Ekenäs skärgårds Nationalpark (Swedish: Ekenäs skärgårds
Nationalpark) is located in the outer Ekenäs archipelago in western
Uusimaa. The national park was established in 1989 and covers an
area of 52 km². The starting point of the national park was
Jussarö Nature Park, founded in 1956. The park is managed and
managed by Metsähallitus, as are other Finnish national parks.
Most of the park's area consists of rock islets near the open sea and the surrounding waters. Metsähallitus' tasks mainly include calming waterfowl nesting areas and controlling fishing. Consequently, landing and motor boating in the vicinity of the main birdcards is prohibited from 1 April to 17 July. between.
The nature of the inner archipelago can be found above all on the island of Älgö (before Elgö), and in everyday language it is often said to be the source of Älgö National Park. On the Skedö side, at the western end of the Rödjan fjord, there is another very sheltered excursion port used since ancient times in the area belonging to the national park.
Rödjan and Elgö are mentioned in the Danish sailing guide as early as the 1240s.
Ekenäs Nature Center in the center of Ekenäs
Älgö Island, where the Rödjan Nature Center is located
Jussaari (Swedish: Jussarö) is an outer island group in Raseborg in the area of the former city of Ekenäs. Until November 2011, the Jussarö Coast Guard Station of the Border Guard operated there, which was also a border checkpoint for recreational boaters. Jussaari is also known for the Jussarö lighthouse south of the islands.
The island used to house the Jussarö mine, from which iron ore was mined. However, operations ceased to be unprofitable in 1967. Residential and commercial buildings still remain on the island during this period. An automatic coastal weather station has been operating on the island since 1 June 1990, which has become familiar to many through the Finnish Broadcasting Corporation's weather report for seafarers under the name Jussarö. Pleasure boaters are served by the guest marina, café, nature trail and boat sculpture in the northern part of the island.
About the name of the island
Linguists have speculated that the name of the island would originally be Juutinsaari, from which it would once have distorted into Jussaari. The first mention of Jussaari is in a Danish sailing guide from about 1250. The guide, written in Latin, mentions a place called Iuxarae, which is supposed to mean Jussaari. Later the name is Written e.g. Jusar (1547) and Jussar (1581).
Already in medieval sailing guides, Jussaari is mentioned as an easily recognizable landmark. The strait between it and Pikku-Jussarö has always been a sheltered anchorage. The lighthouse to Jussaari was first designed as early as 1811, but it was allowed to be replaced by a conical culvert built at Sundharu islet. Later, the pile was painted red and in 1856 was whitewashed. Towards the end of the century, it was then decided to build a lighthouse. The round, 17.5-meter-high brick tower, completed in 1891, was plastered white and surrounded by a wide, red belt. The lighthouse lens was the most efficient model in use in Finland at the time. Id light of the white light and rotating the two red flashes every half minute. The lighthouse was operated by a lighthouse master and three lighthouse keepers.
In 1922, construction work began on a new lighthouse building. A new 25-meter-high lighthouse was built on the same Sundharu islet, which had previously been a sea sign, two miles south of Jussaari. The north side of the truncated pyramid-shaped concrete tower was painted red and the other three sides white at the bottom and red at the top. The light symbol was two white flashes every ten seconds.
The new lighthouse was Finland's first completely unoccupied lighthouse. The lighting equipment is powered by gas, which was brought to the scene by the inspection vessel once a year. A side-by-side lighthouse attendant then went once a month to change new gas cylinders. There were problems with the gas because it was not always possible to change the gas cylinder in time due to the weather. In 1984, the situation was rectified by installing a wind farm in the lighthouse. The light fixture is now rotating and has a range of 16 nautical miles. In 1998 the lighthouse was renovated and painted.
After Finland came under Russian rule, there was a desire to strive for independence from Swedish iron. In 1817, a cavalry master took over the nearby island of Lerharu and engaged in small-scale mining for some time. Proper mining operations at the Jussarö mine began in 1834, when an ore deposit in Jussaari was located and taken to the crown.
Labor costs in the mine were high. Although the workers were each given potato land and fishing rights, the salary also had to be paid relatively high due to the awkward location of the island. So a cheaper labor was soon invented: 45 prisoners convicted of laxity were brought to the mine from Viapori. Of course, there was no free labor either, because 30 seafarers and more officers were needed to guard the prisoners to guard the soldiers. Prisoners were paid a small salary, and hard-working people were paid tobacco and liquor. For one reason or another, however, the distribution of liquor was soon stopped. Initially, work was done only in the summer, but once the necessary accommodation was built on the island, mining became year-round. Soon 95 men were already at work in the summer, half in the winter. The length of the working day was 12 hours. When the construction work on the Saimaa canal began, there were no longer enough loose people in Jussaari. From 1846, criminal prisoners began to be used, now guarded by Russian soldiers.
The Crimean War stopped mining in 1854-56. After the war, it was
started again with bulk prison labor. The sentence of these
prisoners was of indefinite length. In other prisons, they had the
opportunity to be released if they got a job in private service. Due
to the long distances in Jussaari, there was no possibility for
this, and therefore the imprisonment could be very long. For this
reason, many of the prisoners even considered Siberia a better
option, and asked to be transferred there. According to a rumor
circulating among the prisoners, Siberia could even get land to be
In the late 1850s, better quality iron became more readily available, and Jussaari's ore no longer wanted to be suitable for Finnish blast furnaces. Privatization of mining began to be considered, but when the only buyer candidate went bankrupt, all that helped was to close the mine for nearly a century.
The Jussarö mine was thus opened for the first time when the Swedish government used Finnish ore shortages in the mercantilist 19th century as a means of extorting various credits in the field of import duties. It is alleged that when Vuoksenniska Oy reopened the mine in 1954, the reasons were similar. Finland needed a negotiating power when discussing the price of Swedish steel. The toil of a couple of hundred miners did not produce properly even with a newer company, but apparently it worked well enough as a bargaining chip. In 1967, mining was stopped again.
Jussaari had a pulpit from the 1830s to 1860, which was for the prison's labor force and the inhabitants of the archipelago. Once a month, the Ekenäs chaplain held a service in Finnish and Swedish.
Jussarö Nature Park
Jussarö Nature Park was established in 1956. In 1989, it was merged with the new Ekenäs Archipelago National Park.
Fladalandet is an island in Ekenäs National Park on the border of the inner and outer archipelago, about 14 kilometers south of Ekenäs center. The island belongs to Raseborg. Fladalandet is a popular hiking destination and the island has services for hikers. Flada refers to a bay or pond that protrudes inside the island, of which Fladalandet has several.
Transfer boulder in Fladalandet
The interior of Fladalandet is wooded and rocky.
Fladalandet is thought to have been used as a summer pasture for sheep. In connection with the establishment of Ekenäs National Park in 1989, the island was protected as a traditional landscape biotope.