Nivala is a Finnish city located in the province of Northern Ostrobothnia, along the middle reaches of the Kalajoki River in Oulu, about 150 km from Oulu and about 90 km from Kokkola and about 29 km from Ylivieska at the junction of highways 27 and 28. Nivala is part of the Nivala – Haapajärvi region. The city has a population of 10,622 and an area of 536.87 km², of which 9.03 km² are water bodies. The population density is 20.12 inhabitants / km². Nivala's neighboring municipalities are Haapajärvi, Haapavesi, Sievi and Ylivieska.



The Nivala region was already inhabited during the Stone Age. Weapons of the pre-ceramic period have been made in Konttila, Pajula and the Erkkisjärvi region. In Järjakpää, Sarjakylä, on the shores of Lake Erkkisjärvi, a residence has been found during the comb ceramics.

The Nivala regions were long inhabited by Lapps, whose memories include such place names as Lapinniemi, Lapinvainio and Lapintuli in Välikylä. From the 8th century onwards, Kainuu and Pirkkala bottom visitors came to the area, which were later joined by inland Häme residents. Gradually, the inhabitants of the Kalajoki Valley estuary took over the area. Permanent settlements in the region did not emerge until the 16th century. Initially, birch burning was practiced, which gave way to arable farming and tar burning in the 17th century. The peasants of the region transported their tar barrels along the river to the Kalajoki market. The region's new clearing work was hampered by repeated roof years, wars and heavy taxation. In the 17th century, there were decay years every decade. The Russians conquered the region in 1714, when the suffering of great hatred began. As a result of troubled times, Pidisjärvi had only two inhabited farms in 1719. It was not until after the little hatred that the population of the region began to grow rapidly in the mid-18th century. In terms of population and population density, Nivala developed into the core area of ​​the river valley.

The Nivala region initially belonged ecclesiastically to the parish priest of Saloinen and from 1540, whose first inhabitant was, according to Kyösti Wilkuna, Niva-Kaija, who named his house Nivala. In 1693 it became part of the Haapajärvi Chapel Parish. A private preaching room was built on Lake Pidisjärvi in ​​1682, but a separate rectory was not obtained until 1782. In 1782, the Ylivieska Välikylä was added to the parish area. Pidisjärvi received the rights of the chapel in 1802. The following year the chapel parish received a new church to replace the dilapidated church built in 1761. In 1838, Pidisjärvi became the chapel of the independent Haapajärvi parish. Nivala was separated as an independent parish by an imperial letter of order on May 11, 1868. At that time, the name of the parish was also changed to Nivala. The municipality of Nivala is a year older than the parish, it was founded in 1867. In 1805 there were more than 1,500 inhabitants and in 1860 the limit of 4,500 inhabitants was exceeded.

In the 19th century, Nivala's life was drastic. Nivala's forest robbers "knife-rivers" were known throughout the county. Counterbalance to moral decay was accompanied by a strong spiritual life. Under the leadership of Niilo Kustaa Malmberg, the region became the center of revival. During the great years of frost and famine in the 1860s, the Lestadian revival movement also gained support.

Nivala's oldest industries were tar burning and the production of potash and sage. There were also mills and sawmills in the area and later dairies. Nivala's first actual industrial plant was Nivala Nahkimo, which produced leather in 1873. Oy Jyrkänkoski, later Nivala Oy, which was mainly engaged in the wood industry, was founded in 1920. In the summer of 1932, the famous Nivala machine revolt caused great economic hardship. In 2004–2006, the River Valley Opera Center performed the Pula Opera, which tells of a cone revolt.

Nivala is also known as the homeowner of President Kyösti Kallio. Kallio was born in Ylivieska in 1873. Kallio moved to Nivala in 1895, when he bought the Heikkilä farm. In the late 1930s, Heikkilä developed into the largest farm in Oulu County under the care of the rock. From Rivaka’s host, I also moved time for many social activities. Kallio's career went through 1930 as President and Minister. The Winter War exhausted Kallio, and he resigned in 1940. When the journey home to Nivala began, Kallio died in front of an honorary company at Helsinki Central Station.

By the beginning of the 20th century, the population had already risen to almost 8,000. Demographic development continued throughout the first half of the 20th century, and in the early 1950s the peak of population development was reached, when Nivala had a population of just over 12,600. At that time, Nivala was one of the most densely populated rural municipalities in Oulu County. Over the next 20 years, however, the population declined by more than 2,500 residents. In the mid-1970s, the population began to grow again. In 1985, the population was 11,037.

In 1942, the Makola mine was opened, from which nickel-copper ore was mined until the mid-1950s, when the mine ran out. The new Malmio was discovered north of Makola in Hitura in 1962. Work began in Hitura in 1980. In 2010, the aim was to secure the mine's operations, and at that time it was assumed that the nickel reserves would be sufficient for at least six years. However, production at the Hitura mine was suspended in 2013 and the Hitura mining company went bankrupt in 2015. The final closure of the Hitura mine began in 2017.