Bosnian Pyramids

 

Description of the Bosnian Pyramids

Bosnian Pyramids are alleged human made pyramids that are situated near a village of Visoko, North- West of Sarajevo in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Bosnian pyramids is a pseudo-archaeological claim promoted by the Bosnian entrepreneur Semir Osmanagic, consisting of declaring a group of natural hills in the population of Visoko in Bosnia-Herzegovina, northwest of Sarajevo, as the oldest and largest pyramids human beings built on Earth. The hill of Visocica (43 ° 58'45.55 "N, 18 ° 10'45.09" E), the largest of them, became a focus of international attention in October 2005, after a media campaign by Osmanagic and his supporters.

Osmanagic claims to have found tunnels, stone blocks and ancient mortars, which he has suggested once covered the structure of Visočica. Excavations opened in 2006 have reconfigured the hill, which makes it look like a step pyramid. However, geologists, archaeologists and other scientists have concluded, after an analysis of the site, its history known and excavations, the hills are natural formations and no sign of human construction. The European Association of Archaeologists issued a statement considering the so-called pyramid a "cruel deception" and protesting the Bosnian authorities' support for the project.

 

Interpretations
Osmanagić's interpretation
In April 2005, Semir Osmanagić visited the Visoko Homeland Museum, where Professor Senad Hodović presented him with information about medieval Bosnia and the stone remains of the medieval town of Visoki on Visocica. Explaining how the three royal capitals can be seen from Visocica, he mentioned that Visocica has a pyramidal shape, which is a rare phenomenon. Osmanagić became interested in this phenomenon and obtained a permit to drill, after which he stated that he noticed numerous anomalies which indicate that there is a pyramid under the hill Visočica, ie its upper part.

Osmanagic called Visocica the "Pyramid of the Sun", and the two nearby hills, identified as pyramids based on satellite and aerial photographs, the "Pyramid of the Moon" and the "Pyramid of the Bosnian Dragon". The reports mention two other alleged pyramids: the "Pyramid of the Earth" and the "Pyramid of Love". In the intense media campaign that followed, Osmanagic claimed that the alleged pyramids were built by the ancient Illyrians, the ancient inhabitants of the Balkans around 12,000 BC. But in an interview with Philip Coppens of Nexus magazine (April 2006), Osmanagic tried to correct previous allegations by claiming that he had been misquoted: he did claim that the alleged pyramids were most likely built by The Illyrians, who according to his claims inhabited this area between 12,000 and 500 BC. n. e., so the alleged pyramids were most likely built somewhere in that period, and not exactly 12,000. years before the new era. Lately, Osmanagić claims that the "pyramid" is about 7,000 years old.

Osmanagić points out that the four sides of the hill Visočica are facing the sides of the world (east, west, north, south), as all the pyramids were allegedly built. This is not true and can be easily verified using Google Earth. The deviation from the assumed direction is almost 30 degrees.

Towards the end of 2005, Osmanagic, with the support of BiH institutions, founded the Archaeological Park: Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun Foundation, and appointed Professor Senad Hodovic as president for logistics. In early January, Dr. Amer Smailbegović, a member of the Archaeological Park: Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun Foundation, analyzed the results of thermal inertia and based on them concluded that the hills Visočica (Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun), Plješevica (Bosnian Pyramid of the Moon) and two other elevations are anomalies. According to him, these elevations cool faster than the environment because there are materials of lower density, higher porosity, as well as internal cavities and passages, which affects the heat loss normal for artificial structures.

The alleged research was carried out in a tunnel not far from Visocica, in Ravne, where sandstone blocks weighing up to five tons were found, which are claimed to have been processed by human hands. The oxygen content of 20.9% was determined in the tunnels, which allegedly confirms the thesis about the ventilation systems inside the tunnel. In addition, it is claimed that in the tunnels there are intersections at right angles that coincide with the sides of the world: east-west, north-south.

Osmanagić refers to the alleged measurements of the Geodetic Authority of BiH, according to which the sides of the base are 364 m long, and the sides form equilateral triangles whose all angles are precise 60 degrees. It is further claimed that the north side is oriented towards the "cosmic north", ie that there is a deviation from the geographical north by 21 '. In addition, he claims that the cadastral office of the municipality of Visoko confirmed to him that the geodetic peaks of the three pyramids (Pyramid of the Sun, Moon and Bosnian Dragon) form an equilateral triangle of 60 degrees, where there is allegedly no deviation in one minute, which is confirmed by alleged satellite images .

On the northeast side of the Pyramid of the Sun, on the third day of research (April 17, 2006), stone blocks of breccia were found, which were claimed to have been processed by human hands. According to Osmanagić and his followers, this is the most serious proof of the existence of the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun.

 

Scientific explanations
Osmanagic's allegations, published in the mass media, are disputed by a large number of experts who accuse him of promoting pseudo-scientific theories and destroying real archeological sites with his excavations. Amar Karapuš, curator of the National Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina in Sarajevo, said on this occasion: "When I first read about the pyramids, I thought it was very funny. I couldn't believe that anyone in the world could believe in something like that. "

Professor Garrett Fagan of the University of Pennsylvania says: "Real archeological sites should not be allowed to be destroyed in an attempt to find their misconceptions [...] It's as if someone was given permission to bulldoze Stonehenge to find under it the secret chambers with lost ancient wisdom. "

Curtis Runnels, an expert on prehistoric Greece and the Balkans from Boston University, says: “Between 27,000 and 12,000 years ago, the Balkans were frozen in the last glacial maximum, a period of very cold and dry glacier climate. some of the mountain ranges. The only inhabitants of this area were Upper Paleolithic hunters and gatherers who left behind the remains of the camp in the open and traces of living in caves. These remains consist of simple stone tools and the remains of animals and plants on which they ate. These people did not have the tools or skills needed to build monumental architectural structures. "

Enver Imamovic from the University of Sarajevo, former director of the National Museum in Sarajevo, expressed concern over the danger that excavations could destroy real archeological sites, such as the medieval royal capital Visoki. He claims that the excavations would "irreversibly destroy the national historical treasure."

In a letter to the Times of London on April 25, 2006, Professor Anthony Harding, president of the European Association of Archaeologists, called Osmanagic's theories "twisted" and "absurd" and expressed concern that insufficient attention was being paid to protecting "the rich archaeologists." Bosnia "from" robbery and uncontrolled and unauthorized construction ". After visiting the site in person, Harding stated: “we saw fields of natural stone (breccia), with fissures and cracks; but no trace of anything resembling archeology. "

Members of the geological team who conducted field research on behalf of the Foundation "Archaeological Park: Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun" held a press conference on May 8, 2006 in Tuzla in order to publish the results of their research. Professors of the Faculty of Mining and Geology at the University of Tuzla, led by Professor Dr. Sejfudin Vrabac, concluded that "Visocica has been established as a natural geological formation, consisting of classical sediments of layered structure, of different thickness, and its shape is due to endodynamic and exodynamic processes in the post-Miocene period ”.

According to Professor Vrabac, an expert in paleogeology: "in the area of ​​the Sarajevo-Zenica mining basin, there are dozens of such morphological forms." The report of the Visocica Geological Research Team, made on the basis of examinations of six boreholes with a depth of 3 to 17 m, was supported by the Scientific-Teaching Council of the Faculty of Mining and Geology and the Association of Geologists of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

In June 2006, the name of one of the greatest Egyptologists of today, Professor Zahija Havas, was linked to the excavations at Visocica. Osmanagic claimed that Professor Hawass recommended the alleged "expert" Ali Abd Al Barakat to explore the hills. Hawass denied any connection to this, accusing Osmanagic of "giving false information", and explained that Barakat "knows nothing about the Egyptian pyramids".

Notwithstanding Havas' reaction, the Archaeological Park: Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun Foundation announced that Barakat had conducted a survey of the hill and stated, "In my opinion, this is a kind of pyramid, probably a primitive pyramid." Barakat's report was posted in English.

 

Osmanagic also invited geologist and alternative archaeologist Robert Schoch to visit the site. In his preliminary report, he concluded that there are natural geological explanations for all the phenomena that Osmanagic claimed were the work of human hands. Shoh's web page states that "the excavations caused exceptional damage" and accuses Osmanagic of launching a "deliberate campaign to mislead".

In 2007, the Archaeological Park: Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun published a report by Egyptologist Nabil Mohamed Abdel Svelim, claiming that Visocica was in fact the largest pyramid in the world. against, I cannot influence the fact that the concept of the pyramid and the corresponding shape are obvious and that everyone can see it. ”Despite these allegations, Svelim published a report in 2010 explaining that he did not claim that Visocica was the work of human hands, but used by the expression of a pyramid for any object, natural or artificial, which represents this body in a geometric sense.

In addition to the mentioned, many other domestic and foreign scientists have expressed doubts about the existence of the pyramid on Visocica. A petition entitled 'Stop Osmanagić Now!' Was also launched. Many state that there are no historical facts according to which it could be claimed that there is a pyramid in Visoko and condemn any works on Visocica, which is a national monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and consider any activity in this place a demolition and damage to cultural property.