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Palmyra Archaeological Site

Palmyra

 

 

Location: Homs Governorate  Map

 

 

 

Palmyra Archaeological Site as Romans called it or Tadmore as it is known to Syrians means literally a "date tree". The city is easily accessed by bases from Damascus.

 

It arose as a transit point for caravans crossing the Syrian desert. Palmyra was nicknamed the "bride of the desert." The most famous and powerful ruler of the kingdom of Palmyra was Zenobia.

Currently, on the site of Palmyra there is a Syrian village and the ruins of majestic structures, which are among the best examples of ancient Roman architecture and recognized by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. Colonnades and monumental arches are located along the main street of the ancient city. Among the most significant buildings are the temple of Baal (I century), the temple of Baalshamin (II century), agora (III century), a theater with a community center and a caravanserai. In May 2015, as a result of the capture of Palmyra by ISIS fighters, many monuments that were not taken away by the authorities were looted and / or destroyed.

On March 27, 2016, the Syrian army, with the support of the Russian air forces, liberated Palmyra. The Syrian State Monument Protection Agency has stated that the Syrian army did not harm the monuments of the ancient city.

The restoration of the monuments began in April. Specialists plan to restore two temples, a monumental arch and tomb towers. The plan for the restoration of Palmyra consists of three stages. At the first stage, they will support unstable buildings, at the second stage, most monuments will be restored, and at the third stage, experts plan to rebuild the Bel and Baalshamin temples destroyed by the terrorists.

In January 2017, after the re-capture of Palmyra in December 2016, ISIS fighters blew up the central part of the amphitheater.

On March 2, 2017, Palmyra was returned to the control of the Syrian government.

In honor of Palmyra, several cities in the United States are named. St. Petersburg was poetically called Northern Palmyra, and Odessa - southern.

In August 2018, the Syrian government announced its intentions to restore the destroyed parts of the city by July 2019.

 

 

Travel Destinations in Palmyra Archaeological Site

Temple of Bel (Palmyra  Archaeological Site)

Colonnade with Arab Castle in the distance (Palmyra  Archaeological Site)

Roman Theatre (Palmyra  Archaeological Site)

Funerary Towers (Palmyra  Archaeological Site)

 

 

 

History

Palmyra was founded by the Hurrian king Kirt; after its destruction, both the Assyrians and the Romans restored it. The oldest mentions of Tadmore date back to the 1st half of the 2nd millennium BC. (in Cappadocian tablets and documents from Marie). At the end of the 2nd millennium BC. e. Palmyra was destroyed by the Assyrians in the 10th century. BC  Nebuchadnezzar II, during the invasion of Jerusalem, ruined it, but soon, due to its advantageous position between the Mediterranean Sea on the one hand and the Euphrates Valley on the other, it rebuilt again and became a haven for trade caravans and a warehouse center, traveling from the West to the East and back . Here was the capital of the state of Palmyrena, governed by its own sovereigns, the senate and the national assembly. According to the latest archaeologists, Palmyra was founded by the king of Hurrites Tukrish.

The Romans during the war with the Parthians (in the year 41) tried to take possession of Palmyra, but to no avail. Under Trajan, it was completely destroyed by Roman troops, but Hadrian restored it and renamed it Adrianople, and granted its rulers some independence, thinking to keep them from union with the Parthians. Under Caracalla (circa 212 CE), Palmyra was declared a Roman colony, with the advantages of juris italici (that is, with rights equal to the rights of the colonies located directly in Italy itself), and was transferred to the control of a local native, Senator Septimius Odenat. The last uprising against Rome led to his assassination by a certain Rufinus.

Odenath was succeeded by his son, Gairan, who soon died, and then another son, also Odenat, who sided with the Romans in their war with the Persians and received the title consularis (governor in the rank of consul) from Valerian and Gallien in 258. Not content with this title, he, after Valerian was captured by the Persians, proclaimed himself "king of kings" (in 260).

After a victorious campaign against the Persians, before Ktesiphon on the Tigris, Odenat was killed by his nephew, Meonius (in 267), and his wife, Zenobia, entered the throne of Palmyra, who significantly expanded the borders of her state and even dreamed of subjugating Rome itself. Under her, Palmyra reached the climax of her well-being, which, however, lasted only a short time.

Emperor Aurelian decided to break the rebellion of the proud queen and in 273 forced Palmyra to surrender; Zenobia became a captive of Aurelian, her capital was devastated, and possessions became a province of the Roman Empire. Diocletian and then Justinian tried to restore the ruined city, but could not restore its former splendor. Finally, once again destroyed by the Arabs in 744, it gradually turned into a small village. On a nearby hill in the 16th century, Fahr ad-Din II erected his castle.

 

 

 

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