Yambol is a town in southeastern Bulgaria. It is the
administrative center of Yambol district, as well as the center and
the only settlement of Yambol municipality. According to the last
census of the NSI as of 31.12.2018, the population of the city is
Throughout its long history, the city of Yambol has been called by different names: Diospolis, Dampolis, Djampolis, Dianpolis, Hiampolis, Dinibuli, Dubilin, Dubilin, Diamboli, Yanbolu, Yambol, Yanboli and its current name - Yambol. In Western historical sources it is mentioned by the name Grenboel.
The town of Yambol is located in southeastern Bulgaria and is located on both banks of the Tundzha River. It is located 77 km from the Black Sea and south of the Sofia-Burgas highway. The distance to the capital Sofia is 297 km, to Plovdiv is 168 km, to Varna is 216 km and the distance to Bourgas is 92 km.
In the land of the town is the protected area "Ormana", which has rare species of local plants and local small game, as well as a farm for breeding under artificial conditions of Colchis pheasant. The Ormana long forest has rare species of native plants and local small game, diverse flora and fauna - snowdrop, frost and Colchis pheasant. The area is a favorite place for recreation of Yambol residents on their weekends.
Borovets Hill is a place for recreation, located in the northeastern part of the city. It is famous for its fresh air, the panoramic view over the town of Yambol, the TV tower. Borovets Forest Park has a total area of 276 decares and an altitude of 150 - 230 m. The forest fund on the area of 89.7 ha was declared by Order № 3, 7 of 10.02.1976. , linden, almond, lilac. The northern slope of Borovets Park is deforested. In 2005, the National Program "From Social Assistance to Employment" was implemented at Borovets Park. The amount provided by the municipality of Yambol under the program is BGN 33,960, which covers activities for uprooting old logs, planting 1,600 deciduous trees and 3,024. flowering shrubs.
Yambol is divided into the following neighborhoods:
Raina the Princess
The latitude and altitude at which the city is located determine the small difference in thermal ratio between the main seasons - winter and summer. The region is characterized by relatively mild winters - the average monthly January temperatures are 0.2 ° C, and the warm summer, with an average monthly temperature in July of 23.2 ° C. The average annual maximum temperature is 17.9 ° С, and the average annual minimum - 6.4 ° С. The average monthly temperature is 12 ° С.
Antiquity and antiquity
The fertile lands along the valley of the Tundzha River have been inhabited since ancient times. Evidence of this are the more than 30 settlement mounds in the area, among which are well studied those in the village of Veselinovo, Racheva and Marcheva mounds, dating from the Neolithic period (6000 - 4000 BC), Eneolithic. 4000 - 2700 BC) and the Bronze Age (2700 - 900 BC).
26 species of wild and domestic animals (from the Late Iron Age (from 3000 - 2000 years ago)) have been identified in the village of Yasya Tepe, including the extinct boar (Bos primigenius), tarpan (Equus ferus ferus), as well as the extinct ones. the borders of the country beaver (Castor fiber), gray crane (Grus grus) and great bustard (Otis tarda).
The Middle Ages
The history of the town of Yambol begins even before the establishment of the Bulgarian state. In 293, Emperor Diocletian embarked on a journey through these lands. At the beginning of May he was in Adrianople, from where he left for Augusta Trayana, Philippopolis and Serdica. The emperor's path passed right through the place where Yambol is now and where there was probably a small settlement. The emperor was amazed by the fertile lands, the beautiful nature, the good living conditions and decided that there should be a city in this place. And not just any city, but a big and beautiful city with the divine name Diospolis - the city of Zeus.
Yambol became part of Bulgaria for the first time during the reign of Khan Tervel, in 705, and has been an integral part of Bulgaria ever since.
Among the bone remains from the medieval necropolis in the town from the 9th to the 12th century by the paleoornitologist Prof. Zlatozar Boev, those of domestic hens (Gallus gallus f. Domestica) have been found.
The city was one of the first in the Balkans to offer strong resistance to the Turks and was captured in 1373 after a long siege. Some of the impressive fortress walls and towers of medieval Yambol are preserved to this day. From the period of the Ottoman rule in the city are preserved two architectural monuments: the Bezisten and the Eski mosque.
On the eve of the Liberation
Located on both banks of the Tundzha River, the city had two parts - Cargona or New Yambol, and Eski or Old Yambol, connected by a bridge. At the end of 1877 the population of the city was about 8000 people, of which 4500 Bulgarians, 2000 Turks, 1000 Jews and 500 of other nationalities. The following public buildings were available: Bezisten (covered market), clock tower, 21 fountains, konak (district administration), telegraph post office, 3 bridges, 17 mosques, 2 churches, 2 bathrooms, etc.
In 1877 a railway line was built between Constantinople and Plovdiv. From Harmanli there is a connection to Yambol.
Turkish troops were pushed out of their strategic positions in the Stara Planina passes. It was clear to the Turkish command that there could be no success against the Russians in the fields of Thrace, and so he hurried to return the remnants of his defeated army to the capital.
The city was badly damaged by the fire. During the withdrawal of the regular units on January 12-13, Kerim Pasha ordered that, in addition to the station, the surviving houses in the burning city be set on fire. As a result, almost all Bulgarian and Jewish houses were demolished. Only the Eski Mosque, the Bezisten and the city clock are preserved. For more than a week before, Circassian gangs, together with deserted Turkish soldiers and other Bashibozuk gangs, raided the shops and houses, carried out mass pogroms against the rest of the Bulgarian population in the city and surrounding villages - robbery and torture for money, atrocities and torture. . A large part of the population fled to Zaychi Vrah near the village of Kabile in order to preserve at least their honor and life. On January 13, the Turks set fire to the school, and on January 14, St. George's Church caught fire. On January 15, the Turkish population began fleeing the city to Edirne. The bazaar and the Cargona neighborhood were completely plundered. Each Turkish family loaded 2-3 cars with stolen goods and furniture. On the morning of January 17, a large detachment of Circassians invaded the city again, then killed the priests Georgi Snegov, Ivan Mihalakiev and Tote Dragiev and many other innocent citizens. Later in the day, January 17, 1878, the Cossacks of the 23rd Don Cossack Regiment, commanded by Colonel Nikolai Baklanov, were the first to enter the smoky and devastated city. No battles were fought for the conquest of the city. The next day - Epiphany, the survivors of Yambol solemnly celebrated their liberation.
After the Liberation
Yambol became famous for the fact that after the Russo-Turkish
War of 1828 - 1829 the region caused the most massive (ie the main)
emigration waves in the direction of Bessarabia and Dobrudja. They
were provoked by the desire of the local population, still under
Ottoman rule, to preserve its regained (with the help of the
Christian army) fleeting independence even after the withdrawal of
the Russian army. This process of depopulation, typical for
Southeastern Bulgaria, was later partially compensated by another
process - almost a century later, many Bulgarian refugees from
Edirne and Aegean Thrace settled in the Yambol region.
In the first half of the 20th century Yambol is famous for its mineral water and mineral bath, the unique rail tram pulled by horses, its renowned pheasantry, the huge hangar for zeppelins from 1917 and other landmarks.
During the First World War, the southernmost military airship base of the Central Powers - Yambol - proved to be the starting point for a special mission - the flight of the combat airship "LZ 104" (with the tactical designation "L.59"). "Das Afrika-Schiff" - a transport aircraft of the German Imperial Navy, arrived from Friedrichshafen on November 4, 1917. Its task was to provide urgent supplies (ammunition, medical supplies, etc.) for the forces of Major General Paul von Letow -Forbeck in German East Africa, within a one-way flight without intermediate charging. After two unsuccessful attempts to reach its goal, on November 21, 1917, Das Afrika-Schiff managed to take the planned route to the south - Edirne, the Sea of Marmara, the coast of Asia Minor and the island. Crete. The mission was prematurely terminated on 23 November due to the deteriorating situation of German colonial rule in East Africa, which called into question the ultimate success of this endeavor. The zeppelin returned to Yambol on November 25, after a 95-hour continuous flight (a record achievement for its time) and 6800 km.