Federated States of Micronesia

Language: English (local languages)

Currency: United States dollar

Calling code: 691


The Federated States of Micronesia is an island country, one of the four that make up Micronesia and one of the fourteen that make up Oceania. Its capital is Palikir. Located in the center of Micronesia, it borders the southeast with Indonesia, the south with Papua New Guinea, the southwest with Nauru and Kiribati, the north with the Northern Mariana Islands and Guam, the northeast with the Marshall Islands, and the east with Palau, with who forms the archipelago of the Caroline Islands. Its form of government is the democratic federal republic. Administratively, it is made up of four states - from west to east: Yap, Chuuk, Pohnpei and Kosrae - scattered along the Pacific Ocean. Likewise, the states comprise around 607 islands that cover a longitudinal distance of 2,700 kilometers, north of the terrestrial equator.

The country has a land area of ​​702 square kilometers; however, its exclusive economic zone extends for more than 2 600 000 square kilometers, which is similar in size to the territory of Kazakhstan and limits: to the southwest, with the island of Nueva Guinea; to the north with the Mariana Islands; to the east, with Nauru and the Marshall Islands and to the west with Palau and the Philippines. They are located about 2900 kilometers north of Australia and about 4,000 kilometers west of Hawaii. Each of its four states is located around one or more main islands, and all but Kosrae include numerous atolls. The country is generally known by the term "Micronesia", although it can refer to both the independent State and the geographical region.


The first European explorers who arrived to the islands of Micronesia were Portuguese, although Spanish navigators explored them widely, baptizing them with the name of "Carolinas", in honor of king Carlos II of Spain. The Spanish Empire was the first to exercise effective sovereignty over the archipelago, from the Captaincy General of the Philippines. With the end of the Spanish-American War, Spain sold the islands to the German Empire and during the First World War were occupied by the Empire of Japan. After the Second World War, the territory was constituted in the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, a United Nations trust granted to the United States of America. On May 10, 1979, the trust adopted a constitution, achieving independence on December 22, 1990, after the signing of a Free Association Agreement with the USA .


Travel Destination in Federated States of Micronesia

Nan Madol

Medieval ruins of Nan Madol are constructed on a series of islands similar to Italian Venice.



The name Micronesia - "small island" comes from the ancient Greek words "mikros" - "small" and "nesos" - "island", the ending -iya is usually for the names of countries and territories; motivated by the small size of the islands in this part of the ocean. Used since the first half of the 19th century.



The Federated States of Micronesia are located in Micronesia and are located in the northwestern part of Oceania, in the archipelago of the Caroline Islands, between 0 and 14 ° N. sh. and 136 and 166° E. at a distance of about 4000 km southwest of the Hawaiian Islands.

They are a state consisting of 607 small islands, only 40 of which are of considerable size. Of the 607 islands, 65 are inhabited. FSM consists of four states: Yap, Chuuk (formerly Truk), Pohnpei (formerly Ponape) and Kosrae (formerly Kusae). The capital is the city of Palikir on about. Pohnpei. Although the total land area in the country is only 702 km², the exclusive economic zone in the Pacific Ocean covers more than 2.6 million km². Each of the four states is made up of one or more "high islands" usually of volcanic origin, and all but Kosrae include numerous atolls. Chuuk State - the total area is 127 km² and includes seven main groups of islands. Pohnpei State covers an area of ​​344 km² of which 130 is Pohnpei Island, the largest in FSM. Yap State consists of 4 large islands, seven small islands and 134 atolls, with a total land area of ​​122 km². Kosrae State is one high island with an area of ​​109 km².

All large islands of volcanic origin are mountainous, covered with forests, surrounded by coral reefs. Others are atolls - ring-shaped coral islands, inside containing a shallow lagoon.

The highest point is Mount Nana Laud (on Pohnpei Island, height 798 m). Main languages: English (official), Japanese, Truk, Pohnpei, Kosrae.

The islands are interconnected by sea and air. There is a maritime connection with the US west coast, Japan, the Philippines, Taiwan, Guam and an air connection with Guam, Hawaii, Nauru.



The climate is equatorial and subequatorial, trade wind-monsoon type. Seasonal temperature fluctuations are insignificant. Average monthly temperatures are 26-33 °C. It often rains heavily here. The wettest month is April. Precipitation falls from 2250 mm to 3000-6000 mm (in the mountains on the island of Kusape) per year. Part of the Pacific Ocean, where Micronesia is located, is an area where typhoons originate, with an average of up to 25 typhoons per year. Typhoon season is from August to December.

Evergreen tropical forests, savannahs; the large coral islands are dominated by coconut palm and pandanus.



In all likelihood, Micronesians began to arrive on these islands from Asia in the second millennium BC. e. The monument of the pre-colonial period of history is the Nan Madol complex, located on the island of Ponape.

By the time the colonization of the islands by Europeans began, the local population was at the stage of decomposition of the primitive communal system. The society was subdivided into a number of social groups unequal in their position. On some island groups, large territorial associations arose, although states had not yet been created.

The Caroline Islands were discovered by the Spaniards in 1527. In the 17th century, Spain declared the Carolinas its possession, but the actual control over the archipelago was not established. In 1885, Germany announced its claims to the Caroline Islands, and the German flag was hoisted on one of the islands. Spain turned to international arbitration, and Pope Leo XIII, elected as arbitrator, awarded the islands to Spain.

In 1899, Germany bought the Caroline Islands from Spain. They were incorporated into the colony of German New Guinea. The intervention of the German colonial authorities in the traditional social hierarchy and the use of forced labor led in 1910 to an uprising of the inhabitants of Sokekhs, an island in the archipelago of the Eastern Caroline Islands.

During the First World War in 1914, the islands were captured by Japan, after the end of the war, under the Treaty of Versailles, the islands were given to Japan as a mandated territory. The Japanese created large sugar plantations there, and the policy of resettling the Japanese in the Carolinas was actively pursued. Local residents were subjected to forced assimilation by the Japanese.

During World War II, the Carolinas were occupied by the United States, which since 1947 ruled them under a UN mandate as part of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands.

In 1979, the Caroline Islands received the status of a "territory freely associated with the United States" (the agreement was signed in 1982).

Since November 3, 1986, the Federated States of Micronesia has been a sovereign state in free association with the United States. This status means that the United States is responsible for the defense of this state and undertakes to subsidize it financially.



Population - 103 643 people. (July 2018).
Annual decline - 0.55% (high level of emigration from the country).
Birth rate - 19.6 people. per 1000 people (fertility - 2.8 births per woman).
Mortality - 4.2 people. per 1000 people
Emigration - 20.9 people. per 1000 people
Average life expectancy is 71.3 years for men and 75.6 years for women.
Ethnic composition: Chuuk - 49.3%, Ponape - 29.8%, Kosrae - 6.3%, Yap - 5.7%, Yap of the outer islands - 5.1%, Polynesians - 1.6%, Asians - 1 .4%, others - about 0.8% (according to the 2010 census).
Languages: English (official and inter-ethnic communication), 8 local languages.
Religions (2016): Catholics - 54.7% (56,230 people), Protestants - 38.5% (39,546 people), Mormons - 1.5% (1586 people), Baptists - 1.1% (1145 people), others - 4.2%.
Literacy of the population - 89%


State structure

Micronesia is a federal state consisting of 4 states with their own governments: Chuuk (formerly Truk), Kosrae, Pohnpei (Ponape) and Yap. States have a high degree of independence in almost all spheres of public life.

The 1979 Constitution is in effect, modeled after the US Constitution.

According to the form of government, the FSM is a republic of a special type. The political regime is democratic. There are no political parties.

Legislative power belongs to the federal unicameral parliament - the FSM Congress, consisting of 14 senators (4 senators are elected one from each state for a term of 4 years, 10 in single-member districts with an approximately equal number of voters for a term of 2 years).

The head of state and government is the President, elected by the members of the FSM Congress from among 4 senators from the states for a term of 4 years. At the same time, the Vice President is elected.

The state structure of the states is established by their own constitutions and is generally similar to the federal one.

There are no armed forces.



GDP - $ 350 million (2018), GDP per capita in 2018 - $ 3.2 thousand. Poverty rate - 16% (2018).

Economic activities are mainly agriculture and fishing. Cultivated coconut palm, vegetables and fruits, bananas, tapioca, black pepper. Pigs, goats, dogs (for meat), chickens are bred.

Industry - processing of agricultural products, soap factories, sawmills, boat manufacturing.

Exports in 2017 ($29.8 million) - mainly frozen fish (up to 85% of the value), other fish and seafood (about 7.3%). Top buyers: China 38%, Philippines 26%, Japan 23%.

Imports in 2017 ($155 million) - fuel (up to 32% of the total value), machinery and equipment (up to 24%), food and other finished goods and products (mainly from South Korea (33%), USA ( 22%), China (17%) and Japan (13%).

The islands have no mineral resources other than phosphates. There is potential for the tourism business, but its development is hampered by the remoteness of the islands, the lack of appropriate structures and the underdevelopment of air links with the outside world.

Under the terms of the agreement on free association, the United States allocated $1.3 billion to the FSM between 1986 and 2001. Then the amount of annual assistance was reduced, but constant multimillion-dollar cash receipts from the United States were promised until 2023.

It is a member of the international organization of ACT countries.



The Federated States of Micronesia is served by four international airports.

Pohnpei International Airport, on the main island of the state of Pohnpei.
Chuuk International Airport, located on the main island of the state of Chuuk.
Kosrae International Airport, located on the main island of the state of Kosrae.
Yap International Airport, located on the main island of the state of Yap.