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With 250,000 inhabitants, Brunswick is the second largest city in Lower Saxony after Hanover. The Oker flows through the city and the Mittelland Canal runs through it.

According to legend, the city of Brunswick was founded in 861. However, the earliest document only documents its foundation in 1031.

The historic center of the city, the Brunswick inner city, got its present-day expansion through city expansion in the second half of the 12th century, when the Saxon Duke Heinrich the Lion (1129–1195) chose Brunswick as his residence. As a member of the German Hanseatic League, the city subsequently became an important trading center in northern Germany.

In the middle of the 20th century, Brunswickappearance was still characterized by more than 800 half-timbered buildings, some of which had already been built in the Middle Ages. Destruction during the Second World War fundamentally changed the cityscape. In addition to the reconstructed individual buildings, the so-called traditional islands, five restored areas in the Brunswick city center, give an impression of the former medieval image of the city center.

Today the regional center Brunswick is an important European location for science and research. The automotive industry is one of the most important industries in the region.



Traditional islands
1 traditional island Burgplatz
2 traditional island of Aegidien
3 traditional island Magniviertel
4 Traditional island old town market
5 The traditional island of Michaelisviertel



The Brunswick Cathedral, also called St. Blasii Cathedral in Brunswick and formerly the Collegiate Church of St. Blasius and St. Johannis the Baptist, is the most important church in Brunswick. It was founded in 1173 as a collegiate church by Heinrich the Lion, Duke of Bavaria and Saxony, opposite his Dankwarderode castle "to the honor of St. Blasius and St. John the Baptist" and designated by him as his burial place and that of his second wife Mathilde of England.



Prehistory and Saxon settlement
The oldest finds in the Braunschweiger Land, the so-called Schöninger spears, are around 300,000 years old. But also in the urban area itself, especially in the area surrounding today's Wenden district, finds from the Neolithic, Bronze and Iron Ages were made, which indicate a very early first settlement.

In Germanic times, today's Braunschweiger Land was probably the settlement area of ​​the Cherusci and Angrivarians, or possibly the Elbe Germans. However, these were all gradually subjugated, driven out or joined the Sachsenbund. The Saxons were the dominant power in the region from around 500 AD. Since that time, there are also evidence of Saxon settlements. It is unclear whether a village already existed at the site of today's Braunschweig, which was destroyed in the course of the Saxon Wars.

City foundation and the Middle Ages
The river Oker, which flows through the city, had a great influence on the founding and development of the city. This has been the border between the dioceses of Halberstadt and Hildesheim since around 800 AD and promoted the development of the city through a ford that is important for trade. The settlements of Brunswik and Dankwarderode were probably built on both sides of the Oker in the 9th century. According to the legend of the Braunschweigische Reimchronik, the first settlement in the area of ​​what is today Braunschweig is said to have been founded in 861. The seriousness of this source is now doubted by experts, which is why the year 1031 is considered the first documentary evidence of the existence of a settlement. The basis for this is the ordination of the Magni Church.

The rulers of Braunschweig had been the Brunones, descendants of Brun (o) (the legend after the city's founder) since the 10th century. Via Richenza von Northeim, niece of Brunonen Ekbert II, and their daughter Gertrud von Süpplingenburg, the city of Braunschweig and the entire Duchy of Saxony went to Heinrich the Lion, Duke of Saxony and Bavaria in 1142.

Under Heinrich's influence, Braunschweig developed into a powerful city, which he expanded into his residence. So he had the Dankwarderode Castle expanded and the Brunswick Cathedral built. Heinrich chose the lion as his heraldic animal and had its bronze image set up in front of the cathedral on Burgplatz around 1166. Since then, the Braunschweig lion has been the city's symbol and heraldic animal.

The Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg also goes back to Heinrich the Lion and was part of the land of the Guelphs. It was named after the two largest cities, Braunschweig and Lüneburg. As early as 1267/1269 the duchy was divided into the principalities of Lüneburg and Braunschweig. The city of Braunschweig remained the common domain, but also the residence of the Braunschweig line of the Welfs. The Jewish community, which developed in the early 14th century, comprised around 150 people in 1350.

Braunschweig gained its urban independence in 1432 after the sovereigns had relocated their residence to nearby Wolfenbüttel due to increasing tensions with the Braunschweig urban population. Along with Paris and Ghent, Braunschweig was considered to be one of the most restless cities in late medieval and early modern Europe, as constitutional conflicts repeatedly broke out through revolutionary civil unrest, the Braunschweig classes.

Braunschweig developed economically thanks to its favorable location on the Oker, which was navigable from Braunschweig. As a result, Braunschweig developed into an important trading city, which led to membership in the Hanseatic League from the middle of the 13th century. After Braunschweig received the mint as a pledge in 1296 and as property in 1412, the coin denial and the renewal of bracteate pennies, which was a disruptive effect on trade, were eliminated through its own coinage, the so-called Eternal Pfennig.

According to the resolution of the Hanseatic League in 1494, the Hanseatic League was now divided into four (quarters) power blocks instead of three (thirds). Alongside Magdeburg, Braunschweig developed into a suburb of the Saxon city union and thus led the so-called "Saxon quarter" and thus the Hanseatic cities between the Weser and Elbe. In 1669 Braunschweig was one of the last nine cities remaining in the Hanseatic League. From an economic point of view, Braunschweig was not only a trading city, but also a production location, primarily for cloth, metal goods and agricultural products. Braunschweiger Mumme beer was internationally known then and still is today.


Originally a ducal Vogt was at the head of the city of Braunschweig, but the office was given to citizens as early as the 12th century. There was a council in the three soft areas of Altstadt, Hagen and Neustadt in the first half of the 13th century. The three councils merged into a single council in 1269. The composition of the council varied several times in the course of history, in 1386 it had 105 members, from 1614 only 56. The current administration was incumbent on a committee of the council, the "narrow council", which from 1386 had 25, from 1614 15 members.

Early modern age
In 1671 a force of the Guelph princes conquered the city and put it back under the rule of the Principality of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel. This ended the era of the independent, almost imperial city of Braunschweig. In 1753 the residence was moved back to Braunschweig in the newly built Braunschweig Palace. More than 4,000 people followed the ducal family and also moved to Braunschweig, which at the same time led to the decline of Wolfenbüttel.

After the city lost its independence in 1671, there was only one council consisting of 16 senators, which had to be confirmed by the duke. The council was headed by a mayor.

19th century
After the Peace of Tilsit (1807) and the creation of the Kingdom of Westphalia by Napoleon Bonaparte, the city and duchy of Braunschweig were occupied by the French and Braunschweig was the capital of the newly designed Oker department. It was now the "Maire constitution", with a "Maire" (mayor) at the head of the city.

During the Wars of Liberation in 1813 Braunschweig troops under the leadership of Johann Elias Olfermann entered the city and restored the old Duchy of Braunschweig for Duke Friedrich Wilhelm. This was confirmed by the Congress of Vienna in the following year and the city was initially assigned to the Wolfenbüttel district directorate.

The old constitution with the council, which was now called “City Court”, was reintroduced. After the judiciary and administration were separated in 1825, the council was called magistrate. As early as 1813, the mayor had the title of “city director”, and since 1848 Braunschweig has had a lord mayor.

In 1825 the city was given the status of a city directly connected to the state. In 1833 it became the seat of its own district directorate (from which the district of Braunschweig later emerged), before it again became directly regional in 1850. From 1870 the city finally belonged to the Braunschweig district administration. In 1871 the duchy became a federal state of the German Empire.

The 7th German Fire Brigade Day took place in Braunschweig from September 6th to 8th, 1868.

In 1874 Konrad Koch introduced the soccer game in Germany as a teacher at the Martino-Katharineum.

When Guelph Duke Wilhelm died in 1884 without a legitimate heir, a “Regency Council” initially took over the affairs of state in Braunschweig. It was not until 1913 that the Hohenzollern and the House of Hanover were reconciled, and Ernst August, the last Welf, ruled the Duchy of Braunschweig until the abdication in 1918.

The Braunschweig – Calvörde postal route ran through Braunschweig in the 18th and 19th centuries.

Weimar Republic
As in the rest of the German Empire, towards the end of the First World War there was an economic, social and political crisis in Braunschweig, which led to the November Revolution in Braunschweig. After the workers 'and soldiers' council under August Merges forced the abdication of the last duke, Ernst August von Braunschweig-Lüneburg, on November 8, 1918, the council took over political leadership and proclaimed the "Socialist Republic of Braunschweig" under the leadership of President Merges.


The situation in the city of Braunschweig came to a head when the Spartakists called a general strike on April 9, 1919. The strike meant that the trains were no longer dispatched and the important east-west traffic was blocked. The result was a backwater that caused traffic chaos across Germany. From April 11th, public life in the city came to a standstill. In order to restore law and order, the Reich government imposed a state of siege on the city and the Free State of Braunschweig. On April 17th, 10,000 Freikorps troops under General Georg Maercker entered the city and took it over peacefully. After the formation of a new government under Prime Minister Heinrich Jasper, the troops left Braunschweig again in May. Almost a year after the Freikorps troops had withdrawn, the Kapp Putsch took place in Berlin on March 13, 1920, which failed after just 100 hours, but also had political and social effects in Braunschweig; i.a. there was a general strike in 141 Braunschweig companies and incidents similar to civil war with injuries and deaths. In the end, the Jasper government resigned and there were new elections. The new Prime Minister was Sepp Oerter of the USPD. As a result of the hyperinflation of 1922, there was unemployment, poverty, unrest and political crises in Europe and around the world, and Braunschweig was not spared.

Some Braunschweig artists became known worldwide through their turn to constructivism, including Thilo Maatsch, Walter Dexel and Rudolf Jahns. In September 1924, the collector Otto Ralfs founded the Society of Friends of Young Art (GFJK) in the city. Lyonel Feininger and Paul Klee belonged. Wassily Kandinsky designed the signet for this artists' association. The GFJK. dissolved itself under pressure from the National Socialists in 1933.

Time of the national socialism
From 1923 the National Socialist German Workers' Party gained more and more influence and already moved into the Braunschweig Landtag with a member in 1924. In the state elections on November 27, 1927, the NSDAP received 3.7% of the votes and in the election on September 14, 1930 (although the population of the city of Braunschweig was more proletarian). The DVP refused to form a grand coalition; on October 1, 1930, the state parliament elected (with the votes of the civil unity list) a coalition government made up of the DNVP and NSDAP. This government ("Ministry Küchenthal" under Werner Küchenthal) held office until May 7, 1933. In 1931, around 100,000 SA men marched in front of the Braunschweig Castle in the presence of Adolf Hitler (SA deployment in Braunschweig). On February 25, 1932, Hitler received a state office in Braunschweig at the instigation of the NSDAP. This gave Hitler German citizenship, which was a prerequisite for his candidacy in the 1932 presidential election.

In the time of National Socialism, the head of the city was appointed by the NSDAP. Under the Klagge cabinet, shortly after the Nazi regime came to power in 1933, there were numerous acts of violence against political opponents, Jews and other unpopular groups of people. An early example of organized repression against Jews is the “Warenhaussturm” of March 11, 1933. After the Stahlhelm Putsch on March 27 and the Rieseberg murders of July 4, 1933, the SPD politician Hans Reinowski, who had fled into exile, published the documentation Terror in Braunschweig. Klagges ’goal was to build a National Socialist model state and thus to consolidate his own position. To this end, he brought important National Socialist institutions such as the German Aviation Research Institute and an SS Junker School to the city and also built and expanded the Free State of Braunschweig into an armaments center for the German Reich from 1933 to 1945. Companies that were important to the war included the Lower Saxony Motor Works, the Braunschweig Aircraft Works, the Braunschweigische Maschinenbauanstalt, the MIAG, the Luther-Werke, the Vorwerk Braunschweig, the Büssing NAG, the Schuberth-Werke, Franke & Heidecke, Voigtländer and the Braunschweig canning industry.


These businesses attracted thousands of new workers who needed affordable housing quickly. Based on the Nazi honorary title of German cities, Braunschweig gave itself the nickname “German settlement city”. Parallel to the expansion of industry, "National Socialist model settlements" emerged, such as the "Dietrich-Klagges-Stadt" (today garden city), the Lehndorf settlement, Mascherode-Südstadt, Schunter and Wabetalsiedlung.

As the war progressed, however, the number of employees in the factories fell not only because workers were drafted into military service (and fell or were wounded), but also because of civilian casualties due to the effects of the war. Since the armaments industry grew at the same time and produced more war material, a “supply” of workers had to be brought in. As in the rest of the Reich, where around six million civilian forced laborers, around two million prisoners of war and more than 700,000 concentration camp prisoners had to work for the German war economy at the end of 1944, this also happened on a smaller scale in the city and country of Braunschweig. There were 802 camps of all kinds here. Among other things, foreign workers were recruited, but mostly forced laborers had to do the work. These forced laborers mostly lived in camps near the factories. There were two satellite camps of Neuengamme concentration camp in the city: the Schillstrasse concentration camp and the SS riding school concentration camp. In addition, there were numerous other camps, such as the “Camp Schützenplatz” or the camp Ackerstraße, Frankfurter Straße, the “Voigtländerlager” or the maternity home for Eastern workers. There were also several camps outside the city, some of which existed until shortly before the end of the war. The highest number of forced laborers was reached in autumn 1944: around 43,000 civilian forced laborers, including around 15,000 women, had to work together with around 8,800 concentration camp inmates. At the truck manufacturer Büssing NAG alone, under Director General Rudolf Egger-Büssing, 1,300 concentration camp inmates (1,200 of them Jews) had to work. Most of these forced laborers and concentration camp prisoners were Eastern workers, the majority from the Soviet Union and Poland.

During the Second World War, Braunschweig was the target of numerous Allied air raids. These destroyed around 90 percent of the inner city and 42 percent of the entire city. The most devastating was the bombing raid on Braunschweig on October 15, 1944, in which 233 Lancaster bombers of No. 5 Bomber Group Royal Air Force (RAF) sparked a raging firestorm for two and a half days by dropping around 200,000 phosphorus, incendiary and high-explosive bombs. More than a thousand people died in this attack. During the entire war, around 3,500 people died in bomb attacks; almost half of them were prisoners of war, forced laborers and concentration camp inmates.

On April 10, 1945, the Braunschweig combat commander, Lieutenant General Karl Veith, negotiated with Leland S. Hobbs, commanding general of the 30th US Infantry Division, about the surrender of the city. Veith agreed to withdraw the remaining German troops from the city, but refused to formally surrender. Thereupon the US troops continued the artillery bombardment of the city, accompanied by low-flying attacks, until the evening hours of April 11th. On this day, the then incumbent NSDAP Lord Mayor Hans-Joachim Mertens committed suicide. NSDAP Prime Minister Dietrich Klagges appointed lawyer Erich Bockler to Mertens ’successor. NSDAP district leader Berthold Heilig and other NS functionaries fled from the approaching troops in the evening and at night. The surrender of the city of Braunschweig was completed on Thursday, April 12, 1945 at 02:59 a.m., after which US troops occupied the city without a fight. Klagges was arrested on April 13, and the Allied military government moved into Veltheim's house on Burgplatz. On June 5, 1945, the British Army replaced the United States Army; Braunschweig came to the British zone of occupation.

Post-war years and reconstruction
At the beginning of the Second World War, Braunschweig had 202,284 inhabitants; At the end of the war, this number had decreased by 26 percent, i.e. by more than a quarter to 149,641. The city was one of the most heavily destroyed German cities. The degree of destruction in the city center (within the Okerring) was 90 percent, the total degree of destruction in the city was 42 percent. The total volume of rubble was around 3.7 million cubic meters. The demolition took 17 years until it was officially declared over in 1963. In fact, however, it continued on a small scale for decades afterwards.


In 1946, the military government (Control Commission for Germany) of the British zone of occupation introduced the local constitution based on the British model. Then there was a council elected by the people. This elected the mayor from among his number as chairman and representative of the city, who was active on a voluntary basis. In addition, from 1946 there was a full-time senior city director, also elected by the council, as head of the city administration. A Jewish community has existed again since 1945. At first it was under the protection of the military government.

Due to the acute need for living space, reconstruction made rapid progress in the 1950s and 60s. Since the inner city was almost completely destroyed, city planners and architects built a new, modern and above all “car-friendly city”, trying to implement the maxim of the “Braunschweig School” developed at the Technical University. For this purpose, the remainder of the urban landscape, which had grown over centuries, was significantly interfered with, which, for example, led to the further demolition of intact buildings in many places for newly constructed streets. More than a hundred buildings were demolished for the main station southeast of the city center, which opened in 1960 and replaced the old terminus as a through station. For decades, these breaks were the cause of controversial discussions.

Numerous new buildings were built, for example the new Karstadt department store based on plans by the architect Ernst Kreytenberg.

In a representative EU citizens' survey "Urban Audit" carried out in 2010, Braunschweig was certified as having a high quality of life. Braunschweig, for example, ranks fifth in Germany when it comes to the satisfaction of citizens with living in the city. Otherwise, Braunschweig scores above all for cleanliness, the appearance of the city and public safety. The high level of public safety is confirmed by a current study from 2012, according to which Braunschweig ranks first among the 50 largest cities in Germany due to its high clearance rates and a low number of offenses. In the city ranking of Wirtschaftswoche, in which 71 cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants were examined, Braunschweig turned out to be 7th place as one of the most rapidly developing cities and scored particularly well in terms of childcare and strong economic data. For the future, the Zukunftsatlas 2013 study predicts “very high opportunities” for Braunschweig, since it houses not only top-level university research but also a large part of VW's added value. For these reasons, Braunschweig is also a “swarm city”, one of the few cities in which particularly many 25 to 34 year olds settle down. There have been contacts between Braunschweig and the Israeli city of Kiryat Tivon since 1968, which resulted in a twinning between 1985 and 1986.

In 2017, Braunschweig was awarded the honorary title of “Reformation City of Europe” by the Community of Evangelical Churches in Europe.

COVID-19 pandemic in Braunschweig
The respiratory disease COVID-19, which appeared in Germany at the beginning of 2020, also spread to Braunschweig. The first medically proven and officially registered case in the city was documented on March 4, 2020. The first SARS-CoV-2-related death was registered on March 30, 2020.

As in the whole of Germany, the laws and ordinances issued in connection with the health crisis were implemented in Braunschweig, including exit and contact restrictions and the closure of general schools. On March 18, there was a ban on large gatherings in the city and the closure or restriction of leisure activities. Online information platforms have been set up for the population. On April 25, 2020, Braunschweig introduced the obligation to wear so-called everyday masks in shops and in local public transport.

In addition to other medical research institutions and companies from Braunschweig, such as B. the company Yumab, is the local Helmholtz Center for Infection Research (HZI) with scientists such. B. Melanie Brinkmann, Luka Cicin-Sain, Gérard Krause or Michael Meyer-Hermann in association with other research institutions around the world developing diagnostic and therapeutic concepts and coronavirus vaccines.



Geographical location

Braunschweig lies in the north German lowlands on the dividing line between the loess bordes of the northern Harz foreland and the geest plates beginning in the north of the city. In detail, four natural areas meet in the area of ​​the core city: the hill country east of Brunswick, the Braunschweig-Hildesheimer Lössbörde that extends to the south-west, the Burgdorf-Peiner Geestplatten to the north-west and the east Brunswick flatland that extends north-east towards Wolfsburg. The Oker, which runs in a south-north direction, forms a natural boundary with the Börßum-Braunschweiger Okertal and the partly fragile, formerly swampy soils.

The river is dammed in the south by a weir and flows around the city center to the west and east in two flood ditches that were created for better defense in the Middle Ages and reunite in the northwest of the city. The water level in the urban area is regulated by two further weirs. Other bodies of water are the Wabe and Mittelriede, which flow into the Schunter in Braunschweig.

The urban area extends over an area of ​​192 km², enclosed by a city boundary with a length of 98 km. The north-south extension is 19.1 km and the west-east extension 15.7 km. The inner city area is located at an average height of 70 m above sea level. The highest point is the Geitelder Berg with a height of 111 m above sea level; the deepest point is an old Okerschleife with 62 m above sea level in the northwest.

Clockwise, starting in the northeast, the following communities border on Braunschweig: Lehr (Helmstedt district), Cremlingen, Sickte (Sickte municipality) and Wolfenbüttel (all Wolfenbüttel district), Salzgitter (district-free city), Vechelde and Wendeburg (Peine district) and Schwülper, Vordorf and Meine (all of the municipality in Papenteich, Gifhorn district).

City structure
As of November 1981, the city area was divided into 22 city districts in accordance with the then applicable Lower Saxony municipal code (NGO). Their number was reduced to 21 after ten years (through the merger of Lehndorf-Lamme-Kanzlerfeld and Watenbüttel-Ölper-Völkenrode to Lehndorf-Watenbüttel), after another ten years to 20 (through the merger of Südstadt-Rautheim and Mascherode to Südstadt-Rautheim- Mascherode) and again after ten years to 19 (through merging of Wabe-Schunter and Bienrode-Waggum-Bevenrode to Wabe-Schunter-Beberbach). As a result of a reorganization of the Lower Saxony state electoral districts, from whose constituency number the first digit of the city district number is derived, the official city district numbers were also changed.

A district council is elected for each district - with a number of, depending on the number of inhabitants, a minimum of 7 and a maximum of 19 members defined in the city's main statute, each of whom has elected a district mayor and his deputy as chairman. In addition to the general representation of the interests of their respective districts and the promotion of their positive development within the Braunschweig city as a whole, the area of ​​responsibility of the city district councils includes decisions on the matters of their own sphere of activity and above assigned to them by the Lower Saxony Municipal Constitutional Act (which replaces the NGO) and the main statutes Citizens' surveys in the municipality. In addition, the city district councils have the right to be heard on land-use planning as well as on other questions of their own and delegated sphere of activity before resolutions of the council and the administrative committee, to request residents' assemblies to be held by the main administrative officer, to submit suggestions, to give suggestions and to express concerns.

For voting in political elections, the city is divided into 169 general electoral districts and 36 postal voting districts. In municipal elections, the electoral area for the election of the city district councils consists of the area of ​​the respective city district, for the election of the representative (city council) and the direct election of the main administrative officer (lord mayor) from the entire city area, which is divided into eight electoral areas.

In the case of state elections in Lower Saxony, the urban area is divided into the three state electoral districts of Braunschweig-Nord, Braunschweig-Süd and Braunschweig-West, with the special feature that the municipality of Vechelde, located in the district of Peine, belongs to the Braunschweig-Süd constituency. In the case of federal elections, the Bundestag constituency of Braunschweig is congruent with the city area, which is also not further subdivided in European elections - except for the division into electoral districts for voting.



The city of Braunschweig lies in the transition area between the maritime climate in the west and the continental climate in the east. The proximity to the North Sea is also a decisive climate factor. The mean annual temperature is 8.8 ° C, and around 600 to 650 mm of precipitation fall per year. The mean temperature in July is 17.5 ° C, in January 0.2 ° C.



The Brunswieker Platt was spoken in Braunschweig up to the middle of the 20th century and is still used in isolated cases today. It is a regional variant of the dialect of Lower Saxon, officially named as Ostfälisch. In the 19th century it was increasingly replaced by Standard German. The dialect high German of the Braunschweig region is called Braunschweigisch and is characterized in particular by the “clear A” (long pronunciation of the letter A, but it sounds a bit like an open O). In general, the High German spoken in the Braunschweig-Celle-Hannover region is considered to be the purest nationwide, since Low German had the best supply of sounds in this Lower Saxony area to reproduce the standardized written German.

Nevertheless, there are many phonetic peculiarities that have made Braunschweig an independent dialect. So one speaks z. B. from "Tüsch", "Füsch" and from "Köache", "Höasch" or "Köaschen" - means table, fish, church, deer and cherries. Brunswick also tends to have a very open, short u, which comes close to o: "Gorke", "korz", "Korve", "Borg", "Worst" (for nhd. Cucumber, short, curve, castle and sausage). Diphthongs are "smoothed out", but generally not completely: "Broounschwaaich". The colloquial language that dominates the city today is inconspicuous, only slightly colored standard German.

The use of the spelling of the "unhappy [n] Verification German, Braunschweig" from "Brunswiek" "is first documented in 1542. Internationally, the historical form Brunswick with the Middle Low German stretch-c has also been preserved.

According to the latest status of place name research from 2018 by Herbert Blume et al. it seems likely that the original form “Brūnes-wīk” may go back to the (pre-) migration period and the meaning “settlement above an edge, on a higher bank” (meaning “on a bank section above the river Oker” “) Is. The linguist and name researcher Werner Flechsig had already pointed out the possibility in 1954 that it could be a settlement created by clearing and burning. At the beginning of the 2000s, Jürgen Udolph also presented his interpretation of the meaning of the name, in which, like Flechsig before, he also came to the conclusion that the original component of the place name can be traced back to a slash and burn at the later settlement location.