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Angkor Wat Archeological Site

Angkor Wat Archeological Site






Description of Angkor Wat Archeological Site

Angkor Wat Archeological Site

Angkor Wat is a massive archaeological complex situated near modern day Siem Reap in Cambodia. One of its most notable structures Angkor Wat is considered to be the largest religious structures in the World. It is also portrayed on the flag of Cambodia. Its name is derived from Khmer term that means "Holy City". The city began to flourish in 802 AD when Khmer Hindu king Jayavarman II declared himself a "god king" of his Empire. The city grew in size and beauty, but in 1351 the city was conquered by the Ayutthaya Kingdom. Residents of the city attempted to rebel against their lords in 1431, but they were defeated by a royal army. Angkor was destroyed, survivors were forced to move South to Longvek. The jungles began to overtake abandoned settlement. Today ruins of this magnificent city gained their rightful place as UNESCO World Heritage Site.





Angkor Wat Archeological Site

Etymology and Writing
The name “Angkor” comes from the Sanskrit word ‘Nagar’, which has the only meaning in this language - “city”. In Khmer it is pronounced ‘noko’ (Khmer.: នគរ - “empire, kingdom, country, city, city-state”), but due to the metathesis in colloquial speech it has turned into ‘ongkoa’. The word “ongkoa” is consonant with the concept of a crop that is close to peasants and literally translates as “raw, threshed rice” (Khmer.: អង្ករ). As you can see, both phonetically and in writing it is very difficult to distinguish from the name of your own “Angkor” or ‘Ongko’ (Khmer.: អង្គរ - “city”, “capital city”, “Angkor”).

It should be understood that "Angkor" is not a historical name that is native to this area of ​​the kingdom of Cambodia. It arose much later, when the local places were long abandoned by the Khmer rulers, lost their role as the metropolitan region and began to decline. Nevertheless, people always remained here, therefore, Angkor for a long time retained the importance of an important economic center and a large city, which later was reflected in the toponym. Over the centuries, the reduced common people ‘Noko’ acquired the meaning of a proper name, ‘Ongko’, entrenched in the name of the architectural park of Angkor (or Ongkor [22]), the city of Angkor Thom, as well as the temple of Angkor Wat.

To this it is necessary to add that in the Khmer language there are various concepts for the city, the main city of the province or region, the metropolis, as well as the capital city and, even more, the capital of the kingdom and a democratic state. So, referring to Phnom Penh, the Khmers often say simply ’tikrong’ (Khmer.: ទីក្រុង), that is, “the city that is the place of the king”, its “throne city”. Unlike the original ‘noko’, the word ‘Ongko’ has the meaning of “throne city”, but it is used exclusively in relation to the ancient Khmer capitals. That is, “Ongko” may not be all, but just one of the former capitals of “Mohanoko” (Khmer.: មហានគរ), the “Great Kingdom”, as Cambodia was called in ancient times: Bapnoma (Angkor Borey), Chenla or the empire of Cambujades ( Angkor Thom).

The word “Wat” goes back to the Pali expression “watthu-arama” (“the place where the temple was built”), which denoted the sacred land of the monastery’s monastery, but in many countries of Southeast Asia (Thailand, Laos, Cambodia) it has long been of broader significance, referring to any Buddhist monastery, temple or pagoda. In Khmer ‘voat’ (Khmer.: វត្ត) can mean both “temple” and “veneration, admiration”. Indeed, Angkor Wat is a symbol of Khmer national pride.

In Khmer, the name of the temple of Angkor Wat is pronounced ‘Ongkovoat’ (Khmer.: អង្គរវត្ត). In the vast majority of sources it is interpreted as a “city-temple”, “city temple” or even “capital temple”. In fact, since the name “Angkor” was used as a proper name from the 15th-16th centuries, it does not require translation in the same way as, for example, the name of the city of Astana, and its most accurate interpretation is “Angkor Temple” or “Temple of Angkor”.

In Russian, the spelling of Angkor Wat is now accepted, although sometimes there are variants of Angkor Wat and Angkorvoat.





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