Mazyr

 

Mazyr is a city of regional subordination, the center of the Mozyr district of the Gomel region of Belarus. Located on a hilly area within the Mazyr ridge. The city is located 133 km west of Gomel and 285 km southeast of Minsk, nearby is the 9 km satellite town of Kalinkovichi.

The largest in Belarus port of Pkhov on the Pripyat River is located on the territory of the settlement. Mazyr Square - 4418 hectares. Population - 105,700 people (as of January 1, 2020).

The architectural and planning system of the city is due to the complex relief (the Pripyat river, many yars). The cultural, political, historical center of Mazyr - Lenin Square - is located on the banks of the Pripyat. Along the river runs Sovetskaya Street, perpendicular to which other streets rise along the channels and slopes of ravines deep into the city.

Mazyr is one of the oldest cities in Belarus. It was first mentioned in written sources in 1155, when the Kiev prince Yuri Dolgoruky handed it over to the Novgorod-Seversk prince Svyatoslav Olgovich. It was part of the Kiev (up to 1161), Chernigov and Turov principalities (from 1161).

From the middle of the XIV century as part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, from 1569 - the Commonwealth. Since 1566 - the center of the Mazyr district (district) of the Kiev voivodeship (and since 1569 - the Minsk voivodeship). In 1577 Mozyr received the Magdeburg Law. Mazyr's privilege is in the National Historical Archives of Belarus.

As a result of a fire at the beginning of the 17th century, the Mozyr castle and part of the city burned down. In this regard, in 1609-1613. Resolutions were adopted, according to which residents were ordered to rebuild the castle and city squares. Time after time, the Mazyrites rose up against the gentry and the administration of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, in particular during the Mazyr Uprising of 1615. In 1648, the Mozyr land joined the Khmelnytsky uprising. After the repeated occupation of Mazyr in 1649, the Lithuanian army under the leadership of Hetman Janusz Radziwill staged a massacre of the population in the city, just like in Turov, Rechitsa, Bobruisk and Pinsk.

Mazyr received city status in 1756. After the second partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (1793), Mozyr became part of the Russian Empire, becoming the center of the Mazyr district of the Minsk province. In 1916-1917, the headquarters of a special-purpose river flotilla was located in Mazyr, whose combat boats controlled the Pripyat basin and impeded the advance of German troops deep into the territory of the Russian Empire.

In December 1917, Soviet power was established in Mazyr. From February to December 1918, the city was occupied by German troops. From December 1918 to March 1920, the city was part of the Ukrainian People's Republic, being the provincial center of the Polesie district. From March 5 to June 29, 1920, Mazyr was briefly occupied by Polish troops.

Since 1924 Mazyr has been a regional center. In 1926-1930, 1935-1938 Mazyr was the center of the Mazyr District of the Byelorussian SSR, from 1938 to 1954 it was the center of the Polesie Region of the Byelorussian SSR.

In 1954, Mazyr and the Mazyr region became part of the Gomel region.