Myadzyel is a city in Belarus, a regional center in the Minsk
region. Located between lakes Myastro and Batorino. 143 km from
Minsk, 31 km from Knyaginin station on the Molodechno - Polotsk
line, on the Minsk - Naroch highway.
Origin of name
The name of the town of Myadel comes from the eponymous lake Myadzyel.
The version of the Baltic origin of the toponym goes back to the Russian scientist A.A. medis "tree". Later this version was supported by V.N. Toporov and O.N. Trubachev and, already in relation to the Belarusian city, V.A.Zhuchkevich.
According to L. Bednarchuk, the toponym Myadzyel through the intermediate Baltic form * Mendelas goes back to the Finno-Ugric Mendes, which he compares with the Estonian mänd "pine". This is confirmed by the second name of Lake Myadel - Sosnovoye.
IM Prokopovich believes that the name Myadzyel comes from the Finno-Ugric mets - "forest" and spruce - "forest stream, river", that is, "forest river".
According to another version, the toponym Myadzyel is explained from the Finno-Ugric modzol “spruce forest with mossy soil”.
According to legend, city once stood on the shore of
Lake Myadel and after the plague was transferred to the shore of
Lake Myastro. On one of the islands of Lake Myadzyel, the remains of
the city fortifications of the 11th century remain. - border
fortress of the Polotsk principality.
Since about the 16th century, it has been the center of the Myadel Elder of the Oshmyany District of the Vilna Voivodeship. In Myadzyel, Zemsky and Grodsky courts were also held on a par with the center of the powiat.
Until the XX century. was divided into Old and New Myadzyel. Old Myadzyel has been known since 1454 as part of the Vilnius Voivodeship. Belonged to the Radziwills, Frantskevichs, Raisky, Grabkovsky. In 1667, there were 36 smokes in Stary Myadel. In 1687, Old Myadzyel with the land was acquired by the clerk of the Vilnius Zemsky Mikhail Koschits for 95 thousand zlotys from Jan Bonaventura, the hunter of Ruzhansky. Since 1736 the town, in 1762 received the Magdeburg Law.
New Myadzyel has been known since 1463. It was surrounded by a rampart, the remains of which were destroyed. During the war with the Russian state it was destroyed (1519). On the peninsula of Lake Myastro, there was a Myadel royal stone castle (ruins remained), surrounded by earthen fortifications of the bastion system and moats with water. During archaeological excavations, painted tiles, weapons, and household items were found.
Since 1793, Old and New Myadel, part of the Russian Empire, were part of the Vileika district. At the end of the XIX century. in Staryi Myadzyel 312 inhabitants, 46 courtyards, an Orthodox church, a Jewish prayer house, a brewery. At the end of the XIX century. New Myadzyel town, 783 inhabitants, 99 courtyards, an Orthodox church, a church, a synagogue, three shops.
In November 1917, Soviet power was established, and in 1918 the Volost Revolutionary Committee and the Soviet of Soldiers 'and Agricultural Laborers' Deputies were created.
In 1921-1938 as part of Poland in Vileika powiat.
Since 1939 as part of the BSSR, since January 15, 1940, the center of the region.
Myadel was occupied by German troops for 3 years - from July 2, 1941 to July 4, 1944. The Jews of Myadzyel were driven into the ghetto by the Nazis and almost all were killed.
On November 17, 1959, the village of Myadzyel was transformed into an urban settlement.