Pružhany

 

Pruzhany is a city in Belarus, the administrative center of the Pruzhany district of the Brest region. It is located at the intersection of the Slonim - Ruzhany - Pruzhany - High R85 highway.

City, center of the district. Located on the Mukhavets River (Western Bug basin), 89 km northeast of the city of Brest, 11 km from the Oranchitsy railway station (on the Baranovichi - Brest line). The junction of highways to Brest, Vysokoe, Beryozu, Slonim, Shereshevo, Kobrin.

 

History
The first mention of the Prushanskaya volost dates back to 1433. Pruzhany have been known since 1487 under the name Dobuchin. The name Pruzhany comes from pruzhany - residents by the pond, or from pruzhany - a dam, a dammed place on the river (Mukhavets). Until 1519 Pruzhany were part of the Kobrin principality. After the death of the Kobrin prince Ivan Semyonovich, the Pruzhany passed into the possession of his wife Fedora, in 1519, by the privilege of the Grand Duke of Lithuania Sigismund I the Old, to Marshal V. Kostevich, they were included in the Kobrin eldership. Since 1520 in the Kobrin district of the Podlasie voivodeship, since 1566 in the Brest district and the voivodeship. In the 16th century, belonged to the Queen of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Bona and her daughter Anna. Four fairs were held in Pruzhany a year. According to the inventory of 1563, there were 1250 inhabitants, 7 streets, 278 households in Pruzhany. In the 16th century there was a Pruzhany "royal courtyard" (a wooden palace, 2 outbuildings, a stable, a barn, a furnace, a bakery, 4 barns, a water mill, a garden).

On May 6, 1589, King Sigismund III, at the request of his aunt Queen Anna, granted the inhabitants of Pruzhany the Magdeburg right "for eternity".

During the wars of the mid-17th - 1st half of the 18th century. the city was badly destroyed, the number of buildings decreased by 5 times. In 1776 he was deprived of the Magdeburg Law. By the end of the 18th century. restored, in 1791 - 2094 inhabitants.

Since 1795 Pruzhany has been a part of the Russian Empire: the city, the center of the district of Slonim, since 1797 in Lithuania, since 1801 in the Grodno province. In 1845 they received a new coat of arms: a spruce tree with a hunting pipe hanging on the branches is depicted on a light brown background. In 1866 in the center of Pruzhany the Cathedral of Alexander Nevsky was built, in 1878 - the Church of the Transfiguration of the Savior. In 1857, the city had 5665 inhabitants. During the uprising of 1863-64. detachments of R. Roginsky, S. Songin and B. Rylsky operated in the Pruzhany region. On February 13, 1863, they occupied the city.

In November 1834, the Uyezd School for the townspeople was opened in the city. A year later, on November 22, 1835, it was transformed into a five-year Noble Uyezd School.

The abolition of serfdom contributed to the economic development of the city.

According to the 1897 census, 7633 inhabitants (43.4% of literate people) in Pruzhany, including Jews - 5079, Belarusians - 2316, Russians - 443, Poles - 225. There were 14 small enterprises, a district and two-class parish school, 6 hospitals. In the 19-1st half of the 20th century. Pruzhany is known as the center of pottery. During the revolution of 1905–07. in Pruzhany, workers of a tobacco factory and a distillery went on strike. From August 1915 the city was occupied by German troops, from January 30, 1919 to July 1920, by Polish troops. From July 27 to September 19, 1920, Soviet power was in the city, a district military revolutionary committee was operating.

According to the Riga Peace Treaty in 1921-39. Pruzhany was part of Poland: the povet town of the Polesie Voivodeship. The workers 'struggle for national liberation was led by the organizations of the KPZB, KSMZB, the Belarusian peasant-workers' community.

Since September 1939, Pruzhany has been a part of the BSSR, since January 15, 1940, the center of the district of the Brest region.

In Pruzhany, in March 1941, the 30th Panzer Division began to form on the basis of the regular 32nd Light Tank Brigade.

On June 23, 1941, the city was occupied by the German fascist invaders. From 1942, an underground anti-fascist committee operated, from November 23, 1943 to July 11, 1944 - an underground district committee of the CP (b) B, from September 1, 1943 to July 11, 1944 - an underground district committee of the LKSMB. The invaders killed more than 4 thousand people in the death camp in the city, the housing stock was destroyed by 70%. July 17, 1944 Pruzhany was liberated by units of the 28th Army of the 1st Belorussian Front.

In 1959, in the regional design workshops in Baranovichi, a layout scheme for Pruzhany was developed, which streamlined the irregular grid of streets. In 1974, a master plan of the city was developed at the Minsk branch of the Central Research and Design Institute for Urban Development.

The city has 3 planning districts: southern, western and eastern. The planning structure is determined by the central axial highway (Sovetskaya, Kobrinskaya, Oktyabrskaya streets), the Lenin, R. Shirma, Krasnoarmeyskaya streets perpendicular to it, and the curvilinear outline of the river. Mukhavets. The historical center of the city is Sovetskaya Square, where architectural monuments of the 19th century have been preserved. - shopping arcade and the Alexander Nevsky Cathedral. The new administrative and social center Pruzhany was formed on R. Shirma and Sovetskaya streets. The buildings include the House of Soviets, a hotel, a residential building with shops. The central part of the city and the centers of the eastern and northern regions are built up with multi-storey residential buildings. New microdistricts arose in the northern part of the city and on the street. Oktyabrskaya. The southern industrial zone was formed.