Orivesi (formerly also Orihvesi) is a Finnish city located in the
province of Pirkanmaa. The city has 9,101 inhabitants and covers an
area of 960.08 km2, of which 160.43 km2 are water bodies. The
population density is 11.38 inhabitants / km2. Orivesi's neighboring
municipalities are Juupajoki, Jämsä, Kangasala, Kuhmoinen, Ruovesi
and Tampere. A large proportion of the locals call themselves
stallions. The municipality of Orivesi was founded in 1869. The
union of municipalities of Orivesi and Eräjärvi took place in 1973.
Since the beginning of 1986, Orivesi has been a city. At the
beginning of 2007, part of the municipality of Längelmäki was merged
Orivesi belongs to the historical province of Satakunta. Otava's Small Encyclopedia from 1927 mentions Orivesi in Eastern Satakunta.
The Orivesi Evangelical Lutheran Church belongs to the Diocese of Tampere. The local newspaper Oriveden Sanomat is published in Orivesi, and its distribution area also includes Juupajoki and Längelmäki.
A few dozen so-called Discovery of objects during the culture of Suomusjärvi, which shows that hunters and fishermen moved in the area early on. The bronze or Iron Age finds, on the other hand, are not known, so the Orivesi region may have been an uninhabited hinterland of the people of Kangasala. In the Middle Ages, settlers from some Kangasala villages moved to the area. The first mention of Orivesi as a parish, either as an independent or as a chapel in Kangasala, dates from 1466 in connection with a border dispute dealt with in the district. The Orivesi Priest, among others, appears in the district minutes.
Orivesi is first mentioned as an independent parish and parish in the 1540 land register, according to which there were 56 tax-paying houses there. Längelmäki and with it Kuorevesi separated from Orivesi in 1593. A regular so-called locker's mail route passed through Orivesi from 1598 onwards.
The first statesman to come from Orivesi was Jaakko Juhananpoika Kråkfelt, who cultivated Vetterkulla. A few years later, the greatest catastrophe in Orivesi history to date occurred, with about one in three inhabitants, 766 people, dying in the great famine of 1697.
In 1727, Orivesi held its first private market and it was organized until 1801, when it was abolished. In 1741, a parish hall was built where councils could be held. In 1776, Orivesi and its neighbors were transferred from the counties of Turku and Pori to the newly established county of Häme. Orivesi Fifth Church, the so-called Orivesi old church, completed in 1781. The church belfry was built in 1783-1793.
In 1860, Orivesi's first merchant, Alfred Grönfors, opened his shop in a church village. In 1868, steamship traffic began on the Hämeenlinna – Orivesi – Länkipohja route. The municipality of Orivesi was founded in 1869, when the municipal board and the head of the municipal assembly were elected in Orivesi.
In 1870, the first municipal board was elected in Eräjärvi and the first municipal meeting was held and the Orivesi namesake district was established. In 1872, the first primary school in Orivesi, the Kultavuori school in the church village and the Kirkonkylä library began to operate in the church village.
Orivesi's first post office was opened at Orivesi station in 1883, originally under the name Orihvesi. In the same year, the first agricultural exhibition in Orivesi was held at Kultavuori School. The first private telephone in the locality was acquired by the merchant Wilhelm Grönfors in 1887, and the following year the postal banking business began.
The first municipal doctor was admitted to the municipality in 1895. In 1898, a post office and the Orivesi telephone association were established in the church village, and the first shoe factory in Finland (founded by Edward Wallenius) in Korkeakoski.
When the army of the Grand Duchy of Finland was disbanded at the beginning of the 20th century, the former barracks of the 27th reserve company of the Hämeenlinna sniper battalion, which had been training in Orivesi until the end of the 19th century, were handed over to the leprosy hospital. Orivesi Leprosy Hospital was in operation from 1904 to 1953, while Orivesi Municipal Hospital had started operating in a rented apartment in 1902.
Orivesi's first sports and gymnastics club, Orivesi Ponnistus, was founded in 1908. In 1909, Orivesi Retirement Home began operations, and Orivesi College began operations as the Keski-Häme Folk High School in Länkipohja. In 1910, the college moved to the church village of Orivesi and a workers' house was built.
In 1911, the Hirsilä shoe factory began operations and Juho Nisula wrote the first Finnish-language local history of the Orivesi area, Piirteitä Eräjärvi parish. The first car in Orivesi was acquired by Kustaa Ala-Sahra from Sahrajärvi in 1912. The municipality of Juupajoki became independent and resigned from Orivesi in 1913.
In 1918, during the Civil War, Orivesi was the scene of fierce battles. The Reds held Orive for a couple of months. On March 18, 1918, the whites, led by Colonel Karl Fredrik Wilkman (Wilkama), took over the Orivesi railway station, but had to retreat, forced by the Reds who attacked by armored train, and the Reds, who had withdrawn from Vilppula, fled to Tamper. The White Forces finally captured Orivesi on March 20.
Oriveden Kenkätehdas Oy and Kuusisto's footwear factory began
operations in 1918. In 1919, the first municipal councils of Orivesi
and Eräjärvi began operations, and Orivesi's first municipal clerk
began his work. The Karelian shoe factory began operations and
Oriveden Sähkö Oy was founded.
The Orivesi Municipal Library began operations in 1921. In 1923, the Orivesi Municipal Hospital was completed in connection with the Tähtiniemi Retirement Home Hospital. The Orivesi co-educational school began as a private home school in 1924. In 1926, the village of Siitama was merged from Kangasala to Orivesi, Oriveden Sanomat began to appear and Auvinen's house was built in the church village of Orivesi. In 1927, the Orivesi Telephone Association became Oriveden Puhelin Oy.
In the 1930s, the Orivesi Co-educational School building (1931), the Paltanmäki Open-Air Museum (1934) and the first modern plastered brick residential and commercial building in Orivesi Church Village (1937) were commissioned. Ensi Oy 's shoe factory began operations in 1937.
During World War II, there was an infantry training center in Orivesi. After the Continuation War, the Valkjärvi migrant population was settled in Orivesi and Orivesi developed into a remarkable service center in Northeast Pirkanmaa. In 1946, Orivesi Co-educational School became the leading university and the upper secondary school began operations. The Orivesi Regional Citizens 'College (originally the Orivesi Workers' College) began operations in 1947.
In the 1950s, the Orivesi municipal semi-permanent fire brigade (1951) and the Orivesi water supply cooperative (1955) were established. The Orivesi-Jämsä railway line was opened to traffic in 1952. In 1953, the new main building of Orivesi College was completed, in connection with which the Klemetti College was also opened. The new municipal hospital and the Rönn dance floor were completed in 1957. The old church in Orivesi was destroyed in a fire in 1958.
In 1961, the first mayor of Orivesi began his work and the elementary schools in the side villages were closed. In the 1960s, the Orivesi Arch Church (1961), the Vocational School of the Orivesi, Eräjärvi, Juupajoki, Ruovesi and Längelmäki Municipal Associations (1962) and the art exhibition Purnu (1967) designed by Professor and sculptor Aimo Tukiainen were introduced. The first building plan for Kirkonkylä was completed in 1966. By the end of the 1960s, the church village and station area had grown into one of the municipality's largest agglomerations, where more than half of the municipality's population lived. The development of the area was also facilitated by the improvement of transport connections in the 1960s and 1970s.
A new, much faster route on Highway 9 to Tampere was opened to traffic in 1972. The Orivesi and Eräjärvi municipal unions took place in 1973. In 1974, the Orivesi Regional Public Health Association's health center began operations and municipal day care began. Orivesi entered the primary school system in 1975. Orivesi was once known for making footwear and was called a shoemaker. In the 1970s, the municipality had a total of six shoe factories, employing more than 500 people and producing about 4,500 pairs of footwear a day, which accounted for ten per cent of the total production of the Finnish shoe industry.
In the 1980s, a new nursing home (1981), a new main health station (1982) and a sports hall (1988) were opened. From the beginning of 1986, Orivesi became a city.
The Orivesi ice rink was completed in 1997.
In 2005-2014, Orivesi hosted the Hole Edge Film Festival, which included a film competition, domestic and international feature films, short speeches by filmmakers, music and art exhibitions.
From the beginning of 2007, part of the municipality of Längelmäki was connected to Orivete, part to Jämsä.
At the beginning of the 2010s, Orivesi had financially difficult years. In 2013 and 2014, social security costs increased rapidly, as a result of which taxation was tightened in 2015 as part of an extensive economic rebalancing program. With the program, the direction changed, net expenses decreased by more than four percent and the financial statements were positive. A significant change was the start of SOTE co-operation with Tampere.
The Orivesi College, which has been operating in Orivesi since 1910 and focused on art education, transferred its education to Tampere in the summer of 2018. The college was maintained by the Support Association (1909-1946), the Folk Education Society (1946-2014) and the Ahlman School Foundation (2015-). During the summer, the college housed the Klemetti College, where choir singing, choir conducting, solo singing and pronunciation courses were held.