Zaslawye

 

Zaslawye or Zaslavl is a city in the Minsk region of Belarus. It is located 12 km from Minsk, on the Svisloch River at its confluence with the Zaslavskoye reservoir. Railway station Belarus on the line Minsk - Molodechno - Gudogai.

 

Destinations

Zaslavsky Castle: Transfiguration Cathedral (formerly Calvinist), rampart, castle gates, stone cross.
Ethnographic Museum: a museum, a steam mill, a barn, a house of importers. Everything is located in the open air.
Catholic church of the Nativity of the Virgin Mary.
Museum-reserve "Zaslavl" (street Market (or Rynkovaya), 4)

 

History

Early middle ages
Zaslawye - chronicle versions of Izyaslavl (Old-Russian Izѧslavl), Izheslavl, Zheslavl. According to chronicle legends, it was built at the end of the 10th century by the Kiev prince Vladimir Svyatoslavovich, who gave it to his wife Rogneda and son Izyaslav (it was named after him). It was first mentioned in chronicles in 1127-1128 in connection with the campaign of the Grand Duke of Kiev Mstislav Vladimirovich to the Polotsk land, "to Krivichi", during which he was ruined.

Prince Vladimir, apparently, looked after the place for the city when he went to war against the Yatvingians. NM Karamzin, who used the chronicles that burned down later in the Moscow fire of 1812 for the History of the Russian State, attributed the case of Rogneda and Vladimir and the foundation of Izyaslavl to 985.

In 1159 he was plundered during another civil strife - the struggle between two branches of the descendants of Vseslav: the sons of the Minsk prince Gleb and the Polotsk prince Boris. At that time it was a fortified city, the center of the appanage principality of Izyaslav.

Archaeological excavations give an idea of ​​the then building of the city. Remains of stoves were found in the layers of the detinets and posad of the 12th century. In the central part of the castle in 1980, the remains of three wooden buildings were found, chopped off (2-3 crowns preserved). One of the buildings is surrounded by a frame of two crowns. Along its wall, on top of the outer frame, a flooring of chopping blocks and slabs was discovered, laid perpendicular to the wall of the house so that their ends were fixed between the logs of the inner frame. Such buildings are known in Novgorod and Staraya Ladoga.

After 1159, Izyaslavl disappeared from the chronicles for almost two centuries. The excavations show that in the middle of the XIII century there was a big fire here.

 

As part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Commonwealth
Since the XIV century Izyaslavl was part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. In Lithuanian times, he began to be called Zaslav. Until the 16th century, it was considered a city (place). In 1345, Zaslavl was given by the Lithuanian prince Keistut to his younger brother Evnut Gediminovich, from whom the family of the Zaslavsky princes came. In 1433 he was captured by Svidrigail Olgerdovich and burned, the inhabitants were taken prisoner. Since 1539 Zaslavl has been the property of the Glebovich feudal lords. The first of the Zaslavsky Glebovichs - Yan Yurievich - was the chancellor of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. His son Yan Yanovich Glebovich founded a Protestant (Calvinist) community in Zaslavl, built a Protestant church (later the Transfiguration Church), which in the 17th century. handed over to Catholics and rededicated in the Church of Michael the Archangel. In the second half of the XVI century. the famous Calvinist historian Yan Lasitsky lived in Zaslavl.

In 1625, Nikolai Glebovich built a wooden church of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary and the Calvinist Church of the Transfiguration of the Lord.

In 1676, the last representative of the Zaslavl branch of the Glebovich family, Christina Barbara, together with her husband Kazimir Jan Sapega, founded a Dominican monastery, giving him the western part of the castle.

Since 1678 - the city has been the possession of the Sapieha family, since 1753 - Anthony Pshezdetsky. In the 16th century, there was a printing house in Zaslavl, in which the Bible of Simon Budny (1574) was published.

In the 17th-18th centuries, the city was the center of the Zaslavsky county, which consisted of four provinces: Vyazan, Zaslavsky, Lomzhinsky and Seletsky, a total of 28 villages, 6 farms (separate landowners' households) and 13 dungeons (rural settlements on the land remaining after delimitation).

At the end of the 17th century, the number of houses in Zaslavl ranged from 77 to 89, and the number of adult residents from 271 to 300. In 1698 there were 89 houses in the city.

In 1774, a brick church was built on the site of an old wooden church.

As part of the Russian Empire
After the second partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1793, Zaslavl became part of the Russian Empire as a town in the Minsk district, later - the center of the volost.

At the end of the 18th century, there was a school at the church, at the monastery - for the children of the gentry, a Jewish school. The monastery had a library of 442 volumes.

In 1810, according to "Information on the number of inhabitants and the number of households in the settlements of the Minsk province", there were 50 households in the city.

In the 1850s it was the Prushinsky estate, which was confiscated from them for participating in the uprising of 1863-64.

In 1851, a famous writer, public figure and Grand Master of the Northern Torch Masonic Lodge Jan Khodzko was buried in Zaslavl.

In 1873, the Libavo-Romny railway was built through the town.

In 1904 there were 3 thousand inhabitants, 2 schools, a hospital, a pharmacy, a post office, 2 churches, a church.

After 1917
In November 1917, the Soviet of Workers 'and Soldiers' Deputies was created in Zaslavl, which established Soviet power.

From February to December 1918 it was occupied by the troops of imperial Germany, from July 1919 to July 1920 by the troops of Poland.

Since 1919 - part of the BSSR. In 1924-1959 it was the center of the Zaslavsky district. On September 27, 1938, the town of Zaslavl was assigned to the category of urban-type settlements. According to the 1939 census, 2,744 people lived in Zaslavl: 2,098 Belarusians, 248 Jews, 244 Russians, 63 Ukrainians, 50 Poles.

In 1941 there were 620 households, about 3 thousand inhabitants. On June 28, 1941, Zaslavl was occupied by German troops, liberated on July 4, 1944. During the occupation, 80% of residential buildings were destroyed, 4 shops, a hospital were burned, 200 residents died. Jews of Zaslavl were driven into the ghetto and killed on October 29, 1941.

Since 1959 Zaslavl has been an urban settlement in the Minsk region. Since August 14, 1985 - a city of regional subordination. Since October 3, 2006 - a city of regional subordination.

Modern city
According to the architectural and planning solution, the city is subdivided into four microdistricts.

The first one is the historic center. Here is located a large part of the historical and archaeological reserve, as well as houses of individual, mainly old, buildings, the City Council, institutions of social, cultural and household purposes: general secondary and music schools, a special boarding school, a consumer services plant, ateliers, shops, polyclinic, hospital, cafes, pharmacies, city square, linear technical section No. 3 of the MF RUE "Beltelecom", museums, Church of the Nativity of the Virgin Mary, Zaslavsky castle: Transfiguration Church. Training fire department.

The second microdistrict is an industrial, social and residential and residential complex of the Belarusian Zonal Research Station for Poultry. Kindergarten and gas filling station.

 

The third microdistrict, located behind the main railway, is the industrial center of Zaslavl. A large number of multi-storey residential buildings, a library, a children's clinic, a House of Culture, shops, a market, pharmacies, two secondary schools, a House of Children's Art, four kindergartens, police, and a fire station have been built in this zone. Construction, housing and manufacturing enterprises: Zaslavl housing and communal services, Zaslavlstroyindustriya OJSC, PMK-4 OJSC, PMK-42 OJSC, AVTOBAZA OJSC, Minskvodokanal Unitary Enterprise, Malvina LLC.

The fourth microdistrict, located in the direction of the city of Dzerzhinsk, is a cottage-type residential area. In this zone there are shops, a pharmacy, a building house "METR", a branch of OJSC "Grodno Meat Processing Plant" UE "GMK", LLC "Zaslavskaya Confectionery Factory", dentistry.