Jyväskylä

 

Jyväskylä is a city in Finland, the regional center of Central Finland and a municipality on the northern shore of Lake Päijänne in the province of Central Finland. Jyväskylä has a population of 142,282 and an area of ​​1,466.35 km², of which 295.38 km² are water bodies. The population density is 121.51 inhabitants / km². Jyväskylä is a university city and the seventh largest city in Finland in terms of population and the fifth largest urban area. Jyväskylä is a major growth center. The main city of Jyväskylä is located mostly on the isthmus between Jyväsjärvi and Palokkajärvi and Tuomiojärvi, which are connected to the northern end of Päijänne via Äijälänsalmi, through which the Tourujoki River flows from Palokkajärvi to Jyväsjärvi.

The border municipalities of Jyväskylä are Joutsa, Toivakka, Jämsä, Luhanka, Muurame, Petäjävesi, Laukaa and Uurainen. In 2009, the city, the countryside of Jyväskylä and Korpilahti merged, as a result of which the municipality of Muurame was surrounded by Jyväskylä from almost every side.

Jyväskylä has a university, Jyväskylä University of Applied Sciences, Gradia Vocational School and several other educational institutions. The most significant employer in the industry is Valmet Corporation.

 

Geography

Jyväskylä is located in the border region of southern and central Finland and has been a significant traffic junction throughout its history. The nearest large cities are Kuopio (144 km), Tampere (149 km) and Lahti (169 km). The distance from Jyväskylä to the Finnish capital Helsinki is 272 km by road, and 342 km by rail. A few other larger cities travel by road as follows: Mikkeli 113 km, Hämeenlinna 188 km, Kouvola 192 km, Seinäjoki 216 km, Pori 273 km, Vaasa 282 km, Turku 304 km and Oulu 339 km.

The city of Jyväskylä is located at the northern end of Päijänne. The main town is on the isthmus between Jyväsjärvi and Tuomio- and Palokkajärvi, which is connected to the northern end of Päijänne via Äijälänsalmi and is crossed by the Tourujoki. After Päijänne, the largest lakes in the area are Muuratjärvi and Leppävesi. The largest islands belonging to Jyväskylä are Päijänne Muuratsalo (part), Vuoritsalo, Kumina, Lehtisaari, Lehtissaari and Iso-Poro and Leppävesi island, some of which are known as Manunsaari, some as Oravasaari. Despite its name, the village of Oravasaari is not mainly located on this island.

Jyväskylä and its surroundings are hilly terrain. The highest hill in Jyväskylä is Uutelanmäki, 258 meters high, located in the village of Moks, Korpilahti. Before the 2009 Association of Municipalities, the highest point in Jyväskylä was the 249-meter-high Pirttimäki. The best-known ridges are Laajavuori, which houses the ski resort and Matti Nykänen Hill, and Harju (formerly known as Jyväsharju and Syrjänharju), which, despite its name, is not part of Harju but part of the Inner Finland edge formation. At its top is the Water Castle, a combined water and observation tower, which also has a nature museum and a restaurant. The city center is between Harju and Jyväsjärvi.

Jyväskylä Districts
The city of Jyväskylä is divided into 14 metropolitan areas and a further 86 districts.

History
Archaeological finds have been known in the Jyväskylä region since the Stone Age. In the Middle Ages, Central Finland was a hunting and fishing area for Häme people moving along the Päijänne and waterways, but at the same time the Sámi population also moved in the area. The area of ​​present-day Jyväskylä belonged to the economic enjoyment rights of Saario, Hauho and Sääksmäki. An analysis of pollen from Laukoju Lake Vuojärvi shows that birch cultivation has already started in the area in the 5th and 7th centuries, as rye pollen in particular is present in the sediments of that time. The earliest known inhabitant of the area was Heikki Ihanninpoika Jyväsjoki, who is mentioned in documents from 1506 in Äijälä.

Jyväskylä was the beginning of a new period of Laukaa, but the south side of Korpilahti, Säynätsalo and Muurame include Jämsä. According to the oldest (1593) land register, there were eight houses in the Jyväskylä area at that time, and in addition there were 5 houses in Paloka and 2 in Keljo. Of these, Mattila's house alone ruled the lands of the later Jyväskylä subdivision from the border of Keljo village to the border of Vesanga and Paloka villages. The oldest estate in Jyväskylä that has been in the possession of the same family is the Lahti House, which was separated from Mattila in 1600. The history of Lahti House and the Lahti family that ruled it are significantly intertwined with the area of ​​the city of Jyväskylä. However, in the later stages, the Lahti family has branched and scattered largely around Finland, and today the family is known to live in Lapland. Lahdenrinne In the southwest corner of Jyväsjärvi is the old core area of ​​Lahti House.

By 1593, in the area of ​​present-day Jyväskylä, Oravasaari (in the direction of Vaajakoski), Haapaniemi, Mankola (in the direction of Paloka), Rutala, Mikkola, (in the direction of Tikkakoski) Tikkamannila, Puuppola, Kuika, Nyrölä and (Vesanga) Siekkilä, Soikkala . There were many houses in the Old Korpilahti area: Maahi, Kurkela, Ekonen, Tissola, Hurttia, Härkölahti, Åland, Puolakka, Leustu, Oittila, Putkilahti, Könnö, Raidanlahti, Moksi, Kopiseva, Lehtimäki, Rutalahti, Särkijoki, Saukko, Maaja and Uittime as well as houses in the current Muurame area.

Of the houses, for example, the names of Kekkola, Kuokkala, Äijälä, Mattila and Tourula have survived to the present day as the names of the city's residential areas. However, the current Kekkola is located in a slightly different place than the Kekkola house on the shores of Lake Päijänne in Kuokkala at that time. Taavettila, later separated from Mattila, was located on the site of the present city center. Huikko and Tourula were on the east bank of the Tourujoki River. Houses were created in the coming centuries so that Jyväskylä became the largest village in Laukaa parish. Due to good water connections and roads, Jyväskylä developed into a small trading place. In 1801 it was granted market rights. When Jyväskylä was asked for city rights in the 1820s, the "liveliness" of the chapel church village was invoked; for there was a dye, a tanner, a goldsmith, and a brasserie and a medic, and there was always a place to eat.

 

City rights
Jyväskylä seceded from Laukaa by applying for city rights. The project was started by Major Carl Christian Rosenbröijer by presenting it at the 1823 Laukaa Parish Conference. City rights were granted in 1837, and the owners of the Taavettila and Mattila houses, located in the core area of ​​the present-day city district, had to sell their lands for the city. They were threatened with expropriation. Only a small part of the area received for the city was zoned, but the area had to be much larger so that there was enough pasture for the city's cows - even at that time it was not uncommon in Finnish cities for residents to own cows.

The area of ​​the old church in Jyväskylä (market place) would have been the most natural place for the city. However, that was not the only option. The Finnish Senate sent Jakob Leonard Boringh, an engineer at the main measurement office, to look for the most suitable city location. He also found suitable places in Kuokkala and Keljo, but in the end a market place was chosen, where the city was planned. Today, two other proposed sites also belong to the city area.

Almost all of the city's first residents came from outside the Jyväskylä region. The town plan for the new city was first designed by Boringh. It had fifteen blocks, each with eight plots, except for the middle block, which was the market square. C. L. Engel changed the formula by adding smaller plots at each end of the formula, enlarging the plots around the square and removing the transverse fire streets, i.e. the rows of hardwoods to prevent fires. The center of the current city is that area of ​​the Engel town plan. In 1838, the city had only 189 inhabitants.

19th century traffic
Regular steamship traffic began in the 1850s. The fact that the town was built in a chapel village that was not on the shores of Lake Päijänne was a bad solution for water transport, as large inland waterway vessels did not get directly into the city, but ships were left in the outer harbor on Lake At that time, a ship connection suitable for large inland waterway vessels was opened between Jyväsjärvi and Päijänne. When the Vääksy Canal was completed in 1871, another significant settlement center (the present city) was reached as far as Lahti. Soon another canal was completed, the Kalkkinen canal, which enabled shipping to Heinola. The channels significantly improved connections in Jyväskylä, Heinola and Lahti. The Haapamäki – Jyväskylä line (1897) significantly promoted the development of Jyväskylä's economic life and the industrialization of Central Finland as a whole.

Promoting Finnishness
In the 19th century, the most notable influencer in the Jyväskylä region was Wolmar Schildt, a district doctor, one of the most notable supporters of Finnish affairs. Thanks in large part to him, Jyväskylä developed into a pioneer of Finnish-language culture. A Finnish-language lyceum (now Jyväskylä Lyceum High School) was established in Jyväskylä in 1858, the first nationwide teacher seminar in 1863, from which the first primary school teachers graduated three years later, and a Finnish girls' school in 1864. These schools brought a large number of civilized Teachers from Jyväskylä included, for example, Kaarle Jaakko Gummerus, Karl Gustav Göös and Alexander Georg Weilin, who have become book publishers.

The beginning of the industry
In the late 19th century, the city and its surroundings prospered due to, among other things, the increase in the value of forests. During this time, many significant, still in use public buildings were built in the city. Gradually, industry rose in Jyväskylä; the first major mills were the Lohikoski paper mill and the Schauman plywood mill, which was established in 1912. Later, in the 1920s and 1930s, the Armed Forces arms industry was located in the Jyväskylä region, out of reach of enemy aircraft, the largest being the State Rifle Mill and the State Artillery Mill.

Athens, Finland
Jyväskylä's reputation as an educational and school city once gave rise to the city's nickname, Athens of Finland. Already at the time the first schools were founded, the city had dreamed of getting a university in the city. The first sign of the dream came true when Finland's first summer university was founded in the city in 1912. The teacher seminary was transformed in 1934 into the College of Education, which already had the right to award doctoral degrees. The actual university could be expected until 1966, when the University of Education became multidisciplinary and its name was changed to the University of Jyväskylä. Jyväskylä is still a major study city and its inhabitants are more educated than average. However, Jyväskylä lost its special status at the beginning of independence due to the progress of education and book education throughout Finland.

 

Building a city
Jyväskylä has become one of the largest city centers in Finland relatively late. Grown up by the Jyväskylä Lyceum, Alvar Aalto founded his architectural firm in Jyväskylä in the autumn of 1923 and has since designed numerous buildings for the city and its surroundings. Jyväskylä remained a fairly quiet school town until the early years of the 20th century, but it gradually began to grow and industrialize. OY Wilh. The completion of Schauman AB and defense institutions in Jyväskylä industrialized the city even before the Second World War, but it was only after the wars that the city began to grow rapidly and was no longer just Athens in Finland. Jyväskylä became one of Finland's most important industrial centers. In 40 years, the city’s population increased sixfold, extensive regional unions were made in the city (the most important in 1941 and 1965), and new residential suburbs were zoned. At the same time, almost all of the historic wooden houses in the center gave way to new buildings. This demolition frenzy was a nationwide phenomenon, but in Jyväskylä it was particularly devastating, and it was caused, at least in part, by a shortage of land.

After the Winter and Continuation Wars, settlers from the Sortavala countryside came to Jyväskylä.

In the 1960s, the cultural events Jyväskylä Summer and Jyväskylä Winter began. In 1951, the first major races in Jyväskylä were held, now called the Neste Rally.

Central Finland
Jyväskylä was the capital of the province of Central Finland during the county's existence in 1960–1997. In previous centuries, Jyväskylä, as part of the rest of Laukaa municipality, first belonged to Häme County until 1775, after which it belonged to Vaasa County until the establishment of the Province of Central Finland in 1960. In the 1997 county reform, Central Finland, together with the provinces of Turku and Pori and Vaasa, as well as the northern parts of Häme County, became part of the Province of Western Finland, whose capital was Turku.