Burgas

Burgas

 

Burgas is the largest city in Southeastern Bulgaria and the second largest on the Bulgarian Black Sea coast, and with its land of 253,644 km, it is the second largest city in Bulgaria (after Sofia). According to the latest census of the NSI as of December 31, 2019, the population is 203,299 inhabitants and thus continues to be the fourth largest city in the country (after Sofia, Plovdiv and Varna). Burgas is the most important cultural, economic, transport, management, tourist and educational center in Southeastern Bulgaria. The city is the administrative center of the municipality and district of the same name, as well as the seat of regional and national institutions.

The Black Sea Fishing Fleet, part of the Bulgarian Navy and the Coast Guard are located in Burgas.

The several nature reserves and protected areas, ancient and medieval settlements, the Black Sea and the annual festivals attract many tourists. Burgas Cathedral, named after the Slavic educators, the holy brothers Cyril and Methodius; and the protected area Poda are among the 100 national tourist sites. The monastery of St. Anastasia on the island of the same name in the waters of the Burgas Bay is the only preserved medieval island monastery in the Black Sea.

 

History

First and Thracian settlements
Several prehistoric and ancient settlements from the Stone-Copper to the Late Bronze Age have been discovered in the land of Burgas. At the beginning of the summer of 2008, archaeologists from the Burgas Museum discovered a prehistoric mound and objects dating back to the Early Chalcolithic era, 10 km north of the town in the Solna Niva area, near Atanasovsko Lake. More than 250 items have been excavated, the earliest of which are believed to have been used 6,000 years BC. They testify to agriculture, cattle breeding and salt production, as a livelihood of the ancient inhabitants of the area. Ritual vessels of the king-priest were also found. The artifacts are considered to be the oldest ever found on the Black Sea coast, including in Turkey and the Caucasus. This gave rise to the director of the regional museum Tsonya Drazheva to define the area of ​​today's Burgas, between the three lakes Mandre, Burgas and Atanasovsko and the Black Sea as "the crossroads of the most ancient civilizations".

Among the first inhabitants of the region are the Thracians, who around the 6th century BC. created a number of settlements on the territory of today's Burgas, along with the nearby towns of Apollonia, Mesemvria, Anhialo. From the 6th to the 2nd century BC. A Thracian settlement, probably an emporion (market) of Apollonia, also exists in the area of ​​Sweet Wells, on the territory of today's Pobeda district. The village had a port and water supply. On the Shiloto hill in the Meden Rudnik district there was a Thracian fortress, which protected the nearby copper mines of the Thracian princes at Varli Bryag. After the invasion of Philip II of Macedon, in its place was the sanctuary of Apollo Carnesos (Pure Apollo), an important part of the existing number of sanctuaries of this god, built north of Apollonia. Tursis is another Thracian settlement, which was located west of Bourgas and was destroyed in the early 2nd century BC. Due to the active construction in later epochs, the remains of the ancient settlement in the area "Sladki kladentsi" have not been preserved. However, the presence of a port, market center and archaeological finds give grounds to the historian Ivan Karayotov to locate the Port of the Thracian kings on the territory of Burgas. Archaeological excavations of the later mineral baths Akve Khalide also prove Thracian settlements and the most revered "sanctuary of the Three Nymphs". At the time of Shah Darius I, the Thracian settlements in the region of Burgas were under Persian rule, but after the repulse of the Persian invasion and the founding of the Odrysian kingdom, they were again Thracian.

Along with the listed settlements, Burgas is considered mostly the successor of Deultum, Akve Khalide and the medieval Pyrgos, and according to some authors of Skafida and Rusokastron. Deultum originates on the western shore of Lake Mandre at the mouth of the river Sredetska, in the area between the lakes Burgas and Mandre, and modern linguists translate the name of the city as a duet. Between 383 and 359 BC. The settlements near Burgas are under the control of the Thracian king Kotis I. The importance of the nearby towns of Apollonia and Mesamvria hinders the development of the small settlements between them, and until 340 BC. the region was conquered by the Macedonian king Philip II.

Development from Roman times to the Middle Ages
After the conquest of the Southern Black Sea coast by the Roman general Lucius in 72 BC, Emperor Vespasian founded the eponymous colony of Deultum (Latin: Colonia Flavia Pacis Deultemsium) east of the Thracian settlement of Develt or Debelt for veterans of the VIII August Legion. of the province of Hemimontus. There was a northeastern branch of the Roman road Via Militaris and the Black Sea coastal road Via Pontica. Along with Deultum in Roman times, the mineral baths at Akve Khalide were developed, visited in the following centuries by many emperors and kings. In the center of Burgas the Roman traces are documented by the many coins found from the 1st to the 4th century, and south of today's Central Station are the remains of a Roman statue.

 

At the end of the 1st century, during the time of the Roman emperor Antoninus Pius, the double fortress of Burgos or Poros and a road station (statio milliaria) with a port were built on the Poros / Foros peninsula near today's Kraimorie district. They guarded the approaches to the fortresses of Deultum and Skafida, as well as Via Pontica. Archaeological excavations in 2009 uncovered part of a fortress, the remains of a 13th century monastery and an ancient settlement near them, dating from late antiquity (5th century AD). According to some authors, Poros and Pyrgos mentioned in historical sources are the same fortress. The fortress on the Foros Peninsula was probably used as an observatory. Its remains also existed in the 19th century, as evidenced by various Europeans who visited the area during this period. Some authors believe that the settlement is the successor of the ancient road station mentioned as Pudizo in the Peutinger map. It is not known whether Deultum and the fortress of Foros were captured and destroyed by both Akve Khalide and the entire region during the Gothic invasions in the second half of the 260s. In 376, sources mention Deultum again, near which the Goths defeated an elite Roman military unit.

During the division of the Roman Empire in 395, the region of today's Bourgas became part of the Eastern Roman Empire (later Byzantium), and during the reign of Justinian I (527 - 565) fortress walls were built around Akve Khalide. In 708, Khan Tervel defeated the Byzantine troops led by Justinian II east of Akve Khalide in the Battle of Anhialo, and the Imperial Baths and Deultum entered the Bulgarian border for the first time. Under Khan Krum, the Zagore district became permanently part of Bulgaria, and under his successor Omurtag, the Erkesiya border wall was built from the shores of Lake Burgas to the Maritsa River. According to one of the legends, in 863 Khan Boris I secretly accepted Christianity at Deultum (see Christianization of Bulgaria). This theory is supported by archaeological finds from 2005, when a ritual complex with a basilica from the IX century was discovered near the present-day village of Debelt. Boris abandoned his old title and accepted the Slavic title of prince, and at the same time received the name of his godfather - the Byzantine Emperor Michael III.

From about 970 the region was again under Byzantine rule, and in 1093 Emperor Alexius I Comnenus had in Thermopolis, the medieval heir of Akve Khalide, a detachment for the defense of the eastern Stara Planina passes. In the next century the Burgas region was contested by the Bulgarian and Byzantine empires. In 1206, the Latins, led by Henry of Flanders, brother of Baldwin of Flanders, captured and set fire to Thermopolis. In 1270 the fortress of Poros was mentioned in a document of the Patriarch of Constantinople, and in 1304 south of it the Battle of Skafida took place, during which Tsar Todor Svetoslav conquered the Southern Black Sea Coast. In 1332 Ivan-Alexander defeated Emperor Andronicus III Palaeologus west of today's Burgas in the last great battle between the Bulgarian kingdom and Byzantium - the Battle of Rusokastro. At the beginning of the 13th century, the region was devastated by the Catalan company.

Under Ottoman rule and the first written mention
Deultum, Skafida and Poros were conquered by the Ottoman Turks, led by Sultan Murad I in 1367/1368, but later conquered by Amadeus VI of Savoy, who granted them to Byzantium. At the beginning of 1453, shortly before the fall of Constantinople, they, along with other cities on the southern Black Sea coast, were the last Bulgarian territories to fall under Ottoman rule. The Deultum was finally destroyed and could not be rebuilt for centuries to come. Thermopolis and Pyrgos are preserved, and the first Turkish Sultan Suleiman I (1520 - 1566) ordered the construction of a new bath (hammam) on the half-destroyed Roman basins. At Poros, which became part of the Anhial kaaza, Sultan Bayezid II built a farm for the needs of the sultan's court, and a lighthouse for shipping.

The earliest written document mentioning Burgas exactly on the site of today's center is the Ottoman register (defter) from 1603/4. It mentions the port of Pyrgos (iskele-i Pyrgos), which is part of the waqf of Iskender Pasha and is located in the Aytos kaaza (district), where it was until the vilayet reform of 1864. In 1639 and 1646/47 the port was mentioned again. Despite the destruction of the ancient water supply network and the shortage of water, Pyrgos was used as a base for the Ottoman fleet. Freshwater was transported by cart or back from nearby springs and stored in large containers near the port.

 

One of the first written information about the city during this period leaves the Ottoman traveler Hadji Kalfa, who visited the city in the middle of the 16th century and marked it with the name Burgas. In the period after the Battle of Lepanto in 1571, Pyrgos was an important shipbuilding center. The traveler Evliya леelebi mentioned in 1656 two ports in the village: one at Poros for the big ones and the other at Pyrgos, in the area of ​​today's port, for the smaller ships. As the Ottoman chronicler Hadji Ali wrote in his marching diary (Fethname-i Kamaniçe), Sultan Mehmed IV visited Thermopolis on his way to Poland in 1672/73 (see Polish-Turkish War (1672-1676)). In 1673, some of the Armenians deported from the area of ​​hostilities settled in Burgas. They were visited two years later by the Armenian Archbishop Mardiros Krimechi, who left a brief description of the city.

In the middle of the 17th century the city began to grow thanks to the trade and export of grain.

In 1738 the population of Burgas, as in all important cities in the European part of the Ottoman Empire, was predominantly Turkish. Lafitte-Clave, who visited the region in 1784, identified Bourgas as a strategically important, largest city in the bay and was the first to name the bay Bourgas, noting that it had previously been known as Poros. He called the lake west of the city Burgas, and its river-outflow Burgas. Several Western diplomats, including Wenzel Edler von Brognard (1786) and Charles de Paysonel (1787), described Burgas as a town (small town) with 1,100 to 1,200 houses and as an important trade center and place for transshipment of agricultural products from the east. part of Thrace. Burgas was at that time the center of the coast from Ahtopol to Guzeken and has the Burgas keel - its own unit of measurement for grain.

With the withdrawal of Russian troops after the end of the Russo-Turkish War of 1828 - 1829, most of the Bulgarian population of Strandzha and the coast left their homes and, following the army outside Bulgaria, settled in Ukraine, Moldova, Bessarabia. and other territories of the Russian Empire. In the following years, part of the Turkish population who had fled before the war returned. Bulgarians from the interior of the country gradually settled in the abandoned settlements, which gradually became Greek under the influence of Greek teachers and priests.

Between 1854 and 1864 Burgas was part of the Anhial kaaza in the Silistra Sandzak. During the Tanzimata (1840 - 1864) an independent kaaza with the center of Burgas in the Sliven Sandzak was established. For this purpose, the settlements of the Akhial and Rusokastren kaaza were transferred to Pyrgos. As an administrative center, Burgas is governed by a kaimakam, to which, according to the Law on Provinces, a district council is established, in the meetings of which, according to Hatihumayuna, non-Muslim communities, including Bulgarians, also participate. This administrative status is maintained until the Liberation. As a result of the new situation from the early 60s of the XIX century for Burgas began a period of rapid economic and cultural development, which was interrupted briefly only during the Russo-Turkish War (1877 - 1878) to continue thereafter. with even greater dynamics. In 1860 a telegraph station was built in Burgas, which served the region to Sliven, Varna and Constantinople. The telegraph connection with the Ottoman capital and the two larger neighboring cities: Sliven and Varna (the first of which is one of the most important in the whole empire production center of handicrafts and textiles), as well as the port (the main export point of the whole Northeast Bulgaria and important for the transit trade of a large part of the lands of the Lower Danube) give a new impetus to the development of trade in Burgas and increase the importance of the city as a major Black Sea port for all of Southern Bulgaria.

During the struggle for Bulgarian church and state independence in 1869 in Burgas were opened a Bulgarian school and church on the site of today's church "St. St. Cyril and Methodius ”. Although the population of Burgas did not take part in the armed struggle for the liberation of Bulgaria, important channels of communication and arms transfer of the Internal Revolutionary Organization passed through the city, and the revolutionaries Vasil Levski and Panayot Hitov visited the city several times.

Main port of Eastern Rumelia and the Unification of Bulgaria (1878 - 1885)

During the Russo-Turkish War of 1877/78, Burgas was used by the Ottoman army as a logistics center. Towards the end of the war, a large Turkish and Circassian population, including that of Burgas, moved through the port. The last 2,000 Turkish soldiers and 4 cannons were loaded on ships at the end of December 1877. With the signing of the Edirne Armistice, Burgas remained outside the borders of future Bulgaria, and the ridge line between the two armies was determined by the ridge of the Eastern Balkan Mountains, which reaches the Black Sea north of Nessebar. Thus, at the beginning of 1878 in Burgas and the surrounding villages there were no more official representatives of the Turkish sultan, which led to the atrocities of the bashibozushki and Circassian gangs. The inhabitants of Karnobat and Balgarovo were subjected to massacres. Burgas was saved thanks to Rufat Effendi, the Ottoman commandant of the port of Burgas.

On February 6, 1878, a "flying detachment" under the command of Colonel Lermontov, tasked with providing the Russian fleet with access to the port of Burgas by occupying positions in the Burgas Bay and stopping Circassians invading from the north through the Dulen Pass, deserted Turkish soldiers. Burgas. At that time it was home to about 2,950 people, mostly Armenians, Jews, Bulgarians, Greeks and Greeks. Niko Popov has been appointed the first mayor of the liberated city. On the shores of Burgas, Russian troops built a military hospital in the following months, which was under the leadership of Alexandra Lermontova and remained in the city until mid-1879.

With the implementation of the Berlin Treaty of 1878, Burgas became one of the 6 administrative centers of the Ottoman province of Eastern Rumelia. Under the agreement, part of the Turkish population returned to the city. The decisions of the Municipality were announced in Bulgarian, Greek and Ottoman. Despite the lack of water, the city is an important trade center and the only major port in Eastern Rumelia, and economic development attracts refugees from Eastern Thrace and the Strandzha Mountains - territories that remain under Ottoman rule. In 1880 the Probuda community center was opened, and on July 20, 1885 the Burgas newspaper was published in Burgas - the first Burgas weekly.

The city remained Ottoman until September 1885, when after a military coup Eastern Rumelia merged with the Principality of Bulgaria. Bulgaria's unification was met with Russia's disapproval and was against its interests in controlling the Balkans. Citizens from Burgas also took part in the ensuing Serbo-Bulgarian war. Although the Treaty of Bucharest of February 19, 1886 restored the status quo, Russian Tsar Alexander III was dissatisfied and refused to recognize Alexander Battenberg as ruler of United Bulgaria. Thus, in the following months and years, Russian diplomacy organized and assisted in organizing conspiracies against Bulgaria. The Turkish government, for its part, wants, as a precondition for the normalization of relations, the placing of the port of Burgas under Turkish administration, which was rejected by the Bulgarian prince.

At the beginning of May 1886, a conspiracy was thwarted in Burgas under the leadership of the Russian officer Nikolai Nabokov against Alexander Battenberg, who was visiting the city. After the revelation, the conspirators managed to hide in the Russian representation in the city and escape with impunity. Although the pro-Russian political groups in the country (Tsankovists and false allies) deposed Prince Alexander I, with the help of Stefan Stambolov and the Rumelia army, he managed to return to the throne. In October of the same year, a military uprising broke out in Burgas again under the leadership of Nabokov, supported by a Russian warship. To crush the revolt, Stambolov sent Kosta Panitza, who, with the help of the Aytos detachment, managed to put an end to the Russophile conspiracies against the Union in Burgas.

Economic Rise and Refugee Camp in Bulgaria (1891 - 1913)

After the Liberation, Burgas ranked first after Sofia in terms of the relative share of rates and scales of development in comparison with other Bulgarian cities. The development finds expression in the first construction plan of Burgas adopted in 1891. He approved the construction of new public buildings on the western model in the city, which changed its oriental appearance. As early as 1881 the city library was built, in 1891 the Sea Garden and in 1897 the Cathedral of St. St. Cyril and Methodius. In 1895 Georgi Ivanov opened the first printing house in Burgas, followed by the printing house of Hr. Velchev, which was renamed in 1900 to the Velchevi Brothers Printing House. On May 27, 1890, the Burgas-Plovdiv railway line was solemnly opened in Burgas. An important stage in the economic development of Burgas was marked by the construction of the seaport, which was opened on May 18, 1903. During these years, 151 industrial enterprises were established in Burgas, including the Factory for Confectionery and Vegetable Oils of Avram Chalovski, the Great Bulgarian Mills of Ivan Hadjipetrov, the Soap Factory Kambana, the Factory for Canned Fish and others.

A number of beautiful buildings in Burgas - Imperial Hotel, Modern Theater, the houses of Yovi Vodenicharov, Yonidis, Ivan Hadjipetrov, Isaac Presenti, the Kalimanovi brothers, Stefan Rodev, etc., the Cathedral of St. St. Cyril and Methodius ”, the building of the museum“ Petya Dubarova ”was designed by the Italian architect Ricardo Toscani (between 1897 and 1926).

With the establishment of the Bulgarian Exarchate in 1870, the Bulgarian Orthodox Church managed to restore its independence, but several cities on the west coast of the Black Sea remained under the rule of the Patriarchate of Constantinople. In 1900, the Patriarchate of Constantinople handed over the last churches and monasteries, but this did not happen peacefully everywhere. In 1905, after long protests, the monastery of St. Anastasia was handed over to the Bulgarian Patriarchate. Prior to this act, the abbot of the monastery tried to sell the monastery treasure, which provoked ferment and protests in Burgas and only the intervention of the gendarmerie protected the Greek population from pogroms.

After the Unification, for decades the city and the district became the largest refugee camp in Bulgaria. After the Ilinden-Preobrazhensk Uprising and especially after the Inter-Allied War of 1913, the city and the region were filled with refugees from Eastern Thrace. As early as January 29, 1895, refugees from Macedonia established in Burgas a Macedonian society called Pirin Mountain, which also included emigrants from the Edirne region. On May 12, 1896, similar to him and on the initiative of Captain Petko Voivoda and the brothers Peter and Nikola Dragulevi, the Edirne Migration Society Strandzha was established in Varna. In December of the same year, a branch was built in Burgas. On September 2, 1902, the two organizations in Burgas merged into the Macedonian-Edirne Society. The Macedonian-Edirne Volunteer Association, the Macedonian Charitable Brotherhood "Dimitar Mihailov", the Macedonian Women's Cultural, Educational and Charitable Association Mencha Karnicheva, the Macedonian Youth Association Pelister and other organizations were also founded in Burgas. The organizational center of the refugees at that time was the Minkov Inn, located on today's 63 Ferdinandova Street.

In 1906, the actions of the Greek andartes in Macedonia led to riots and pogroms against the Greek population in the overcrowded city and region. In Burgas, the Greek church and school were alienated, and the Greek population emigrated in the following years mainly to Constantinople. In 1906, the Trade High School, established a year earlier, moved to the former premises of the Greek school. At that time, another Armenian, Turkish and French private school was operating in the city.

From the Balkan War to the 1930s (1912-1934)
At the outbreak of the Balkan War in Burgas, 65 volunteers formed the First Company of the 12th Lozengrad Company of the Macedonian-Edirne Militia under the leadership of Louis Ayer. On October 18, 1912, the city was shelled by the Ottoman fleet, which built a naval blockade in the Burgas Bay. The blockade was lifted on November 8 of the same year.

 

After the lost Inter-Allied War and after the loss of the First World War, the number of refugees in Burgas increased again, and according to incomplete data of the former Directorate for Accommodation of Refugee Families in Bulgaria, by 1931 the Burgas region had the largest population - 12,155 families. as their total number amounts to over 60 thousand people, two thirds of whom are from Eastern Thrace. The rest are refugees from Aegean Macedonia, mainly from the Enidje Vardar region. They arrived in the period 1923-25 ​​and settled in Burgas and in the coastal settlements north of the city. In their place, most of the writhing inhabitants of the region are leaving for Greece. Even before the wars, in 1912 the lighthouse on the island of St. Anastasia was renovated. In its northern part a reinforced concrete lighthouse tower and a service house for the lighthouse keepers were built. The height of the lighthouse tower from the terrain was 9.10 m, and the lamp - 21.70 m from sea level. The headlight was dismantled from the old tower on the island of St. Ivan. Its lighting was carried out with the help of two-wick oil lamps. The fire was first lit on June 13, 1914 and was visible at a distance of 6 nautical miles. During the period 1910-1919, the lighthouse of St. Anastasia was planned to be equipped with modern bells. Only in 1925 - 1926 such a facility was placed at the entrance of the Port of Bourgas.

In 1918, the Cistercian Order, which cares for refugees in Burgas, opened a girls' boarding school in the city. Despite the difficult economic situation of the refugees, an economic boom began in the city. In 1920 Bourgas numbered about 21,000 people and was again the main Bulgarian port for the export of grain and Bulgarian products, and by the mid-1930s it was ahead of the Varna port in terms of imports. In 1922, the Swiss company AG für Handel und Industriewerte received a 25-year concession for industrial salt production in Lake Atanasovsko. Two years later, in 1924, the only pencil factory in Southeast Europe was opened in Burgas with Deveko (today HemusMark AD), and a year later the State Mechanical Engineering School opened its doors.

In the winter of 1928/29 the Burgas Bay froze, which allowed in late January and early February 1929 the passage from Burgas to the island of St. Anastasia in carriages. A few years later, in 1934, the city's population numbered 34,260.

Soviet occupation and administration of the Bulgarian Communist Party (1944 - 1989)
The news of the invasion of the Red Army on September 7, 1944 in the territory of the Kingdom of Bulgaria came to Burgas by telegraph, telephone and radio. On September 8, 1944, a Soviet seaplane landed in the waters of Burgas. On the same date, at the Burgas airport, as a radio operator, Danail Denev met the first Soviet reconnaissance plane, piloted by Major Sertsov and his collaborator Seredin. On September 9, 1944, Burgas was occupied by Soviet troops, who captured the Burgas airport and port, and representatives of the tsarist government were executed. Among the victims of the next two panels of the People's Court in Burgas are the representatives of all rich and wealthy Burgas families, the Burgas intelligentsia and members of the Burgas Bar Association. At that time, six private baths and one municipal sea bath worked in the city together with the Burgas Mineral Baths. After the end of the Second World War, the Jewish organization Haganah organized ship convoys for Holocaust survivors, which sailed from Bourgas to Palestine. The Jewish population of Burgas also emigrated with these convoys. In the following years, the Communist administration of the Bulgarian Communist Party nationalized more than 160 factories and private enterprises, baths, shops, and the inability of the Communists to manage them led to a shortage of food, clothing, fuel, and other food. The People's University, the synagogue, the German and Italian high schools are closed. Total nationalization disrupts the natural rhythm of economic development in Burgas, and political repression continues after that. On June 29, 1947, the first U-52 passenger plane landed in Burgas, flying the impressive distance from Sofia to Bourgas at that time. This event, which took place under the direct supervision of the Prime Minister of the People's Republic of Bulgaria - Georgi Dimitrov, is actually the first passenger flight of the Bulgarian Civil Aviation.

 

In the 50s and 60s of the 20th century, plants from the chemical and oil refining industries were built, the largest of which is the Petrochemical Plant. Industrialization led to additional population growth and in the 1960s the German High School was reopened. Between 1970 and 1973, the architectural studio IPA Glavproekt developed a new plan for the development and expansion of the city according to the "socialist model". In the following years, the residential complexes Izgrev, Zornitsa, Petko Slaveykov and Meden Rudnik were built on it, where buildings from this period still dominate. In 1980, the Slaveykov complex was built with 52 entrances and 482 m the longest residential block in Bulgaria and was awarded the title of "socialist pride". During this period, the central municipal halls were replaced by a new two-storey building and renamed Krasnodar. Another emblematic building from this period is the apartment block 77 in the Lazur district (then called Tolbuhin), known in Burgas as the Cucumber.

In 1976 the village of Meden Rudnik was annexed to Burgas, and in the following years the largest district of Burgas was built next to it, which was separated from the rest of Burgas by Lake Burgas and Mandre, and the former village became one of the neighborhoods of the new complex. On September 9, 1982, the Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia assassinated Bora Suelkan, the Turkish Consul General in the city, in Burgas and killed his administrative attaché.

The population of Burgas as of December 4, 1985 according to NSI data is 182,338 inhabitants. From 1987 to 1991, five other municipal villages were annexed to Burgas. They are differently distant from the center of Bourgas, the reason for which is the geographical position of Bourgas, located between three lakes in the west and the Black Sea in the east.

Development in post-communism
After the fall of communism in 1989, the architecture and appearance of the city changed. However, the architecture of Burgas, especially on the outskirts, was marked by the expansion of the city during the communist era, when former refugee camps were transformed into modern housing estates, and in the younger neighborhoods the so-called Sharon houses can still be found. In the winter of 1996/97 in Burgas, as throughout the country, protests were organized and held against the government of Jean Videnov and hyperinflation. In 1998, the port city became the seat of one of the five administrative courts.

On February 28, 2008, the Burgas Municipal Council recognized the genocide of the Armenian people in the Ottoman Empire in the period 1915-1922. In December of the same year, for the first time in Bulgaria, a case was filed electronically before the Burgas Administrative Court.

In the spring of 2010, rain and heavy snowmelt caused flooding in the Pobeda, Dolno Ezerovo and Meden Rudnik neighborhoods.

In 2011 Burgas won the award Best City to live in Bulgaria, as well as the Greenest Bulgarian city. In 2013, Burgas won the Best City for Living in Bulgaria award for the second time.

Future development
The future development of the city is related to the opening of Burgas to the sea and lakes. In this context, the Super Burgas project is discussed. In the coming years, projects for public bicycle transport, for the removal of heavy traffic from the central part of the city, for the restoration of the island of St. Anastasia and the bridge, as well as for the rehabilitation of the historic center must also be implemented. It is planned to build two new parks in the Meden Rudnik complex, new sports fields in the Dolno Ezerovo neighborhood and in Borisova Gradina, and a new outdoor sports complex in the Meden Rudnik complex, which will be the largest in the city.

 

 

Districts
Centre – the nightlife, hotels and sights are located here, bus station, train station, shopping area
Bratya Miladinovi – living area close to the city centre
Lazur – living area with hotels, close to the beach and the nightlife in summer
Vazrazhdane – residential area relatively close to the city centre
Zornitza – living area, close to the beach and the Atanasovko lake
Izgrev – residential area, not interesting for tourists, close to the Atanasovsko lake
Slaveikov – residential area, not interesting for tourists, the Asen Zlatarov University buildings are in this district
Meden Rudnik – residential area, not interesting for tourists, no beach there, but close to Vaya and Mandrensko lakes
Sarafovo – formerly a village, now it is district of Burgas, close to the beach, close to the airport, far from the city center
Kraimorie – formerly a village, now it is district of Burgas, close to the beach, far from the city center
Dolno Ezerovo – formerly a village, now it is district of Burgas, far from the city center, close to the Vaya (Burgasko) lake - at its North bench
Gorno Ezerovo – formerly a village, now it is district of Burgas, far from the city center, close to the Vaya (Burgasko) lake - at its South bench
Lozovo – formerly a village, now it is district of Burgas, far from the city center
Akatziite – mostly industrial region
Pobeda – mostly industrial region
5th Kilometer – the district is getting bigger as some big retail chains build their stores in this region.

 

Destinations

Church of Saints Cyril and Methodius, st. Vazrazhdane. Built from 1895 to 1907. Malachite and marble were used in the decoration of the cathedral, the iconostasis was carved and wooden. It is considered one of the main attractions of the city.
Armenian Church, bul. Aleko Bogoridi. Small church. Built in 1855


Natural attractions
Primorsky Park, bul. Democracy. Open around the clock. A very beautiful park with numerous fountains, flower beds and monuments. Separates the city from the sea.
Lake Vaya, bul. Todor Alexandrov (western part of the city). The largest natural lake in Bulgaria (its length is 9.6 km and a depth of 1.3 m), which has become a refuge for 254 species of birds and 20 species of fish. A nature reserve is organized in the western part of the lake.
Atanasovskoe lake, st. Dimitar Dimov (northern part of the city). The length of the lake is 5 km. Located almost on the border with the Black Sea, its waters are characterized by an increased (and constantly increasing) salt content. Its territory is home to 314 bird species, including 17 endangered.
Lake Mandra, highway 79 (south-western part of the city). The length of the lake is 8 km, width - 1.3 km, area - 39 sq. km. In 1963, after the construction of the dam, the former salt reservoir turned into a fresh water reservoir. Part of the lake is a nature reserve inhabited by rare species of birds and fish.