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Binz

 

 

Binz is the largest seaside resort on the island of Rügen. The municipality is part of the Vorpommern-Rügen district in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. It bears the name Binz and the prefix Ostseebad. Binz forms a basic center for its surroundings. The seaside resort is known as a holiday destination for its variety of culture and events, splendid spa architecture, the Granitz hunting lodge, the “Colossus of Prora”, the fine sandy beach and the surrounding nature, which is also documented and made tangible in the Rügen Natural Heritage Center.

 

History

Fishing and farming village
1318 the place was first mentioned as "Byntze" in a tax collection of the county Streu. The core of the settlement was today's middle Bahnhofstrasse and Rabenstrasse, alongside the individual farmsteads Granitz-Hof and Aalbeck. The parish village and center of the parish was Zirkow.

A first hint of the later importance as a seaside resort emerged as early as 1830, when guests of Prince zu Putbus bathed at the mouth of the Ahlbeck (outflow of the Schmachter See). In 1835 a one-class school was established. Around 1850, farmers in Binz were allowed to buy the land previously leased from Prince zu Putbus.

The place was part of the Principality of Rügen until 1326 and then the Duchy of Pomerania. With the Peace of Westphalia of 1648, Rügen and thus also the town of Binz became part of Swedish Pomerania. In 1815, Binz came to the Prussian province of Pomerania as part of New Western Pomerania. From 1818 Binz belonged to the local district of Rügen.

Development to the Baltic seaside resort
Bathing in the sea became fashionable around 1875. The first guests came to the small town of Binz, took a liking to it and recommended it to others. In the same year the first road connecting the village to the beach (Putbuser Straße) was built. Ten years later, Binz officially became a seaside resort, which resulted in a lot of building work: the beach promenade, the pier, the Kurhaus, a new network of paths and the small railroad connection. Around 1870 there were 80 bathers per year. In Binz and other seaside resorts on the Baltic Sea coast, no large hotels were built at the end of the 19th century, but lodging houses in the villa style of the so-called resort architecture. They were given names shaped by the zeitgeist: nationalistic ones such as “Germania” or names of family members - often the first name of the builder's wife. The first hotel was built in 1876. In 1880 Wilhelm Klünder had the beach hotel built as the first hotel near the beach. In 1888 the public limited company Ostseebad Binz was founded, which opened the first Kurhaus Binz in 1890 and went bankrupt in 1891.

In 1892 Binz gained the status of an independent rural community. From 1896 ships of the Stettiner shipping company Braeunlich connected the places Stettin-Binz-Sassnitz with each other. A brisk construction activity followed. In 1893 the first Kurhaus and the Kaiserhof were built. In 1895 the Putbus-Binz small train line and the beach promenade were built, and in 1898 the first post office was built (Kliesow house, Hauptstrasse). Separate women's and men's baths have been created on the beach. In 1902 a 600 meter long pier was built. Further infrastructural measures were the drinking water supply and sewerage (1903) and the construction of a power station (Jasmunder Straße).

Two setbacks were the destruction of the pier by a storm on New Year's Eve in 1905 and the fire at the Kurhaus in 1906. After the pier was rebuilt, a new Kurhaus was built in 1908. A family bathroom was also created. In 1912, part of the bridge collapsed, killing 16 people, including two children. As a result, the DLRG was founded in Leipzig in 1913.

In 1913 the Protestant church was consecrated and in 1928 the new post office building on Zeppelinstrasse was completed. Little by little, the bathing establishments built on the beach disappeared. The Herrenbad was demolished in 1922 and the last one was the family bath in 1932.

National Socialism
In 1937, extensive work began in Prora on the KdF seaside resort of Rügen, which was to be expanded to become the largest and most modern seaside resort in Europe. In the same year the Kurplatz was rebuilt. The Binz station building (now DB) was built in 1938, and the Lietzow – Binz railway line opened in 1939.

The pier was destroyed again by ice in 1942. After the Second World War in 1945, refugees and resettlers were housed in hotels, guest houses and villas.

GDR
In 1945 the district of Rügen and thus also Binz was incorporated into the state of Mecklenburg of the Soviet occupation zone and belonged there to the district of Rügen. With the GDR territorial reform in 1952, Binz became part of the newly created Putbus district, which was dissolved again in 1955. Since then, Binz has belonged to the Rügen district in the Rostock district.

1950 Binz Bad became the SDAG Wismut. The interrupted work on the buildings of the KdF baths continued after 1950 in order to create barracks for the People's Police, which were later used by the National People's Army.

In 1952 the Lietzow – Binz railway was put back into operation.

 

In 1953, the "Rose Action" also took place in Binz. Owners of hotels, guest houses and houses were arbitrarily criminalized, arrested and expropriated. In 1956, the FDGB took over the first holiday home in Binz with the Seeschloß. From 1972 onwards, further holiday homes were built for the FDGB (e.g. Haus Arkona, Haus Rügen, Haus Rugard). A residential area in prefabricated construction was created north of the previous place, which affects the established appearance of the place. The Ahlbeck, which carries the water from the Schmachter See into the Baltic Sea, was piped in the 1950s. The "mouth" of the pipe section is on Binzer Strand and is now provided with a sign. From 1970 to 1985, a large residential area west with 736 prefabricated apartments was built.

Time from 1990
In 1990 the Rügen district became part of the state of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. Since the district reform in 2011, Binz has been in the Vorpommern-Rügen district.

With the social change in the GDR and the German reunification, there were also clear changes for Binz. Many of the old villas on the beach promenade and throughout the village have been returned to their previous owners. A wave of renovations, reconstructions and new buildings began. The former FDGB holiday homes have also been privatized and completely modernized. In addition, numerous new buildings were built, both on the periphery and in the center. The streets and sidewalks were extensively repaired and the beach promenade was extended towards the Prora. The Kurplatz received a new design.

In 1990 the tourist association Binz e. V. founded, in 1994 the new, 370 meter long pier was inaugurated, which replaces the bridge that was destroyed in 1942.

In 1998 the new municipal administration building was inaugurated on Jasmunder Strasse. The Haus des Gastes was opened in 2000 and the Kurpark Binz in 2002. In 2003 the promenade at Schmachter See and the Park of the Senses were opened. Since May 2007, the entire main street and the splendid turning area have shone in new splendor.