74 territorial administrations (16 city councils, 57 local councils and one island council) responsible for road and communication systems in their region, life support systems, supervising and regulating construction, etc.
Outer Islands of New Zealand
New Zealand owns 9 island groups that are located in the subtropical and subantarctic zones; 7 of them are not included in the regions or districts of any administrative unit. They are under the direct control of a special body - eng. Area Outside Territorial Authority. The Chatham Archipelago has the status of a special territorial unit, and the island of Soland is part of the Southland region.
Kingdom of New Zealand
The State of New Zealand has one dependent territory (Tokelau). At the same time, New Zealand is a core member of the Kingdom of New Zealand, one of the 15 Commonwealth realms. Unlike other Commonwealth realms, the Kingdom of New Zealand is not a state and does not have international state recognition. The term "Kingdom of New Zealand" has a conceptual, symbolic character, indicating the unity of the history and moral values of various countries, states and territories and the recognition of a single head of state. In addition to New Zealand itself, the kingdom also includes the Cook Islands, Tokelau, Niue and the Antarctic Ross Territory. The Cook Islands and Niue are independent states loosely associated with New Zealand. Tokelau is a dependent territory administered by New Zealand. The Ross Territory was transferred to the administration of New Zealand by Great Britain in 1923 and since 1961 de facto New Zealand has complied with the terms of the Antarctic Treaty, according to which Antarctica is an international territory that does not belong to any state.
Residents of all of the Kingdom's constituent states and territories are citizens of New Zealand. New Zealand ensures the security of the member states of the Kingdom and represents their interests in the international arena.
The Monarch of New Zealand is the official head of all the states and territories of the Kingdom.
The Cook Islands became a New Zealand dependency in June 1901 through an annexation approved by the New Zealand Parliament in September/October 1900. Direct control of New Zealand was carried out until 1965, when, under the auspices of the UN, the country embarked on the path of self-determination. Based on the country's adopted constitution, the Cook Islands are self-governing and freely associated with New Zealand. New Zealand remains committed to the security of the Cook Islands, but any military intervention is possible only on the basis of a decision by the government of the Cook Islands. New Zealand also remains committed to international representation of the interests of the Cook Islands, but the Cook Islands currently also has its own diplomatic missions in 20 countries around the world.
Tokelau was taken over by New Zealand in 1926 from Great Britain, which had annexed the islands 10 years earlier. It is currently a non-self-governing territory under the administrative control of New Zealand. In 2006 and 2007, this status of the islands was reinforced by the results of referendums. But, in accordance with the UN charters, Tokelau and New Zealand continue to work to create conditions for the transition to full self-determination of Tokelau as an independent state, and in 2005 Tokelau and New Zealand created a Free Association Treaty and developed a draft of the future Constitution of Tokelau. Since 2003, Tokelau has been independently conducting all operations with the state budget. In the international arena, New Zealand represents the interests of Tokelau, but the territory also has its own representation in a number of international organizations.
Niue became a New Zealand dependency in 1901. In 1975, as a result of a referendum held under the auspices of the United Nations, the country gained independence, and since then, in accordance with the provisions of its own constitution, it has been a self-governing state in free association with New Zealand. Although New Zealand has retained its obligations to represent the international interests of Niue, nevertheless, in practice, Niue independently represents its interests in the international arena and independently participates in the work of international organizations. New Zealand is responsible for the security of Niue. Niue's constitution requires New Zealand to provide economic assistance to the country, and New Zealand is Niue's largest contributor to the state budget. In fiscal years 2006 and 2007, Niue began to administer its own public budget, but in 2008 the budget almost completely lost revenue, except for income from economic assistance from other states.
The Ross Territory came under the control of New Zealand in 1923 from Great Britain, it was then that the boundaries of these territories were determined and the lands and islands included in them were specified, including part of Victoria Land, the Ross Ice Shelf, the Ross Islands, Balleny, Scott and Roosevelt. Through a series of government acts, New Zealand extends its jurisdiction to the Ross Territory and limits the waters around it as its own exclusive economic zone. Nevertheless, after the signing of the Antarctic Treaty in 1961, which recognized the existence of territorial claims of a number of states on the lands and waters of Antarctica (but did not resolve these claims and limited the emergence of new claims of this kind), New Zealand de facto respects the international status of the mainland and limits its jurisdiction only on the territory of its own Antarctic station or its citizens located on the continent. The scientific bases Scott Base (New Zealand) and McMurdo (USA) are the only year-round inhabited bases in this territory.
New Zealand's population is 4.242 million according to the 2013
census and 4.742 million according to 2016 estimates.
The bulk of the country's population are New Zealanders of European origin, mostly descendants of immigrants from the UK. There are significant diasporas of Dutch, Germans, Croats, "white" South Africans. According to the 2013 census, the total share of the population of European origin is approximately 74% of the total population of the country. Representatives of the indigenous people, Maori, make up about 14.9% of the population. The next two largest ethnic groups - representatives of Asian and Polynesian peoples - account for 11.8% and 7.4% of the country's population, respectively. Arabs, Hispanics, Africans and others - 2.9%. In the census, persons of mixed origin may indicate 2 ethnic groups.
The average age of the country's inhabitants in 2013 was about 38 years[. In 2006, more than 500 people over the age of 100 lived in the country. In the same year, the proportion of the population under the age of 15 was 21.5%.
Population growth in 2007 was 0.95%. The crude birth rate in the same year was 13.61 births per 1,000 population, and the crude death rate was 7.54 deaths per 1,000 population.
Most New Zealanders permanently (or for a long time) live outside the country. The largest New Zealand diaspora lives in Australia (in 2014, the number of New Zealanders living in Australia was about 567,000 people) and in the UK (in 2001, about 50,000 people, with about 17% of New Zealanders having either British citizenship or the right to receiving it). Traditionally, out-of-country New Zealanders maintain close contact with their homeland, and many of them deservedly become among the outstanding representatives of their country.
According to the 2013 census, the majority of the population, 47.65%, profess Christianity (in 2001 there were 58.92% of such people). The most common denominations of Christianity in the country are Latin Rite Catholicism - 12.61%, Anglicanism - 11.79%, Presbyterianism - 8.47% and Methodism - 2.64%. Small groups of the Salvation Army, Seventh-day Adventists, Assemblies of God operate in the country. Followers of Buddhism (1.50%), Hinduism (2.11%) and Islam (1.18%) make up the next largest religious communities in New Zealand. About 41.92% of the country's population during the census did not associate themselves with religion (in 2001 there were 29.64% of such people). 0.01% of the country's inhabitants adhere to various kinds of new religious teachings ("new age"), 0.02% - Satanism; there are more adherents of neo-paganism in New Zealand than Jews (followers of Judaism in 2013, there were 0.18%).
As of 2019, the UN estimated that there were 1.1 million immigrants and their descendants living in New Zealand, or 22.3% of the country's population.
Natives of Polynesia, who began settling the previously deserted
islands of New Zealand, presumably in 1250-1300, created the basis for
the formation of an original people and a unique Maori culture. The
first meeting of Maori and Europeans took place in 1642, when the ship
of the Dutch navigator Abel Tasman approached the shores of New Zealand.
The next meeting took place only in 1769, when James Cook's expedition approached these shores. The total number of Maori at this time was estimated to be about 100,000 people. Already by 1800, European ships began to visit New Zealand relatively often, and by 1830 there were already about 2,000 Europeans living in New Zealand. Their position among the Maori was not always equal, many of them were slaves or semi-slaves, but some also occupied a fairly high position in the tribal hierarchy. Maori traditionally did not have commodity-money relations and trade, but practiced barter. They extended this tradition to relations with European sailors and whalers. One of the main goods that interested the Maori was European firearms, as a result of which, at the beginning of the 19th century, a series of bloody tribal clashes broke out in the country, called the Musket Wars and continued intermittently until 1840. Tribal conflicts, Maori familiarity with alcoholic beverages, as well as previously unknown diseases, mainly measles, influenza and venereal diseases, significantly reduced the number of indigenous people in New Zealand during these years, and in 1896 the Maori population reached its lowest level in modern history - just over 42,000 people.
In 1840, Great Britain and the Maori tribal leaders reached an agreement and signed a written treaty, called the Treaty of Waitangi, in accordance with the provisions of which the Maori transferred New Zealand under the guardianship of Great Britain, but retained their property rights, and Great Britain received the exclusive right to purchase land from them. . During this period, there was an active mutual integration of an increasing number of European settlers and Maori. Mostly Maori land continued to be traded, but Maori's own business ventures began to emerge and develop.
One of the problems that prevented the establishment of sustainable mechanisms for the sale of Maori land and determining its value was the disagreement in the fundamental interpretation of the right to land between Maori and Europeans, which was exacerbated by the inaccuracy of the wording of the translation of the Treaty of Waitangi. Historically, the Maori had never sold land before, but tribal chiefs could give it away for use by those who needed it. Obviously, this situation was fundamentally different from the needs and intentions of European settlers. All this served as the basis for a series of armed conflicts between the Maori and the settlers and parts of the British army between 1845 and 1872, called the New Zealand Land Wars. Over 2,000 Maori died in these clashes. The clashes resulted in the confiscation by the country's administration of more than 14,000 km² of Maori land as punishment for their uprisings.
In the early 1960s, the number of Maori and Europeans in New Zealand was for the first time approximately equal - about 60,000 each of them. Until the 20s of the 20th century, the number of Maori either decreased or remained at the same level, and the number of Europeans grew rapidly and in 1921 was already 1,200,000 people.
Despite a significant decrease in their proportional representativeness in society, the Maori continued to largely remain socially independent, although they easily adapted to the conditions of European civilization. Significant Māori politicians and entrepreneurs began to emerge. In 1858, on the basis of a specially prepared Decree, a state-subsidized system of schools for Maori children was opened in the country. In 1865, the system ceased to exist as a punishment for the Land Wars, but was reinstated two years later. Until 1928, there were separate educational programs for Maori and Europeans in the country, and from 1935 education became compulsory (up to 15 years) and free.
Since 1867, the Maori have had a permanently reserved quota of seats in the Parliament of the country, elected by a separate vote only among the Maori. As of 2008, seven seats in the country's Parliament (out of 69) were held by such members of Parliament. Maori can also be elected to Parliament on the basis of a general vote.
In 1900, the government announced a program to improve Maori health care.
In 1928, the first Maori minister appeared in the government of the country.
During the Second World War, despite the fact that Maori were not subject to compulsory military service in New Zealand, a significant number of them entered the active forces of the New Zealand Armed Forces as volunteers and participated in the fighting in Egypt, Italy and Greece.
In the 40-70s of the 20th century, an active process of Maori urbanization began, and since that time most of the Maori have lived in cities. In the 60-70s of the same century, in connection with the general improvement in the level of education of the Maori and the improvement of their well-being, processes of growth of national self-consciousness began, which led to the need to recognize the role of the Maori in the development and formation of the country. In 1975, a state decree was adopted that consolidated the status of the Treaty of Waitangi, and on the basis of it, starting from 1977, the Waitangi Court began to operate in the country, considering cases related to the return of land and other resources and determining compensation for damage caused to the Maori people since the period Land wars. The Waitangi Court is not a judicial body, but creates a mechanism for consultation and negotiations between the government of the country and the Maori in the above issues. As of 2008, over NZ$900 million in compensation has been paid.
In 1987 Maori became one of the official languages of New Zealand.
Current demographic situation
Maori make up 14.6% of the country's population. Their total number is 565,329 people. For 15 years (1991-2006), the number of this people in the country increased by almost 30%. About 47% of them are descendants of mixed marriages (mainly with Europeans). 51% of Maori living in New Zealand are men, 49% are women. Of these, 35% are children under the age of 15. The average age of Maori living in New Zealand is about 23 years old. At the same time, the average age of women is a little over 24 years, and the average age of the male population is a little over 21 years.
About 87% of Maori live in the North Island and about 25% live in the city of Auckland or its suburbs. The largest concentration of representatives of this people is observed on Chatham Island.
23% can communicate fluently in the Maori language. About 25% do not own it at all.
About 4% of Maori have a university education (or higher). About 39% of the total Maori population have permanent full-time jobs.
As of 2008, Maori made up about 50% of the people incarcerated in the country, and 42% of criminal incidents in the country involve Maori. The Maori of all ethnic groups in New Zealand maintain the highest unemployment rate and have the lowest life expectancy and the highest incidence of disease.
English, Maori and New Zealand Sign Language are the official
languages of the country.
English is the main language of communication, and 96% of the country's population uses it as such. Most books, newspapers and magazines are published on it, it also dominates the broadcasting of radio and television. The Maori language is the second official language. In 2006, New Zealand Sign Language became the third official language.
New Zealand English is close to Australian English, but retains a much greater influence of the English language of the southern regions of England. However, he acquired some of the characteristics of a Scottish and Irish accent. The Maori language had a certain influence on pronunciation, and some words of this language entered the daily communication of the country's multinational community.
In addition, representatives of another 171 language groups live in the country. The most spoken languages after English and Maori are Samoan, French, Hindi and Chinese.
The Maori language (self-name Te Reo Māori, Te-reo-Maori) received
the status of an official language in 1987. Its use became mandatory in
the names of government departments and institutions, and its use
without restrictions became possible for employees and visitors of all
government services, in courts, in public hospitals, and also in units
of the armed forces. The study of the basics of the Maori language is a
compulsory course in the school curriculum, and a number of educational
institutions provide education in two languages. Many place names in New
Zealand have historically retained their roots in the Maori language.
Maori is the southernmost language of the Austronesian language family. About 150,000 people claim Maori ownership.
New Zealand Sign Language
In 2006, New Zealand Sign Language was given the status of the country's third official language. New Zealand Sign Language is a naturally occurring language used by deaf or hard of hearing people for the purpose of communication. It is based on British Sign Language and is recognized as one of the BANZSL dialects. As of 2013, more than 24,000 people used sign language in everyday communication.
New Zealand is a developed country with a market economy based on
agriculture, manufacturing and food industries and tourism. The
country's economy is export-oriented. The main trading partners are
Australia, USA, Japan, China.
The gross national product (GNP) of New Zealand was 186.7 billion US dollars in 2016, ranking 58-60th in the world according to this indicator, according to various estimates. State budget revenues - $54.36 billion. Per capita income in 2007 was US$26,300, ranking it 21st in the world.
In December 2014, per capita income was US$34,910 (NZ$47,836).
The annual growth rate of GNP is 4.8%. The inflation rate according to 2006 data was 3.8%. According to 2006 data, the external debt of countries amounted to 59.08 billion US dollars (47th place in the world), which was approximately 11.7 thousand US dollars per capita. The share of the state sector in the economy is small: in 2008, 19 enterprises and organizations were under state control.
The number of able-bodied population in the country in 2013 was 2.41 million people. Most of this number (up to 74%) is employed in the service sector. The unemployment rate as of December 2014 is 5.7%.
New Zealand is a member of a number of international and regional economic organizations. Among the most influential are the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, the World Trade Organization, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, and the International Energy Agency.
New Zealand topped the ranking of the best countries for doing business in 2012, compiled by the American business magazine Forbes. A year earlier, New Zealand was second on the list. New Zealand's leadership comes from its "transparent and stable" business climate that encourages entrepreneurship, Forbes explains. New Zealand ranked first in four of the 11 metrics Forbes researched. The country leads in the field of personal freedom, protection of the rights of investors, low levels of bureaucratization and corruption.
The monetary system of New Zealand was born only with the arrival of the first Europeans on these lands. In earlier times, the Maori did not use money in the usual sense of the word, preferring to build their economic relationships on the basis of barter exchanges.
Until 1840, there was no unified monetary system in the country and the settlers used mainly British minted coins. Banknotes were significantly less common in circulation. After 1840, private bonds and notes issued by private merchants entered circulation. This situation continued until 1881, and a total of 48 private merchants issued their banknotes and coins into circulation during this period. In 1897, the banknotes of Great Britain became the only official currency of the country. In addition, 6 more banks of the country had the right to issue their own banknotes into circulation. Since 1930, the only legal currency of the country has become banknotes put into circulation by the Reserve Bank of New Zealand (eng. Reserve Bank of New Zealands). The British monetary system was used as a model, divided into pounds sterling, shillings and pence. In 1967, the decimal system was introduced into circulation with the simultaneous introduction of dollars and cents into circulation.
Currently, the country has banknotes in denominations of 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 dollars and coins in denominations of 1 and 2 dollars and 10, 20 and 50 cents.
New Zealand has an established system of banking services, built on a system of compulsory state licensing of all banking activities. As of 2009, there were 19 banks operating in the country, of which 9 were branches of large international banks. The organization of banking activities is coordinated by the Reserve Bank of New Zealand, which acts as the country's central bank and determines the monetary and financial policy of the state. The main banks of the country have an extensive network of branches in all major settlements of the country, while KiwiBank branches operate on the basis of post offices. All major banks of the country participate in the EFTPOS (Electronic Funds Transfer at Point of Sale) interbank system, which provides mutual settlements for credit and debit card payments.
New Zealand has an international reputation for being an efficient
and highly developed agricultural industry. The products of industrial
animal husbandry (especially dairy farming and sheep breeding),
horticulture, winemaking and viticulture, and forestry have become one
of the main items of the national economy. Research work and modern
technologies play an important role in the sustainable competitiveness
of New Zealand agricultural products and the high demand for them in the
The industrial number of sheep in 2005 was more than 40 million heads; number of cattle - 8.6 million heads, of which 4.2 million heads are dairy herds; the farmer's livestock of deer in the same year amounted to 1.6 million heads.
The structure of New Zealand's agricultural industry is in many ways unique to developed countries. Its main feature is the absence of any state subsidies to farms. This makes it necessary for producers and exporters of agricultural products to independently compete with their counterparts from other producing countries, in many of which the agricultural industry traditionally receives state subsidies. It is in this regard that New Zealand persistently advocates at international economic forums, and especially within the framework of the WTO, for the introduction of a general regime for monitoring the processes of state financial support for agricultural sectors of the economy in all producing countries.
Control over the development and functioning of the country's agriculture is carried out by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. However, such control is not restrictive - all New Zealand agriculture exists and develops on the principles of a free economy.
Industrial fishing plays a big role both in the life of New Zealanders and in the development of the country's economy. This largely determines the importance for New Zealand of its 200-mile exclusive economic zone, which is the main base for the country's fishermen.
In 2002, the marine economy contributed $3.3 billion, or more than 3% of GDP. In 2006, fresh fish and seafood exports alone amounted to $1.3 billion.
The extraction of marine resources is carried out on the basis of scientifically based quota norms, determined by the state and distributed among national fishing companies. Part of the industrial production quotas belongs to the Maori. To fulfill the quota catch, New Zealand companies often charter the fishing and processing fleet of other countries, most often Ukraine, Russia, and China.
The country's fishermen are commercially harvesting more than 130 species of fish and other marine resources. The most important among them are the New Zealand macrouronus, snapper, hoplostet, squid, bigfin jakas, hake, spiny lobster and a number of others. About 90% of the caught fish and seafood are intended for export.
Agricultural production, industrial fishing, food and timber
industries are the basis of the country's economy and largely determine
the direction of development of industrial production. The food industry
is the largest industrial sector in terms of employment and
infrastructure in the New Zealand economy. The total volume of food
industry products is about 10% of GNP, and the export of food industry
products is about 15 billion dollars.
A distinctive feature of the country is the almost complete absence of large industrial enterprises and heavy industries. At the same time, there are about 15,000 companies in the country engaged in the production of industrial products for various sectors of the economy. A large share of production is directed to export. Industrial companies generate a total of about 15% of GNP. The bulk of industrial production is aimed at meeting the needs of road transport, aviation and the defense industry, as well as the production of electronic products and the high-tech industry.
Biotechnological production (especially agricultural biotechnologies and pharmacological technologies) is traditional for New Zealand. Its annual volume is about 800 million dollars.
The energy sector of the New Zealand economy is based on the use of
oil and gas products, electricity and geothermal energy. Due to the
country's non-nuclear status, nuclear power is not used in New Zealand,
and there are no plans for its introduction.
The total energy performance of gas production in New Zealand is approximately 200 petajoules.
The total energy performance of oil production is 38 petajoules. Oil production in the country has been noticeably declining in recent years, and the amount of imported petroleum products has been steadily growing, amounting to a total of about 300 petajoules in 2004.
Coal production in New Zealand is approximately 140 petajoules in total energy terms (according to 2006 data). About a third of the coal produced is exported.
Geothermal energy is actively used. Of the 129 known geothermal areas in New Zealand, 36 are of industrial importance, with water temperatures ranging from 70 to 220 degrees. Geothermal steam is used in a range of industrial and agricultural applications, but most of it is used to generate electricity. Such use of it provides at least 7% (2.7 billion kWh) of the total electricity generated in the country.
The total electricity generation in the country in 2006 was 41.5 billion kWh. At the same time, the largest amount of electricity (56%, more than 23 billion kWh) was produced at hydroelectric power plants. Gas and coal have become the next most important source of electricity. With their use in 2006, 21.3% and 13.1% of the total electricity volume, or 8.8 billion kWh and 5.4 billion kWh, respectively, were generated. Alternative sources of electricity generation are represented by wind farms, in 2006 they provided 1.5% of the total.
The country continues to actively develop wind energy, doubling the generating volume of wind farms in 2007 compared to 2006 figures. In 2008, there were 8 wind farms operating in the country. 11 new farms are in various stages of construction or design.
The geographic isolation of New Zealand, the limitations of its own industrial base and its remoteness from the main world markets have forced throughout the history of its development to pay great attention to foreign trade and international economic cooperation. According to various estimates, at least 20% of the products produced in the country are intended for export. In 2006, New Zealand's total exports were almost $33 billion (hereinafter in this section, figures are given in New Zealand dollars) and imports in the same year exceeded $37 billion.
The main export sectors of the country's economy are traditionally considered to be agriculture, fishing and seafood processing, timber and woodworking industries. These industries account for more than half of the country's export earnings. Dairy products account for at least 18% of total exports, wool exports account for at least 14%, and forestry and timber products account for at least 4% of New Zealand's total exports.
Oil and fuel products accounted for the largest share of imports into the country; the country's consumers spent more than $3.1 billion on such purchases. The country's second largest import niche has been automobiles in recent years, attracting $3.1 billion in total imports. This is followed by the import of aviation equipment with an annual cost of at least $1.7 billion.
The main trading partners of the country are Australia (the volume of trade with this country is, according to 2005 data, 6.1 billion dollars), the USA (4.2 billion dollars according to the same data), Japan (3.3 billion dollars). At least 70% of New Zealand's exports go to APEC countries.
New Zealand has entered into a number of Free Trade Agreements. The first agreement of this kind was concluded in 1966 with Australia, later (in 1983) the agreement was expanded (Australia New Zealand Closer Economic Relations Trade Agreement). Since 2001, a similar agreement has been in effect with Singapore (New Zealand and Singapore Closer Economic Partnership). In 2005, a free trade agreement was concluded with Thailand (New Zealand and Thailand Closer Economic Partnership). In the same year, a quadripartite agreement of a similar nature was concluded with Brunei, Chile and Singapore (Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership). In 2008, New Zealand was the first among developed countries to conclude a free trade agreement with China (New Zealand China Free Trade Agreement)
Trade and economic relations between New Zealand and the Russian Federation (as well as other countries of the former USSR) are still insignificant and significantly inferior to the volume of trade between the USSR and New Zealand. In 2007, the trade turnover amounted to 97.2 million US dollars, in 2008 - 149 million US dollars. At the same time, in 2008, out of a total volume of 149 million US dollars, Russian exports amounted to 5.2 million dollars, and imports from New Zealand - 143.8 million dollars. Since 2006, the Russian company Nutritek entered the New Zealand market, acquiring a stake in the local dairy producer New Zealand Dairies Limited and investing $115 million in the enterprise.
Tourism and related industries are becoming more and more important
elements of the New Zealand economy every year. The location of the
country and the beauty of its nature, combined with a high level of
service, the convenience of transport structures and the development of
active programs to attract tourists to the country, favor this.
Currently, tourism creates at least 10% of the country's GNP. Nearly 18,000 enterprises operate in the tourism sector and they create about 10% of jobs in the country.
In 2006, the country was visited by a record number of tourists in its entire history - 2,422,000 people. At the same time, on average, each tourist spent 20 days in the country, and they spent more than $6.5 billion in total in New Zealand. The majority of tourists are from Australia. The number of tourists from the PRC has increased significantly in recent years, and in 2006 they constituted the second largest group of international tourists visiting the country. This is followed by tourists from the USA, Germany, South Korea, and Japan.
In relation to citizens of the Russian Federation and the CIS countries, New Zealand observes a rather strict visa regime. The average processing time for documents by the New Zealand Immigration Service is 14 calendar days. In some cases and depending on the season, this period may be reduced or extended. If the trip is planned in November-January, documents for a visa must be submitted at least one and a half months before the date of departure.
The development of transport and transport infrastructure has been
one of the economic priorities of the country throughout the history of
its development. This is due, first of all, to a rather low population
density over a relatively large area and significant distances between
The structure of the transport system within the country is built on the basis of the New Zealand State Highway Network, which includes more than 100 highways. This network is operated by the government organization Transit New Zealand. The main transport artery of the country is the SH1 highway, which runs along the entire length of the North and South Islands from north to south. The total length of the country's highways is more than 92,000 km.
The length of the country's railway lines is 3898 km (about 500 km are electrified). The national railroad system is managed by the state organization ONTRACK. In 1993, the country's railways were privatized. Due to their economic hardship, in 2003 the New Zealand government agreed to take them back under its own control, and in 2008 the government bought out the entire rail and ferry network, thereby renationalizing them.
The inland waterways of the country have lost their former importance as transport arteries, but to this day 1609 km are suitable and partially used for river navigation.
North Island and South Island are connected by a direct ferry service that regularly carries passengers and cargo. Some of the ferries used are adapted for the transport of railway wagons and cars.
Seaports have historically been of great importance for the country's economy. Ports with container terminals currently operate in Auckland, Tauranga, Wellington, Dunedin and Napier. Port points operate in Whangarei, Gisborne, New Plymouth, Nelson, Picton, Timaru and Bluff. Three more bays are occasionally used for mooring and minor cargo handling. The country also has six river ports that do not play any important transport role today.
Despite the importance of maritime transport, New Zealand has a very small number of large-capacity sea vessels. This was caused by the opening in 1994 of cabotage transportation for international shipping companies and the objective impossibility of New Zealand shipping companies to compete with them.
The country has 113 airports and airfields. The largest of these is the Auckland Airport, which receives about 11 million passengers a year. At least 70% of passengers arrive in New Zealand through it. Wellington and Christchurch airports are next in importance and traffic volumes, receiving about 4 million passengers annually.
New Zealand's national carrier is Air New Zealand, based in Auckland. Aircraft of this company make regular flights to 11 countries of the world, and the participation of the company in international partnership programs allows its passengers to easily get to almost anywhere in the world. Its four subsidiaries - Air Nelson, Eagle Airways, Mount Cook Airline and Freedom Air - carry out the majority of cargo and passenger air travel within the country.
Transport pipelines are used insignificantly in New Zealand. The pipelines were laid for the transportation of gas (about 1000 kilometers), the transportation of petroleum products (160 kilometers) and liquefied gas (150 kilometers)
Passenger cars in the late 2000s were dominated by Japanese foreign cars in New Zealand.
New Zealand, being a full member of the international financial
market, actively participates in global investment processes. Australia
and the US are the country's most important financial partners.
According to 2006 data, the total volume of current investments of
entrepreneurs from these countries in the New Zealand economy amounted
to approximately $110 billion (hereinafter in this section, figures are
given in New Zealand dollars), which amounted to almost half of the
total foreign investment. The United Kingdom, Switzerland and Singapore
were next in terms of total current investment in the country, investing
a total of more than $20 billion. The most popular areas for foreign
investment in the New Zealand economy are finance and insurance
projects. Investments by foreign entrepreneurs in New Zealand in 2006
amounted to $19.5 billion, while New Zealand entrepreneurs invested only
$10.7 billion in overseas projects in the same year.
Long-term credit ratings of New Zealand (in local currency):
Fitch Ratings (2008): AAA
Standard & Poor's (2009): AAA
Moody's Investor's Service (2008): Aaa
Communication and communications
Due to its geographic location, New Zealand throughout its modern history has paid attention to the development of communication systems. Already in 1840, a postal service began to operate in the country, and in 1862 the first telegraph line was laid connecting the city of Christchurch with one of the surrounding settlements. In 1865, telegraph communication was laid between the North and South Islands, and in 1872, telegraph communication connected the two largest cities of the country, Wellington and Auckland. The laying of a submarine cable to Australia in 1876 for the first time connected New Zealand's lines of communication, both with Australia itself and through it with the countries of Asia and Europe. In 1877, the first telephone line appeared in the country. Since 1906, radio stations began to work. In 1939, the country ranked second in the world in terms of the number of radios per capita (after the United States). In 1960, the first television station appeared in the country. Since 1971, satellites have been used in the civil communications system in New Zealand. In 1985, all higher education institutions in the country were connected to a single computer network, and in 1986, the New Zealand national domain appeared. In 1993, the country received permanent access to the Internet.
As of 2009, there are 4.245 million cell phones in use in the country, and the cable telephone network covers about 99% of the country's residential buildings. There are 41 TV broadcasting stations in the country. 3.36 million New Zealanders use the Internet on a regular basis.
There are three mobile operators in the country using 1X EV-DO, GSM, HSDPA, UMTS - 2degrees, Vodafone and Telecom.
In 2009, there were 986 post offices in New Zealand handling about 1 billion items of mail annually.
Optical communication lines laid on the seabed
Tasman-2, bandwidth - 1.2Gbps. Put into operation in 1992. Australia - New Zealand.
Southern Cross Cable Network (SCCN), bandwidth - 3.6Tbps. Commissioned in 2000. Approximate potential throughput > 12Tbps. Australia, New Zealand, Fiji Islands, Hawaiian Islands, North America.
Tasman Global Express, throughput - 30Tbps. Put into operation in 2015. Australia - New Zealand.
APX East, throughput - 19.2Tbps. Put into operation in 2015. Australia - New Zealand - North America.
Hawaiki Cable, throughput - 25Tbps. Commissioning - the second quarter of 2018. The project focuses on communication with North America. Also provides communication with Australia, American Samoa, Hawaiian Islands.
More than a million pleasure sailing yachts and boats are registered in the country. Navigation is possible all year round. The yachting industry enjoys the support of the government, the number of specialists in this industry is over 10,000 people. The total number of companies united under the "Marine Industry Association NZ" is over 500, and their gross annual product in 2008 exceeded 1 billion euros. Unlike all other countries, where the struggle for the most prestigious sailing trophy in the world - the America's Cup - is a private affair, in New Zealand it became a national idea and laid the foundation for the yachting industry. New Zealanders are globally recognized trendsetters in the construction of superyachts.
On January 21, 2018, New Zealand launched an Electron light-class launch vehicle with two satellites from the Rocket Lab Launch Complex 1, built on the Mahia Peninsula, located on the east coast of New Zealand's North Island.
In the modern culture of New Zealand, the traditions and cultural
influence of the peoples inhabiting the British Isles, and the cultural
principles inherent in most Western European peoples, whose
representatives at one time or another moved to New Zealand, are still
of particular importance. At the same time, traditionally influenced by
the cultural traditions of the Polynesian peoples. Among the latter,
Maori traditions are the strongest, and in recent decades, people from
Fiji, Samoa, and Tonga have contributed to the development of Polynesian
trends in the country's culture. In the last 25 years, due to the
intensification of immigration processes, the contribution of
representatives of the peoples of Asia to the creation of a single and
multi-colored culture of New Zealand has increased.
The preservation and development of the Maori national culture is one of the country's priorities. Half a century ago, the Maori language almost ceased to be used in everyday communication. Today, one of the national television channels broadcasts only in this language, newspapers are published, books are published.
The work of state bodies in matters of cultural development of the country and society is coordinated by the Ministry of Culture and Historical Heritage.
Maori culture before the arrival of Europeans had no written language, so literary creativity in New Zealand began to develop relatively late. Maori quickly adopted writing as a means of communication, and many of their oral traditions and poems were translated into written form. From the 1930s, New Zealand literature began to move more and more away from global trends towards local issues, but its wide popularity began to grow only from the middle of the 20th century, with the increase in the number of local publishers. The traditional genre of New Zealand literature is the short story and the short story. The most famous authors are Katherine Mansfield and Janet Frame. Dunedin is a UNESCO City of Literature.
Despite the fact that filming began in New Zealand as early as the 1920s, the film industry only gained momentum in the 1970s. Every year the number of films shot in the country or created with the participation of New Zealand filmmakers is increasing. The trilogies "The Lord of the Rings" and "The Hobbit", the films "The Last Samurai", "The Chronicles of Narnia. The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe", "The Chronicles of Narnia: Prince Caspian", "Xena the Warrior Princess" and a number of others. Among the brightest representatives of the New Zealand film industry, one should note film director Peter Jackson, screenwriter and film director Jane Campion, screenwriter, film director and actor Taika Waititi, actors Temueru Morrison, Craig Parker, Sam Neill and Russell Crowe, actresses Keisha Castle-Hughes and Lucy Lawless.
Photography in New Zealand developed similarly to other colonies. In the early years of photography, New Zealand experienced a lack of photographic materials due to its geographical remoteness, but the pioneers of photography left many pictures - in particular, a significant number of Maori photographs. In the first half of the 20th century, pictorialism and social realism dominated the photography of the country. In the 21st century, due to the ubiquity of ultra-compact cameras, photography has been democratized and has become accessible to all segments of the population.
In the pre-European period of the development of New Zealand, the only form of architectural architecture was the Polynesian traditions, preserved and developed in the Maori culture. In addition to residential premises, the only forms of buildings at that time were buildings for the general collections of the tribe (marae, Maori Marae) and fortifications. Marae have a single architecture and carved decorations that are characteristic of the entire Maori people and differed very little in individual tribes.
The beginning of the European development of the country was accompanied by the development of construction. Since most of the population of that time were immigrants from Great Britain, it is quite natural that in their construction they initially adhered to the British architectural school. However, already in the 19th century, and especially in the first half of the 20th century, a pronounced New Zealand architectural style began to take shape, so even the earliest New Zealand buildings have significant stylistic differences not only from the British buildings of that time, but also from Australian ones. The reason for this was largely the remoteness of the country and the low population density, which made it extremely difficult to finance the construction of any large facilities or buildings. The abundance of stone suitable for construction made it possible to abandon the use of wood in construction already at the early stages of the development of the country.
One of the most interesting architectural monuments of the country is the development of the central part of the city of Napier. Destroyed by an earthquake in 1931, the city was rebuilt and built in the Art Deco architectural style characteristic of that time, which remains unchanged to this day and is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The most famous example of modern New Zealand architecture and building technology is the Sky Tower, built in 1997 in Auckland. The height of the tower is 328 m and as of May 2007 it is the tallest building in the southern hemisphere.
Maori traditional art
Historically, Maori art has mainly had a religious meaning. Its main areas were wood or bone carving, weaving, music and dancing and tattooing. The first Maori language book was published in 1840, and the first newspaper was published in 1900.
Due to the lack of writing prior to European contact, woodcarving became a kind of Maori substitute for it, and the scenes depicted often conveyed the history and traditions of the people. To this day, the Maori have preserved the tradition of reading the history of their kind from carvings.
Artistic tukutuku wicker coverings were most often used as one of the few decorations in residential premises, as well as for cult and religious purposes in the premises for general gatherings of tribes.
The moko or ta-moko tattoo is one of the oldest cultural traditions of the Maori, which came into their history at the first steps of the development of the people. For a long time, the presence of moko was a symbol of social status and people of the lower social stratum were not allowed to have a tattoo on their face, although elements of a tattoo on their body could be allowed. For men, it was traditional to apply moko on the face, buttocks and thighs. Women could be tattooed on the lips and cheeks. For both men and women, the tattoo could be applied to other parts of the body, but in this case it was of less importance. In recent years, the popularity of moko has increased again, and now its application is often a tribute to Maori for their ancestors and their traditions. At the same time, moko elements became popular with other ethnic groups in New Zealand and even abroad.
Kapa haka is one of the most significant elements of Maori culture, which includes a system of dances, facial expressions and movements, accompanied by singing. The dance traditions of kapa haka include several directions - poi (Maori Poi) - a dance better known today in the world as one of the types of juggling balls on ropes, and haka (Maori Haka) - a dance that has become famous in the world thanks to the performances of the New Zealand national team Rugby All Blacks. Haka entered everyday life and is an attribute of state and public ceremonies. The army and navy units of the New Zealand armed forces have their own versions of khaki. Many sports clubs use versions adapted for themselves.
In 2006, there were 20 daily newspapers published in the country. The
largest of these is the New Zealand Herald, with over 195,000 copies. In
addition, another 126 newspapers are published in the country, most of
which are owned by public organizations and individuals. In 2006, about
230 magazines were published in the country. The largest magazines are
Skywatch and New Zealand Women's Day. Their circulation is more than
500,000 and 130,000 copies, respectively.
The largest television company in the country is the national Television New Zealand. The company broadcasts on two nationwide channels TV ONE and TV2. Programs run 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Broadcasting is available almost throughout the country. With government funding, in 2006 the company also launched a new free and ad-free TV channel, FreeView. To develop and maintain the national Maori language, the Māori Television channel operates in the country, the programs on which are conducted mainly in Maori. The country also has two independent broadcasters SKY Television and HT Media. The first one specializes in broadcasting satellite digital channels, the second one broadcasts on TV3 and C4 channels.
National public radio began programming in the early 1930s, and the
first independent private radio stations began to appear in the country
only in the 1960s. National broadcasting is provided by Radio New
Zealand Te Reo Irirangi o Aotearoa. They manage: three nationwide
networks National, Concert and AM Network; the New Zealand
government-run international broadcaster, Radio New Zealand
International; news channels Radio New Zealand News and Current Affairs;
national audio archive. The largest independent radio company is Niu FM,
operated by the National Pacific Radio Trust. The company's programs are
available for admission in areas where more than 85% of the country's
population lives. The radio channel Māori Radio broadcasts in the Maori
language and was created in 1989 precisely in order to support the
development and preservation of the language of this people. The channel
has 21 radio stations, all belonging to different Maori tribes. In
general, there are about 200 other independent radio stations operating
in the country.
The Royal Society of New Zealand is the national Academy of Sciences and brings together about 60 independent research and technology centers. The Crown Research Institutes, a public organization established in 1992, uniting nine research centers working in vital research areas for the country, is the country's largest research association. Work in the field of scientific research and the implementation of research developments is coordinated at the national level by the Ministry of Research, Science and Technology. Public spending on the development of science and research amounted to about 0.5% of GNP in fiscal year 2005. Government spending is about 11% of the total funding for science, technology and development in the country's economy.
Traditionally, New Zealand's priorities are medical research, biology, biochemistry, agricultural research and forestry, engineering and social sciences, and Antarctic research. The largest astronomical observatory in New Zealand is Mount John University Observatory.
Despite the short history of European exploration of New Zealand, the first museum in the country was established already in 1852. It was the Auckland Military History Museum, which exists to this day and is one of the largest museums in the country. The largest museum in the country is currently located in Wellington, the National Museum of New Zealand, better known as Te Papa. The history of this museum began in 1865, but in its present form the museum was opened to the public in 1998. It receives about 1.3 million visitors annually.
Small museums with expositions telling about the history of certain regions, cities and towns, as well as expositions dedicated to the development of certain types of industry or certain areas of science, exist in almost all cities of the country. Many of these museums are privately owned or funded by public organizations and local governments. More than 1.3 million New Zealanders (31% of the population) visit museums annually.
The largest library in the country is the National Library of New Zealand, founded in 1858. A developed network of libraries exists in all cities and large settlements of the country. Also popular is the system of mobile libraries visiting certain sparsely populated or remote settlements. Most libraries are funded by local governments and charitable contributions. About 40% of the country's population constantly uses the services of libraries.
Sport has traditionally played an important role in the lives of New
Zealanders. In many ways, preserving the traditions of immigrants from
the British Isles to this day, rugby can rightly be considered the
national sport of New Zealand. The national rugby team (All Blacks)
ranks first in the international ranking of national teams and has the
best ratio of games won and lost among all the national teams in the
world in this sport. For many years the team has been recognized as the
strongest in the world. There are more than 140 thousand registered
players in the country, united in 520 clubs, and more than 2 thousand
referees of this game.
The New Zealand running school entered the world elite in the late 1950s and early 1960s: Olympic champions Peter Snell and Murray Halberg, along with their coach Arthur Lydiard. Lydiard's ideas have been adopted by many coaches around the world. Under the influence of Lydiard's popularizing ideas, jogging was born in Auckland in 1961, which led to a worldwide running "boom" in the 1970s.
New Zealand athletes regularly participate in the Olympic Games
(since 1920, the national team has participated in the summer Games, and
since 1952 in the winter). New Zealand athletes have won over 110
Olympic medals, including over 45 gold medals. Rowers achieved the
greatest Olympic success: canoeist Ian Ferguson was the only New
Zealander to win 4 gold and one silver at the 1984 and 1988 Games, and
his partner Paul McDonald won three golds, one silver and one bronze.
Three Olympic gold medals in 1960 and 1964 were won by famed runner
Peter Snell. Among women, four-time world champion Barbara Kendall, who
won gold (1992), silver (1996) and bronze medals (2000) in windsurfing
competitions, can be noted. Shot putter Valerie Adams won two
consecutive gold medals at the 2008 and 2012 Olympics.
Traditionally, the Commonwealth Games are an important event in the country's sports life. In 1950 and 1990, these games were held in Auckland. Christchurch and Wellington are among the contenders to host the games in 2018. The New Zealand national team is one of six other national teams represented at all games. During the Commonwealth Games, the New Zealand team won 525 medals (of which 124 gold, 167 silver and 234 bronze).
New Zealanders have achieved serious success in world motorsport. Bruce McLaren became vice world champion of Formula 1 in 1960, and subsequently founded the famous McLaren racing team, one of the most successful racing teams in history. And the first New Zealand Formula 1 world champion was Denny Hulme in 1967. Also among the leading F1 drivers in the 1960s and 1970s was Chris Amon. The New Zealand crew of Bruce McLaren and Chris Amon won the prestigious 24 Hours of Le Mans in 1966 in a Ford GT40.
In 1995, 2003 and 2017 the crews of the New Zealand yachts Black Magic (team leader - Sir Peter Blake), Team New Zealand and Emirates Team New Zealand became the winners of the America's Cup, one of the most famous regattas in the world. The final matches of the 36th America's Cup will take place in March 2021 in Auckland.
The largest indoor sports arenas in New Zealand include TSB Bank Arena in Wellington (4650 seats), Westpac Arena in Christchurch (9000 seats), Vector Arena in Auckland (12,000 seats), North Harbor Stadium in North Shore (25,000 seats). ), Waikato Stadium in Hamilton (25,800 seats), Rotorua International Stadium in Rotorua (30,000 seats), Wellington Regional Stadium in Wellington (34,500 seats), Forsyth Barr Stadium in Dunedin (36,000 seats), Eden Park in Auckland ( 60,000 seats). For the 2011 Rugby World Cup in Auckland, it was planned to build the country's largest stadium with a capacity of up to 60,000 seats. The planned stadium has already been named Stadium New Zealand. But as a result, the city council decided to modernize the Eden Park stadium, increasing its capacity to 60,000 seats.
In recent years, especially among young people, football has become increasingly popular. Among the population of New Zealand under the age of 17, about 18% in 2006 preferred active participation in this particular sport. Other popular sports and outdoor activities include golf, cricket, tennis, netball (the most popular women's sport in the country), and swimming.
New Zealand law defines national holidays and memorial days, as well
as regional memorial days. All national holidays are obligatory days off
for the working population of the country and students. Regional
commemorative days mark certain dates in the history of individual
regions and cities of the country and may be days off in celebrating
In the event that Christmas or New Year falls on a day off, employees whose days off are non-working days receive an additional day off on Monday.
Important common celebrations include Mother's Day (2nd Sunday in May) and Father's Day (1st Sunday in September).
The national symbols of the country are collectively known as "kiviana". They can be divided into geographical, natural, military-political and cultural. The country's location in the Southern Hemisphere is indicated on the New Zealand flag by the constellation Southern Cross, the Southern Alps mountain system became a symbol of New Zealand in the 19th century, giving way to the beaches in the next century. Developed animal husbandry has made sheep, rubber boots and wire used in fencing one of the symbols of the country. The generally accepted national symbols of the country are the kiwi birds (Apterygiformes) (eng. kiwi) and the silver cyathea plant (Cyathea dealbata), known in the New Zealand dialect as the silver fern (eng. Silver Fern). The symbolic image of its shoots in the form of a spiral, called the "koru", was created by the Maori and adopted by the Europeans.
The kiwi bird is so popular that in the 1950s it gave its name to the fruit of one of the plants of the species Actinidia sinensis (Actinídia), grown in New Zealand and exported to many countries of the world, and now these fruits are better known under the name kiwi. In addition, kiwi has become a daily self-name and an international national nickname for New Zealanders. The extinct bird moa is also a "kiwiana", although after the end of the colonial period, the popularity of kiwi increased.
Along with the kiwi bird, the silver fern is popular and is often used in the graphics of New Zealand national brands and logos, including currency.
The headdress of New Zealand soldiers - a field hat - is a symbol of the country's military victories. The historical influence of Great Britain is reflected by the presence of the Union Jack on the flag and Queen Elizabeth on the national currency. personified Zeeland was the symbol of the country at the beginning of the 20th century.
The culinary traditions of New Zealand are largely formed on the basis of the isolated geographical position of the country, causing a limitation of the food base throughout the entire historical stage, and the presence of significant marine resources. The formation of traditions was also influenced by the demographic nature of the European settlement of the country - mainly representatives of the peoples of the British Isles. A great influence on the formation of a common culinary culture for the country in the period after the 70s of the XX century was caused by the culinary traditions of new immigrants from Asian countries, mainly China and India. Modern New Zealand cuisine combines international culinary schools at its core with strong influences from traditional British cuisine. Among the most popular dishes are still fish and french fries, Pavlova cake, as well as a peculiar and common meat pie, mainly in Australia and New Zealand. The influence of New Zealand cuisine on world culinary traditions is insignificant, although the products of New Zealand winemakers have gained notable popularity in the world. Traditional Maori cuisine is virtually non-existent in New Zealanders' daily diet, although certain Maori foods, such as sweet potatoes, have become widespread throughout the population, and the Maori themselves eat the traditional hangi food at meetings.
The education system in New Zealand includes: preschool institutions
(Childhood Services), free primary and secondary school education
(Primary and Secondary Education) and a higher education system
(Tertiary Education) with equal access to it for all New Zealanders.
The system of pre-school education covers the period of a child's life up to the age of six. Preschools in New Zealand are not owned by the government and are part of the private business sector. On average, up to 60% of preschool children attend children's educational centers.
School education covers children from the age of five and is compulsory for children between the ages of six and sixteen. All schools provide education in English, several specialized schools provide education with predominant teaching in the Maori language. At the same time, the Maori language is a compulsory subject of study in primary schools, and in most schools in the country there are specialized training programs for those wishing to study in the Maori language.
Education in schools meets the generally accepted world standards of education with the recognition of the New Zealand school certificate NCEA Level 1 corresponding to the standards for the British General Certificate of Secondary Education, Canadian and American Grade 10.
The higher education system covers the entire sector of post-secondary vocational training and education. Currently, there are 36 open higher educational centers in the country, including 8 universities, 21 institutes of technology (English Institute of Technologies) and a polytechnic educational center (English Polytechnic). In addition, there are 46 vocational training centers and 895 private educational institutions, most of which are English language centers for foreign students.
The country has developed and operates a system of correspondence education at all levels. Many educational institutions conduct training in the evening and during the holidays.
Education comparable to the "higher education" accepted in Russia and other republics of the former USSR is provided mainly at the country's universities, but can also be obtained at a number of technological institutes and polytechnic educational centers.
New Zealand's healthcare system is multi-tiered and based on the
District Health Boards. There are 21 such organizations in the country,
their work is financed by the state. Their main task is to
comprehensively solve the problems of protecting the health of the
population on their territory and the integration of all structures and
links of the national health care system on their territory.
The next link in the New Zealand health care system are organizations and professionals providing the so-called Primary Health Care. This term includes all non-hospital services provided to New Zealanders, including the services of physicians and medical specialists who carry out first appointments; services of specialists and organizations that monitor the health of the population or provide educational and informational medical services; services of dentists and psychologists; services of osteopaths and chiropractors. Primary care professionals, although they may receive government subsidies, are most often self-employed outside the public health system.
The next important link in the New Zealand health system should be considered the Primary Health Organizations, which include hospitals, specialized medical centers and sanitary facilities.
The state exercises control over the full range of health issues in the country through the structure of the Ministry of Health (Ministry of Health). The Ministry provides structural financing of the industry at the expense of the state budget and extrabudgetary revenues. The main purpose of such financing is the need to provide equal opportunities for obtaining medical care to all segments of the country's population. That is why public hospitals provide free care in a number of cases, and through the government's Accident Compensation Corporation, every New Zealander can receive free accident care. The state also allocates subsidies to the population for the purchase of a large list of medicines and pays pensions and benefits in case of prolonged illness or disability. The country also has a developed system of private health insurance.
The New Zealand Police is a system of state law enforcement agencies
of the country for the protection of public order and the fight against
The first police force in New Zealand was formed in 1840 from six British constables sent to the country. In 1886, for the first time, a unified law enforcement organization was formed, called the New Zealand Police Force.
The New Zealand Police are led by a National Managers with the rank of Commissioner, and government administration is carried out by the Minister of Police. The police headquarters is located in Wellington, and 12 regional police centers operate in the country for operational management. According to the specifics of the work, the police units are divided into the General Directorate, the Criminal Investigation Directorate and the Road Safety Directorate.
Police training takes place in the country's only Royal New Zealand Police College (Royal New Zealand Police College). The number of police personnel is about 10,500 (including civilian specialists).
New Zealand police officers do not usually carry firearms and carry only batons and gas canisters. Since 2007, police officers have been given the right to use electric shock weapons. Police units or police officers armed with firearms are used only for special tasks.
In addition to the tasks of maintaining public order, the New Zealand police also deal with issues related to ensuring national security, including the fight against terrorism. In a number of cases, stipulated by law, to protect national security, the New Zealand police may resort to the help of the country's Armed Forces. Police officers are often involved in joint international efforts to maintain order in the countries of the Pacific region. The New Zealand Police are actively involved in the work of Interpol.
Polls show that about 60% of the country's population has a positive and sympathetic attitude towards the work of the police.
The national police emergency number is 111.
The New Zealand Security Intelligence Service (SIS, less commonly
NZSIS) is New Zealand's national intelligence and counterintelligence
organization, operating since 1956. SIS is a civil organization that is
legally limited in a number of issues of operational activities directly
on the territory of New Zealand itself. The headquarters of the
organization is located in the capital city of Wellington, offices
operate in the cities of Christchurch and Auckland. The organization
reports directly to the Cabinet of Ministers of the country. The number
of employees is expected to be no more than 140, and the budget (in the
2006 valuation analysis) is around NZ$40-45 million.
The Government Communications Security Bureau (GCSB) is New Zealand's national intelligence organization specializing in electronic intelligence and information gathering in matters of communications security. The organization has been operating since 1977 and was originally formed as one of the intelligence units of the country's Ministry of Defense. In 2000, the bureau received independent status and is now a civilian organization reporting directly to the New Zealand government. The number of employees is expected to be no more than 300, and the budget (as estimated in 2006) is about NZ$40 million.
For the technical support of its activities, the GCSB has two observation stations. Ground tracking stations in the Waihopai Valley and Tangimoana are elements of the ECHELON global system operating under the UKUS SIGINT alliance.