Maladzyechna

 

Maladzyechna is a city in the Minsk region of Belarus on the Usha River. The administrative center of the Maladzyechna district. It was first mentioned in written sources in 1388. It is located 73 km north-west of Minsk. The area of ​​the city is 33.33 or 33.49 km². As of January 1, 2018, the population is 95,011 people.

The toponym "Maladzyechna" apparently comes from the name of the Molodechanka river (Belorussian Maladzechanka), which disappeared as a result of reclamation work. There is also an opinion that the name of the city came from the words "young" (meaning - small, a warrior in the princely squad), "young", "junior" or from a combination of two old words "little" and "nadechyts", which means "little land a place".

Since the beginning of the 20th century, the Maladzyechna form has been established in the Belarusian literary language in accordance with the speech of local residents. At the same time, the name Maladzyechna is an example of the influence of the Polish language, from where it passed first into Russian, and then into the official spelling of the Belarusian language.

 

Origin of name
The toponym "Molodechna" apparently comes from the name of the Molodechanka river (Belorussian Maladzechanka), which disappeared as a result of land reclamation. There is also an opinion that the name of the city came from the words "young" (meaning - small, a warrior in the princely squad), "young", "junior" or from a combination of two old words "little" and "nadechyts", which means "little land a place".

Since the beginning of the 20th century, the Molodechno form has been established in the Belarusian literary language in accordance with the speech of local residents. At the same time, the name Molodechno is an example of the influence of the Polish language, from where it passed first into Russian, and then into the official spelling of the Belarusian language.

 

History

December 16, 1388: the first known written mention in a sworn certificate of the appanage Novgorod-Seversk prince Dmitry Olgerdovich (Koribut) to the Grand Duke of Lithuania Jagailo.
1413: part of the Vilnius Voivodeship of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
XV century: at the confluence of Molodechanka and Usha, the Molodechno castle was built, which repeatedly burned in fires (1519 - twice and in 1533) and was finally destroyed in the XVIII century. The development of the city was facilitated by the trade route from Minsk through Radoshkovichi-Molodechno-Krevo to Vilnius.
In 1534, Russian governors Mikhail Gorbaty and Mikita Obolensky "reached Molodechno with fire and sword."
In 1551, the Grand Duke of Lithuania Zhigimont presented the Molodechno courtyard to Prince Mikhail Ivanovich Mstislavsky, who after his death bequeathed it to his 4 daughters. It also belonged to the Zaslavsky, Sagnushki, Ragoz, Radziwills, Oginsky, Tyshkevichs.
During the Livonian War (1558-1583). The Molodechno estate was divided into different parts, which were owned by different owners.
1600: wooden Orthodox church built
In 1617, part of the estate was bought by Lev Sapega.
In 1623 there is a small town (more than 1,000 inhabitants). There were 8 streets: Bolshaya Zamkovaya, Malaya Zamkovaya, Agorodnicheskaya, Rynochnaya, Lebedevskaya, Tyukomskaya
1708: Swedish troops occupied Molodechno.
At the beginning of the XIII century, Molodechno Castle became the residence of the Oginsky princes
1758 M. Oginsky built a wooden church.
1785 the Orthodox Church was converted into a Uniate
1793: as a result of the second partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the city ended up in the Vileika district of the Minsk province of the Russian Empire.
November 22-23 (December 4-5) 1812: There was a battle between the Russian vanguards of General E. I. Chaplitsa (3rd Western Army) and General of the cavalry M. I. Platov with the French rearguard under the command of Marshal K. Victor. During the war of 1812, Napoleon Bonaparte stayed in the city.
Since 1814 Molodechno belonged to the famous composer, Senator M.S. Oginsky.
April 14, 1831: Molodechno was occupied by a rebel detachment led by M. Khodzka. The students of the local school joined the uprising. After the suppression of the uprising, the school was closed, the teachers were arrested and sent to the Minsk prison.
In the summer of 1834, Mikhail Bakunin, a Russian thinker, revolutionary, pan-Slavist, anarchist, one of the ideologists of populism and ideological opponent of Karl Marx, was sent to serve in the army in one of the batteries located in Molodechno.
1847: became part of the Vilna province.
During the uprising of 1863, rebel detachments under the leadership of Y. Bakshtansky and V. Kozel operated in the vicinity of Molodechno.
1861. The estate Molodechno with farms in the Vileika district belonged to the landowner Tyshkevich. There were 210 male serfs and 65 households in the estate. Obligations of the peasants: drive for 6 days for male and female workers. Night guard in turn. Underwater 3 times a year for 140 versts of distance. Construction as needed.
1864: A teachers' seminary was opened in Molodechno, the first in the territory of modern Belarus and one of the first in Russia. It was called the center of Western Russian public education. It existed from 1864 to 1924. It was founded on the basis of a progymnasium as a 2-year one, supported by the treasury. They taught the Law of God, the Russian and Church Slavonic languages, the fundamentals of pedagogy, arithmetic, geometry, drawing, history and geography of Russia, land surveying, calligraphy and singing. In 1870, the third grade was opened, and crafts and gymnastics were introduced into the program. A meteorological station operated at the seminary. in 1872-1906 there was a preparatory class that was not associated with the seminar course. In 1907, the 4th grade was opened, the program includes Russian literature and the history of Russian literature, physics, psychology, the history of pedagogy, and teaching methods. Young men of all classes were admitted (preference was given to the children of peasants) from the age of 17, of the Orthodox faith, who graduated from primary school. There was an exemplary school at the seminary, where the seminarians underwent teaching practice. The seminary had a library, a pedagogical museum (1910-1914), a theater (1905-1911), a symphony orchestra (1900-1907) in 1915 and was evacuated to Smolensk.

 

1867-1871: The Church of the Intercession was built of bricks in the pseudo-Russian style
1873: construction of the Libavo-Romny railway helped transform the town into a railway junction.
1915 Jewish pogrom was organized by the Cossacks of the Russian Imperial Army.
1918-1925: as a part of the Polish Republic, an independent gmina as part of the Wilejski district of the Vilna Voivodeship.
1925-1939: a separate povet within the Vilnius Voivodeship.
April 26, 1929: Official city status. At the same time, the settlements from the commune of the same name were added to Molodechno - the village and the farm New Bukhovshchizna, the farm of Molodechno, the farm and torture chambers of Gelenovo, the colony of Zhavan and the torture chamber of Tsividovka. From 1922 to 1939 there was a garrison of the 86th Infantry Regiment of the Polish Army in the Gelenovo farm.
1939: as part of the BSSR. In Molodechno, the 115 rifle division of the Red Army and the headquarters of the 3rd army were located.
1940: the center of the Molodechno district of the Vileika region.
June 22, 1941: Hitlerite Germany attacks the USSR. On the night of June 24-25, German troops captured the city. Molodechno was included in the gene. district "Belarus".
July 1941: on the outskirts of the city, the Molodechno death camp was created for the mass extermination of Soviet prisoners of war (Stalag # 342). In 1941, the civilian population was kept here, there were about 30 thousand people permanently. The camp was surrounded by barbed wire. The prisoners were housed in barracks without heating, and they received 100 g of poor-quality bread per person per day. Dozens of people died every day from physical exhaustion, hunger, typhus epidemics and other diseases. The executions of prisoners were systematically carried out. During the existence of the camp until June 1944, 33,150 people died here. In its place, a memorial complex was opened in memory of the victims of the genocide in 1996.
February 1942 - July 1944: a sabotage and reconnaissance group existed in Molodechno, which operated on the railway. station Molodechno. Consisted of 7 people, the group leader was D.Ya. Gernovich. The underground workers distributed leaflets, reports, collected and passed on to the partisans information about the armament of the garrison, the movement of troops and equipment of the invaders through the railway. node. With the help of mines received from the partisans, they carried out about 30 major sabotage, including blowing up 9 military echelons, a warehouse of fuel and lubricants and a turntable in the railway. depot. On the night of June 7, 1944, near the village of Selivonovka, the underground worker Lushchik knocked out the telephone cable of the Berlin-front direct line for 9 hours. After the liberation, Molodechno was awarded the Order of the Patriotic War of the 1st degree, the rest of the underground - with medals.
July 5, 1944: the city was liberated by the soldiers of the 3rd Belorussian Front under the command of General of the Army I.D. Chernyakhovsky.
1948: The Victory Park was laid to commemorate the events of the war, later the Stella with an eternal flame was opened. Festive events are held regularly on May 9 and July 3 in the city.
September 20, 1944: from this date the city of Molodechno is the administrative center of the Molodechno region.
January 20, 1960: after the abolition of the Molodechno region, the city became part of the Minsk region.
March 17, 1988: Decision No. 38 of the Executive Committee of the Molodechno City Council of People's Deputies approved the first known coat of arms of Molodechno. The authors of the coat of arms: doctor of historical sciences, ethnographer, archaeologist, director of the local history museum Gennady Kokhanovsky (1936-1994) and artist Yuri Gerasimenko-Zhiznevsky (1948-1997).
Early 1990s: the city was ruled by the City Council and Gennady Dmitrievich Karpenko (1991-1994 Chairman of the Molodechno City Executive Committee). The largest campaign to de-Sovietize toponymy in the Republic of Belarus took place.
April 25, 1993: the monument "Martyrs for freedom and independence of Belarus" was solemnly unveiled in the central square by local authorities led by Gennady Dmitrievich Karpenko in the presence of several thousand citizens. Earlier, at the initiative of the teacher Leon Timokhin and the director of the plant of reinforced concrete products Nikolai Ivashkevich, a stone was brought from Solovki, which became the basis for the monument.
May 3, 1991: Viktor Iosifovich Gonchar was appointed first deputy chairman of the Molodechno City Executive Committee.
1993: The first National Festival of Belarusian Song and Poetry "Maladzechna" is held.
1995: appointed chairman of the Molodechno City Executive Committee Chursin Nikolay Ustimovich, deputy. Chairman Idelchik Efim Aronovich.
March 18, 1997: The festive ceremony of the new Church of St. Joseph took place.
December 21, 1999: the new coat of arms of Molodechno was approved by Decision No. 23 of the Molodechno City Council of Deputies and included in the Coat of Arms of the Republic of Belarus on February 10, 2000 under No. 39. Authors of the coat of arms: A. A. Shpunt and artist I. A. Shpunt.

1999-2001: Chairman of the Molodechno Regional Executive Committee Leonid Konstantinovich Zayats.
May 31, 2005: unification of Molodechno region and the city of Molodechno into one administrative-territorial unit - Molodechno region with the administrative center in the city of Molodechno. Decree of the President of the Republic of Belarus No. 248 of May 31, 2005 “On the unification of the Molodechno district and the city of Molodechno into one administrative-territorial unit”.
2005: Appointed chairman of the (united) Molodechno regional executive committee Kasabutsky Semyon Mikhailovich.
2009: Appointed chairman of the Molodechno regional executive committee Gennady Mechislavovich Kuchko.
2010—2013: Chairman of the Molodechno District Executive Committee Fyodor Alexandrovich Domotenko.
2011: holding the Republican festival-fair "Dozhinki-2011" - the traditional Belarusian "Septemberfest".
March 5, 2013: Alexander Dmitrievich Yakhnovets was appointed chairman of the Molodechno district executive committee.
March 10, 2017: The largest protest rally in the history of independent Belarus in the city (about 1000 people) took place, called the “March of non-parasites” or “March of angry Belarusians”. People gathered in the central square and after the rally marched to the building of the tax office. They protested against the so-called "decree on parasitism" and "tax on the unemployed" (Decree No. 3 "On the prevention of social dependency") and other actions of the authorities. The slogans were sounded: “No to decree № 3 - Lukashenka go away”, “Basta”, “Shame”, “Long live Belarus” and others.
September 4, 2018: at an extraordinary session of the Council of Deputies, Yuri Gorlov was approved as chairman of the Molodechno regional executive committee; earlier, President of Belarus Alexander Lukashenko agreed on the appointment.
May 19, 2020: The National Festival of Belarusian Song and Poetry "Molodechno-2020" was canceled due to the threat of the spread of the coronavirus infection COVID-19. The Molodechno Festival was founded in 1993 on the initiative of Gennady Karpenko. From 1993 to 1996 it was held annually, after every two years. From 2011, it was held annually again until 2020.
July 31, 2020: Presidential candidate Svetlana Tikhanovskaya, together with Veronika Tsepalo and Maria Kolesnikova, gathered, according to various estimates, from 3 to 5 thousand residents during a pre-election rally at the city stadium.
August 9-11, 2020: up to 2 thousand residents gathered in the central square, protesting against fraud in the presidential elections in the Republic of Belarus, which ended in brutal violent dispersals and detentions (arrests) of up to 70-80 people every day, often with beatings and torture later. Complete disconnection of the Internet by all providers for about three days.
August 13-22, 2020: protests against the violence of the security forces and falsifications in the presidential elections in the Republic of Belarus are not dispersed, the presence of law enforcement officers at this time in the city is practically not observed.
August 16, 2020: the most massive protest action in the central square of the city - according to various estimates, from 5 to 7 thousand residents.
August 23, 2020: security forces began to appear during protests in the central square and in other parts of the city, again detain protesters against violence and falsifications in the presidential elections in the Republic of Belarus, massive political repressions began.
September 30, 2020: residents of Molodechno Peskov Pavel Andreevich and Evstigneev Vladislav Sergeevich were recognized as political prisoners.
December 3, 2020: residents of Molodechno Korobeinik Dmitry Leonidovich and Solodovnikov Grigory Mikhailovich were recognized as political prisoners.
December 23, 2020: the residents of Molodechno, father and son Igor Sidorovich and Sergey Sidorovich, became political prisoners.
January 21, 2021: a resident of Molodechno, an athlete Aleksey Aleksandrovich Kudin, actually became a political prisoner.
February 9, 2021: Vadim Sergeevich Gurman, a resident of Molodechno, was declared a political prisoner.