4000BC Thracian tribes inhabit Eastern
Bulgaria on the shores of the Black Sea.
6th century BC Greeks settle Eastern Bulgaria
and start to trade with Thracian tribes
Nesebar or Mesembria as
well as other Greek colonies are found along a coast
359- 336 BC Philip II rules kingdom of
Macedonia. He tries to subdue Thracians, but ultimately
fails to achieve that.
5th century AD Barbarian tribes flood parts
of the former Roman Empire.
681 AD Bulgarian state is officially found by
khan (king title) Asparuch
811 July 26th, Byzantine Emperor (801- 811)
fights Bulgarian army at the Battle of Plisja. Khan Krum
defeats the Byzantine army.
864 Khan Boris of the Bulgarians becomes a
Christian and Bulgarian kingdom accepts Christianity as a
state religion from Byzantine capital of Constantinople
867 Basil I takes Byzantine throne and starts
so called Macedonian dynasty
927 Ivan Rilsky or Saint John of Rila choses
a life of solitude in a cave in the Rila Mountans and starts
1014 Basil the Slayer of Bulgarians defeats
Bulgarian army and blinds 15,000 captured prisoners.
According to a legend every hundredth soldier keep one eye
so he could lead the rest of his group back home.
1386 Ottoman Empire sweeps through the Balkan
peninsula. It crushes all resistance and dominates over
states. Turkish Muslim majority suppresses and discriminates
against large Christian population for the next 400+ years
that became known as a "Turkish yoke"
1876 Bulgarians and Serbians try to fight for
their independence. It is quickly wiped out prompting
Russians to intervene on behalf of Eastern Orthodox
1877- 78 Russians Imperial army invades
Bulgaria and defeats Turkish army
March 3th 1878. Treaty of San Stefano
completes war between Russian Empire and Turkish Ottoman
army. Bulgaria and Romania gains independence.
1885 Serbian army invades Bulgaria. It is
quickly repulsed by the Bulgarian army under leadership of
Stefan or Stephen Stambolov
1886 Treaty of Bucharest concludes Serbian-
Bulgarian war. Eastern Rumelia region merges with the rest
of Bulgaria. The Cathedral of the Assumption is build in
1895 July 15th, Stefan Stambolov, Bulgarian
ex- prime minister is murdered by Macedonian rebels
1903 Sept 8th, 30,000- 50,000 Bulgarian men,
women and children were massacred in Monastir by Turkish
Sept 17th, Turkish soldiers massacre
residents of Kastoria and kill 10,000 Bulgarian civilians
1912 Oct 17th, Bulgaria, Serbia and Greece
declare war on Turkey
Dec 4th, An armistice is signed officially
ending the First Balkan War
1913 Feb 7th, Turks fight Bulgarian army in
Gallipoli and lose over 5,000 men
March 26th, First Balkan War is finally over
after Bulgarians capture Adrianople
1913 Second Balkan War between Bulgaria and
Greece along with Serbia
1914- 18 Bulgaria joins Central Powers
(Germany and Austro- Hungary)
1941- 1945 World War II for Bulgaria begins
when German troops take Sofia, technically an ally of Nazi
1943 Bulgarian King Boris Cobourgh- Gotha III
dies. Prince Simeon takes the throne.
Allied bombers bomb
Sofia, capital of Bulgaria
1944 Soviet Army liberates Bulgaria
1946 Monarchy is abolished
History of Bulgaria
Mild climate and plenty of game drew first inhabitants to the
region 500 thousand years ago. Remains of human burials and
their art is well preserved in places like
Bacho Kiro and
First Thracians appear in the 5th century BC. Thracians created
a state that rivalled and fought with that of Macedonians in
South- West including armies of Alexander the Great.
Thracian Kingdom survived further attacks by the Celtic tribes,
the Scythians, Persians and many others. The relationship with
the Greek colonists who settled the Eastern part of the country
along the shore of the Black Sea was a chequered one. Sometimes
the nations collaborated and worked together, at other times
they undertook bitter wars. The Roman Empire fought against the
Thracians for decades until finally conquering these people in
the first century AD. Among most famous prisoners of war was a
Thracian chief Spartacus, who led the rebellion against the
Roman lords. His body was never found after the final defeat so
many legends persists about his life.
The Great Migration of the people in the fourth and fifth
centuries did not leave Balkan peninsula untouched. Armies
of the Goths stormed many cities laying waste to the land.
Remains of the old Serdika in the middle of the Bulgaria's
capital Sofia is all that remains from the ancient capital of
the province. In the 7th century the Slavs from Hungary arrived
to the Balkans where they united with the Proto- Bulgarians that
arrived from the South steppes of Russia. The beginning of the
Bulgarian state is considered the year 680 AD then First
Bulgarian Kingdom became established under khan Asparuch. The
empire reached its height in the 9th- 10th centuries taking over
most of the Balkan Peninsula. In the 9th century Bulgarians
accept Christianity under rule of king Boris I. A series of
magnificent churches and monasteries were erected all over the
country. However a series of devastating defeats from the
Byzantine Empire (Eastern Roman Empire), Bulgaria lost its
independence and became the province of the Byzantines.
Successful revolt against the oppressors, raised by brothers
Peter and Asen in 1158, gained independence thus leading to the
Second Bulgarian Kingdom.
the 14th century armies of the Ottoman Turks invade the region.
Gradually the Muslim armies overtake the Bulgarian kingdom along
with much of the Balkan peninsula. Several rebellions were
undertaken by the Bulgarians and their neighbours against the
Turkish lords. They all failed resulting in massive genocides of
the Christian population from the hands of the Muslim soldiers.
This forced the Russian Empire to start a war with Turkey in
1877- 78 that resulted in complete victory of the Russian
forces. Bulgaria gained its independence on March 3rd, 1878. In
both World Wars Bulgaria joined the Germans as an ally. After
defeat of the Wermacht, Bulgaria became part of the Warsaw
Block. In the early 90's after dissolution of USSR and the Block
Bulgaria started its democratic process with multiple parties in