Braunschweig is a city in the south-east of Lower Saxony. With
248,823 inhabitants (as of December 31, 2021), it is the second
largest city in Lower Saxony after Hanover. The independent city is
part of the Hanover-Brunswick-Göttingen-Wolfsburg metropolitan
region, which was founded in 2005. Around 337,000 people live in the
Braunschweig metropolitan area (agglomeration).
Braunschweig's origins go back to the early 9th century. The city quickly developed into a powerful and influential trading metropolis, particularly thanks to Henry the Lion, which belonged to the Hanseatic League from the mid-13th century. Braunschweig was the capital of the state of the same name until it was merged into the newly created state of Lower Saxony in 1946. Braunschweig was the seat of an administrative district until 1978, and a government district between 1978 and 2004. This was then replaced by a government representative and in 2014 by today's regional representative for south-eastern Lower Saxony.
Today, the Braunschweig region is an important European location for science and research: in 2015, 9.5 percent of the gross domestic product was invested in research. Within the European Union, Braunschweig has been the most intensive region in terms of research and development since 2007. As early as 2010, the 15 leading EU regions in terms of spending on research and development as a proportion of gross domestic product (GDP) were above the target value of three percent specified by the Lisbon strategy; only three of these 15 regions exceeded five percent, with Braunschweig leading the way 5.83 percent, followed by West Sweden with 5.40 percent and Stuttgart with 5.37 percent. The Stifterverband für die Deutsche Wissenschaft awarded Braunschweig the title "City of Science" for 2007. In 2022, presseportal.de published a study according to which Braunschweig ranked 4th in terms of the quality of life in German cities with over 100,000 inhabitants.
Hanover-Langenhagen Airport (IATA: HAJ), Petzelstraße 84, 30855 Langenhagen (approx. 65km west). Phone: +49 (0)511 97 70, email: firstname.lastname@example.org. Hanover Airport is the closest with regular scheduled flights.
Thanks to good rail connections, Frankfurt Airport (IATA: FRA), Berlin Brandenburg Airport (IATA: BER) and Leipzig/Halle Airport (IATA: LEJ) are acceptable alternatives.
Airport 2 Braunschweig-Wolfsburg Airport (IATA: BWE), Lilienthalpl. 5, 38108 Brunswick. in the northern urban area of Braunschweig is mainly used by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) and the works traffic of Volkswagen AG.
Braunschweig main station, Willy-Brandt-Platz 1 . Braunschweig Central Station is a stop for ICE, InterCity (IC), Regional-Express (RE) and Regionalbahn (RB) trains.
Braunschweig can be reached by ICE or IC
from the east from Berlin (journey time 1 hour 25 minutes) or from Magdeburg (45 minutes), Leipzig (2 hours 10 minutes) and Dresden (3 hours 25 minutes)
from southern Germany and Switzerland from Kassel (1:15 hrs), Frankfurt am Main (2:45 hrs), Karlsruhe (4 hrs), Basel (5:45 hrs)
from the north and west of Hanover (30 minutes), Bremen (2 hours), Oldenburg (2½ hours), Dortmund (2:40 hours) and Cologne (4 hours with direct IC; 3:20 hours with ICE and change in Hanover)
There are local transport lines to Braunschweig, e.g. from direction
Helmstedt and Koenigslutter
Goslar or Bad Harzburg via Wolfenbüttel
Uelzen and Gifhorn
Central bus station (ZOB), Willy-Brandt-Platz 1, 38102 Braunschweig. Tel.: +49 (0)531 7 33 00, fax: +49 (0)531 7 33 88. Southwest of the main train station is the central bus station, which is served by long-distance buses from Eurolines and Flixbus.
In the street
Braunschweig can be reached from the east-west via the six-lane A2 Berlin-Hanover. From the south, leave the A7 at the Salzgitter triangle and change to the A39, which leads directly to Braunschweig (and on to Wolfsburg). In addition to these two motorways, which lead past the city, there is also the A395 from the northern Harz region and the A391 and the A392 in the city area.
Braunschweig has a small cargo port on the Mittelland Canal, but if you don't have bulk goods or containers, you won't land there - and you don't want to either.
Braunschweiger Motorbootclub e.V., Celler Heerstrasse 333, 38112 Braunschweig-Watenbüttel. Tel.: (0)176 31 67 15 35, e-mail: email@example.com. Marina in the district of Watenbüttel. Price: €1.20 per m and €1 per person
Marina Heidanger, Am Heidanger 1, 38159 Vechelde. Tel.: (0)5302 6400. Not in the Braunschweig city area, but the same distance and more easily accessible by public transport.
The Weser-Harz-Heide Cycle Path leads from Gimte near Hann. Münden to Lüneburg also through Braunschweig.
The European long-distance hiking trail E6 runs east of the city.
Braunschweig and surrounding area are currently served by five tram lines
and 39 bus lines. Information on regional public transport can be found
on the Verbundtarif Region Braunschweig.
Braunschweig is criss-crossed by a well-signposted cycle route network.
After the destruction caused by carpet bombing during the Second World War, the medieval townscape of Braunschweig's historic city center was almost completely destroyed. In order to preserve the few remains of the medieval city, historical building fabric was reconstructed and combined into so-called "traditional islands" as building ensembles. Five areas were created in the vicinity of large city churches, around the cathedral, Aegidien, Magni, Martini and Michaeliskirche, which today give an impression of the earlier townscape.
1 traditional island Burgplatz
2 traditional island of Aegidien
3 traditional island Magniviertel
4 Traditional island old town market
5 The traditional island of Michaelisviertel
Braunschweig Cathedral of St. Blasii. The Braunschweiger Dom St.
Blasii, a Romanesque church from the 12th century, is the most
important church building in Braunschweig.
St. Catherine's Church. Romanesque parish church from the 13th century.
St. Magni Church. Romanesque parish church from the 11th century.
St. Andrew Church. Three-nave Romanesque basilica from the 13th century.
St. Martini Church. Romanesque parish church from the 12th century.
St. Aegidien Church. Gothic hall church from the 13th century.
St. Pauli Church. Neo-Gothic style church, early 20th century.
St. Peter's Church. Gothic hall church from the 12th century.
St. Michaelis Church. Gothic hall church with a Romanesque west tower from the 12th century.
Riddagshausen monastery church. The abbey church of the former Cistercian monastery was consecrated in 1275. The building complex in the Riddagshausen district forms a silhouette that can be seen from afar in the otherwise flat landscape of the Riddagshausen nature conservation area.
Dankwarderode Castle. Dankwarderode
Castle on Burgplatz is a medieval castle complex in the center of
the city, today part of the Herzog Anton Ulrich Museum. The castle
is surrounded by public squares, but the interior with the knight's
hall is not freely accessible and can only be visited as a visitor
to the museum with an admission ticket.
Braunschweig Castle. The Braunschweig Palace was rebuilt in the years 2005 to 2007 with a historic west facade and has since been used as a shopping center, city library and city archive. The interior of the chateau has not been reconstructed, but in some of the rooms the chateau museum offers replica rooms and exhibits of the historic chateau. An admission ticket is required for the visit, there are paid multi-storey car parks on site. The platform of the Quadriga above the portico can also be visited, the visit is also subject to a fee.
Richmond Castle, Wolfenbütteler Strasse 55, 38124 Braunschweig wikipediacommons. Richmond Castle is a baroque castle south of downtown. The interior can only be visited on guided tours. The site with the Richmond Park is accessible at all times and can be easily reached by bus and tram and a nearby bus stop. Drivers should note, however, that there are no parking or stopping facilities directly at the castle and Wolfenbütteler Straße. Motorists should use the free car park between Kennelbad and the exhibition center, which can be reached via Eisenbütteler Straße. From there, you can walk along the Oker to the castle in a few minutes. It should be noted that Eisenbütteler Straße cannot be reached from the Braunschweig-Süd motorway junction. For this reason, you should use the Braunschweig-Gartenstadt exit from outside the city in the direction of the exhibition grounds.
Old Libra. The "Alte Waage" is a detailed reconstruction of the
original building from 1534, completed in 1994.
10 Old Town Hall . The old town hall on the old town market is one of the oldest preserved town halls in Germany. The oldest parts date from the middle of the 13th century. The arcades with their high Gothic tracery were built in the 15th century.
Gewandhaus . Former guild hall of the tailors on the old town market with a magnificent east facade in the style of the Renaissance.
Happy Rizzi House. The "Happy Rizzi House" is a building designed by the American artist James Rizzi (1950-2011).
Braunschweig lion. The Braunschweig lion on the Burgplatz,
a bronze sculpture from the 12th century, is the oldest surviving large
sculpture from the Middle Ages north of the Alps and the first larger
hollow cast since antiquity. The city's most recognizable landmark.
Altstadtmarktbrunnen . The Altstadtmarktbrunnen on the Altstadtmarkt is a late Gothic fountain from the early 15th century.
Eulenspiegel Fountain . Representation of Till Eulenspiegel with "owls and monkeys", ornamental fountain from the early 20th century.
Heinrichsbrunnen . Ornamental fountain from 1874 on the Hagenmarkt, whose bronze figure depicts Duke Heinrich the lion.
Gauss monument. Bronze sculpture from 1880 to honor the mathematician Carl Friedrich Gauß, who was born in Braunschweig, on the Gaußberg, on the northern edge of the city centre.
Herzog Anton Ulrich Museum, Museumstraße 1. Tel.: +49 (0)531 122 50 .
One of the oldest art museums in Europe, collection of paintings with
works by Lucas Cranach the Elder. Ä., Albrecht Dürer, Giorgione,
Rembrandt, Rubens, Jan Vermeer and other old masters.
Museum of Photography, Helmstedter Strasse 1. Tel.: (0)531 7 50 00, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. The museum exhibits international contemporary photography and presents important photographic works from the second half of the 20th century. Open: Tue-Fri 1pm-6pm, Sat-Sun 11am-6pm. Price: adults €3.50, reduced: €2.00.
Natural History Museum, Pockelsstrasse 10. Tel.: (0)531 288 92 0, Fax: (0)531 288 92 50 . The museum features permanent exhibitions on aquariums, dioramas (lifelike presentations of stuffed animals in a setting based on their habitat), birds, insects, invertebrates and fossils. i.a. with an aquarium, an insight into a living beehive and changing special exhibitions. Open: Tue 9am-5pm, Wed 9am-7pm, Thu-Sun 9am-5pm. Price: adults €5.00, reduced: €3.00, children €2.00, children (under 6 years) free.
Braunschweig locomotive park, Schwartzkopffstraße 3, 38126 Braunschweig. Phone: +49 (0)531 264 03 40, email: email@example.com . The VBV locomotive park sees itself as a living exhibition in which the club's historic trains are cared for, serviced and restored. As a rule, all vehicles are parked in the locomotive park area or in the locomotive shed and can be viewed. Vehicles: steam and diesel locomotives, railcars, passenger cars, baggage cars, freight cars, railway service vehicles. Open: usually one visiting day per month (see calendar of events).
Old Town Market . Square with a historical ensemble of buildings, the
old town town hall, Martini Church, Gewandhaus with the former Rüningen
customs house, Stechinelli House, the house with the seven towers and
the old town market fountain.
castle square . The historic center of the city with Dankwarderode Castle, the monument to the Braunschweig lion, St. Blasii Cathedral, half-timbered houses from the 16th century, the Braunschweig State Museum in the Vieweg house and the smallest antiquarian bookshop in Germany.
Hagenmarkt . Central square in Braunschweig city centre, with St. Catherine's Church and the Heinrichsbrunnen.
cabbage market . Central marketplace in Braunschweig city center, presumably the "germ cell" of the settlement of the later urban area.
The center of the inner city of Braunschweig is largely without public parks.
However, it is surrounded in a circle by parks along the moats of
the former city fortifications, the so-called Umflutgräben. Parts of
these facilities are the Inselwallpark, Theaterpark, Museumpark and
The city's largest parks and recreational areas are located outside of the city center. Sports facilities, swimming pools or allotment gardens are often integrated into them.
The Richmond Park is particularly interesting when the rhododendrons are in bloom (May-June), a few more rhododendron bushes can be found in the Viewegs Garden, the school garden and in the Bürgerpark. The Bürgerpark and the Westpark are ideal during the lilac blossom season (May).
Botanical Garden . The botanical garden of the Technical University of Braunschweig is the research garden of the Institute of Plant Biology. Its outdoor facilities and the tropical house are open to the public. The historic gatehouse at the main entrance is used for exhibitions on changing topics.
citizen park. One of the oldest parks in the city is located south of the city center. The meandering course of the Oker flows through the green area. Due to its proximity to the old town and its large area, the park is particularly suitable for guests of the city. Events are also often held in the park. A beach bar opens in the summer months.
Prince Albrecht Park. The extensive park, also called "Prince Park", is located east of the city center, in the so-called "Eastern Ring Area". Several sports stadiums are integrated into the park and a facility for inline skaters and skateboarders. East of the park begins the "Riddagshausen nature reserve".
Riddagshausen . The Riddagshausen nature reserve on the eastern outskirts of the city is over 5 square kilometers, the largest nature reserve and local recreation area in the city
West park . The West Park is a relatively young park and is located on the western outskirts of the city and covers a large area, so it is less accessible. Due to the large network of paths, it is particularly interesting for visitors who want to hike or take long walks in nature. The park has a landscape character and, in addition to native planting, also offers many natural areas and ponds. However, the park does not have any ornamental plantings or beds.
The office of the tourist information of the Braunschweig city marketing offers city tours, tours and adventure tours on various topics, also for children and people with walking disabilities.
1 Braunschweig State Theater, Am Theater. Tel.: +49 (0)531 1234 0, fax: +49 (0)531 1234 103, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org . Five departments with the departments music theater, drama, dance theater, young state theater and state orchestra Braunschweig.
2 Small House of the Braunschweig State Theater
3 House Three of the Braunschweig State Theater
4 LOT Theater. Venue for independent theater and venue for the regional cultural scene. As a place for contemporary theater forms, it offers a platform for new developments in the fields of theatre, dance and performance.
5 comedy at the old town market . Lower Saxony's largest private boulevard theater.
6 The Kult, Hamburger Strasse 273, Schimmelhof entrance C2. Kleinkunstbühne, with approx. 70 seats, the smallest theater in Braunschweig.
7 C1 cinema. Braunschweig's largest cinema with 2600 seats in eight halls. Venue of the Braunschweig International Film Festival.
8 Universe Movie Theater. Small program cinema with two halls in the center of the city center. Meeting point for Braunschweig's cineastes. Venue of the Braunschweig International Film Festival.
9 Cinema in the Red Hall. Cultural program cinema without popcorn and ice cream in the north wing of the Braunschweig palace. The focus is on children's films and documentaries.
10 cinema in the monastery. Cinema in the Dominican monastery of St. Albertus Magnus, outside the inner city ring road in the northeast of the city.
The New York Lions have been the ultimate in American football on European soil for several years and have been reigning German champions since 2013 (four times in a row) and since 2015 also winners of the Euro Bowl (three times in a row), the European championship for club teams. Home games usually take place from May to September in the stadium on Hamburger Strasse.
Football fans can follow Eintracht Braunschweig matches during the season. The club currently plays in the third Bundesliga. Games usually take place on Friday, Saturday, Sunday or Monday weekends at the Eintracht Stadium on Hamburger Strasse.
The Braunschweiger Basketball Löwen play in the first Bundesliga and play their games during the season in the Volkswagenhalle.
In hockey, too, teams from the city of Braunschweig (Eintracht Braunschweig, Braunschweiger Tennis- und Hockey Club and Braunschweiger MTV) are represented with several teams in the higher leagues in field and indoor hockey.
Braunschweig carnival parade. The "Schoduvel", the Braunschweig carnival parade, with a length of more than six kilometers and around 300,000 spectators (2014), is referred to as the largest carnival parade in northern Germany and is the fourth largest in Germany after Cologne, Düsseldorf and Mainz. It takes place on the Sunday before Shrove Monday.
Brunswick International Film Festival. Every year, usually at the end of October or beginning of November, the Braunschweig International Film Festival shows short and feature films of all genres. The focus of the program is on current European productions and film music.
In November, the shopping weekend "Mummy Enjoyment Mile" takes place in the city center. Restaurateurs offer creations related to the "Braunschweiger Mumme" and there are Mumme products to buy at a market.
ECE mall. In the ECE shopping center on Bohlweg, with the historic west facade of the Braunschweig Palace, 150 specialist shops are presented on three levels.
The Braunschweiger Mumme was Braunschweig's export hit in the Middle
Ages. The viscous strong beer kept for a long time due to its high
alcohol and sugar content and was therefore sold all over the world as
provisions for seafaring. With its vitamins and high nutritional value,
it contributed to the nutrition of seafarers and also protected against
scurvy. In the 18th century, alcohol was dispensed with and the viscous
malt extract was created, which today is mainly used to refine food and
drinks. Mumme can be mixed with water, milk, tea and beer, for example,
or used to refine sauces, sausage, cheese and cakes. There are even
cookbooks on the subject. The Mumme is offered in some grocery stores in
and around Braunschweig and it is also used in some restaurants. You can
buy the Mumme z. B. at the tourist information, Kleine Burg 14, and
there are also guided tours on the subject.
1 Belly Button Food, Kleine Burg 15. Tel.: +49(0)531 47 37 28 39, email: email@example.com. Website not available, clarify by phone before visiting whether the restaurant is open. Open: Mon - Wed 11:00 a.m.–6:00 p.m., Thurs.–Sat. 11:00 - 21:00.
2 Restaurant Buzbağ, Cyriaksring 31. Tel.: +49 (0)531 885 35 19.
3 Charly′s Tiger, Wilhelm-Bode-Straße 26. Tel.: +49 (0)531 219 03 60. Cozy restaurant, the attempt at extravagance fails, but the location is worth more than one visit.
4 Havana Restaurant, Holwedestrasse 1.
5 Herman's Cafebar, Schleinitzstrasse 18. Tel.: +49 (0)531 233 74 11.
6 Phils, Kastanienallee 26. Tel.: +49 (0)531 129 25 59.
7 Studio Ost, Kastanienallee 53. Tel.: +49 (0)531 619 07 94. Edit info
8 Zu den Vier Linden, Wiesenstraße 5. Tel.: +49 (0)531 33 72 71.
9 Bolero, Lange Straße 60. Tel.: +49 (0)531 61 80 168.
10 Restaurant Brodocz, Stephanstraße 2. Tel.: +49(0)531 42 236, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Vegetarian cuisine. Open: Mon.–Sun. 11:30 - 22:00.
11 Gandhi, Schöppenstedter Strasse 32. Tel.: +49 (0)531 481 15 74.
12 India House, Hagenmarkt 15/16. Phone: +49 (0)531 618 30 07.
13 Parliament, Hannoversche Strasse 60 b. Phone: +49 (0)531 88 69 81 44.
14 Tandure, Frankfurter Strasse 4. Tel.: +49 (0)531 89 45 58. Turkish cuisine.
15 The Old House, Alte Knochenhauerstraße 11. Tel.: +49(0)531 61 80 100, e-mail: email@example.com. Reservations recommended. Open: Tues.–Sat. 18:00-24:00.
16 La Cupola (Restaurant in the House of Science), Pockelsstrasse 11. Tel.: +49(0)531 166 08.
17 Zucker (Restaurant in the refinery), Frankfurter Strasse 2. Tel.: +49(0)531 281 98-0.
1 Altstadt Treff, Am Magnitor 14/15, 38100 Braunschweig. Phone: +49
(0) 170 9415194 .
2 Barnaby's Blues Bar, Ölschlägern 20, 38100 Braunschweig. Phone: +49 (0)531 356 95 60.
3 Brain Club, Bruchtorwall .
4 The Deans Drink Factory, Südstrasse 31, 38100 Braunschweig. Phone: +49 (0)176 66893868 .
Eule XO, Kalenwall 1, 38100 Braunschweig.
Latino, Wendenstrasse 39-41, 38100 Braunschweig facebook.
5 Lindbergh Palace, Kalenwall 3, 38100 Braunschweig.
11 Nexus (cultural center), Frankfurter Strasse 253, 38100 Braunschweig. Phone: +49 (0)531 280 90 66.
6 Privileg, Wallstrasse 1-3, 38100 Braunschweig. Phone: +49 (0)1523 411 05 90.
7 Silberquelle, Kalenwall 4, 38100 Braunschweig. Open: Thu 20:00-2:00, Fri-Sat 20:00-3:00.
8 Shamrock Irish Pub, Bohlweg 47, 38100 Braunschweig. Phone: +49 (0)531 60 18 64 64 .
9 The Wild Geese (Irish Pub), Gördelingerstrasse 49, 38100 Braunschweig. Tel.: +49 (0)531 449 34, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org .
10 42° fever, Kalenwall 3, 38100 Braunschweig
1 RV parking space in the Bürgerpark Braunschweig, Theodor-Heuss-Straße. Open: Open all year round. Price: Parking space for 16 vehicles €5 per night (from 11:00 a.m. to 11:00 a.m.), electricity and water subject to a charge, disposal available.
2 Braunschweig youth hostel, Wendenstraße 30. Tel.: +49 (0)531 866 88 50, e-mail: email@example.com . Price: from €26.90.
3 YMCA Hotel am Wollmarkt, Wollmarkt 9. Tel.: +49(0) 531 244400, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
4 Hotel-Restaurant Heideschänke, Hafenstrasse 2, 38112 Braunschweig. Tel.: +49 (0)531 311493. Website not available, contact us by phone if necessary. Open: Hotel: daily 24 hours, reception: daily 17:00-22:00; Restaurant & Bar: Tue–Fri from 5 p.m., Sat from 3 p.m.; Breakfast: daily 7:00 - 10:00. Price: Single room from €67, double room from €88.
5 Steigenberger Parkhotel, 2 street Nîmes. Tel.: +49 (0)531 48 22 20, Fax: +49 (0)531 48 22 28 88.
Streiff & Helmold, Carl-Giesecke-Strasse 2, 38112 Braunschweig. One of the largest employers in the region, specializing in logistics, fulfillment service and warehouse management, and producing all kinds of packaging.
There are no special social hotspots or areas with an increased
security risk in Braunschweig. However, general safety rules, as in
other large cities, should be observed, because of course one is not
completely safe from theft in Braunschweig either.
1 Braunschweig-Mitte police station, Münzstraße 1, 38100 Braunschweig. Tel.: +49 (0)531 4763115, Fax: +49 (0)531 4763110. Open: Availability: Around the clock.
2 Braunschweig-Nord police department, Guntherstraße 2, 38122 Braunschweig. Tel.: +49 (0)531 4763315, Fax: +49 (0)531 4763110. Open: Availability: Around the clock.
3 Braunschweig-Süd police department, Alsterplatz 3, 38120 Braunschweig. Tel.: +49 (0)531 4763315, Fax: +49 (0)531 4763110. Open: Availability: Around the clock.
Medical emergency service (Braunschweig Clinic, nights and weekends), Salzdahlumer Straße 90, 38126 Braunschweig. Tel. 116 117 (nationwide). Open: Mon, Tue and Thu 7 p.m. to 11 p.m.; Wed and Fri 3:00 p.m. to 11:00 p.m.; Sat, Sun and public holidays 9:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m.
Tourist Info, Kleine Burg 14; 38100 Brunswick. Tel.: +49 (0)531 470-2040, fax: +49 (0)531 470-2044, e-mail: email@example.com. Open: Mon to Fri 10:00 a.m. to 6:30 p.m., Sat 10:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. From May 1st to September 30th also: Sun 10:00 a.m. – 12:00 p.m.
The oldest finds in the
Braunschweiger Land, the so-called Schöninger spears, are around
300,000 years old. But also in the urban area itself, especially in
the area surrounding today's Wenden district, finds from the
Neolithic, Bronze and Iron Ages were made, which indicate a very
early first settlement.
In Germanic times, today's Braunschweiger Land was probably the settlement area of the Cherusci and Angrivarians, or possibly the Elbe Germans. However, these were all gradually subjugated, driven out or joined the Sachsenbund. The Saxons were the dominant power in the region from around 500 AD. Since that time, there are also evidence of Saxon settlements. It is unclear whether a village already existed at the site of today's Braunschweig, which was destroyed in the course of the Saxon Wars.
river Oker, which flows through the city, had a great influence on
the founding and development of the city. This has been the border
between the dioceses of Halberstadt and Hildesheim since around 800
AD and promoted the development of the city through a ford that is
important for trade. The settlements of Brunswik and Dankwarderode
were probably built on both sides of the Oker in the 9th century.
According to the legend of the Braunschweigische Reimchronik, the
first settlement in the area of what is today Braunschweig is said
to have been founded in 861. The seriousness of this source is now
doubted by experts, which is why the year 1031 is considered the
first documentary evidence of the existence of a settlement. The
basis for this is the ordination of the Magni Church.
The rulers of Braunschweig had been the Brunones, descendants of Brun (o) (the legend after the city's founder) since the 10th century. Via Richenza von Northeim, niece of Brunonen Ekbert II, and their daughter Gertrud von Süpplingenburg, the city of Braunschweig and the entire Duchy of Saxony went to Heinrich the Lion, Duke of Saxony and Bavaria in 1142.
Under Heinrich's influence, Braunschweig developed into a powerful city, which he expanded into his residence. So he had the Dankwarderode Castle expanded and the Brunswick Cathedral built. Heinrich chose the lion as his heraldic animal and had its bronze image set up in front of the cathedral on Burgplatz around 1166. Since then, the Braunschweig lion has been the city's symbol and heraldic animal.
The Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg also goes back to Heinrich the Lion and was part of the land of the Guelphs. It was named after the two largest cities, Braunschweig and Lüneburg. As early as 1267/1269 the duchy was divided into the principalities of Lüneburg and Braunschweig. The city of Braunschweig remained the common domain, but also the residence of the Braunschweig line of the Welfs. The Jewish community, which developed in the early 14th century, comprised around 150 people in 1350.
Braunschweig gained its urban independence in 1432 after the sovereigns had relocated their residence to nearby Wolfenbüttel due to increasing tensions with the Braunschweig urban population. Along with Paris and Ghent, Braunschweig was considered to be one of the most restless cities in late medieval and early modern Europe, as constitutional conflicts repeatedly broke out through revolutionary civil unrest, the Braunschweig classes.
Braunschweig developed economically thanks to its favorable location on the Oker, which was navigable from Braunschweig. As a result, Braunschweig developed into an important trading city, which led to membership in the Hanseatic League from the middle of the 13th century. After Braunschweig received the mint as a pledge in 1296 and as property in 1412, the coin denial and the renewal of bracteate pennies, which was a disruptive effect on trade, were eliminated through its own coinage, the so-called Eternal Pfennig.
According to the resolution of the Hanseatic League in 1494, the Hanseatic League was now divided into four (quarters) power blocks instead of three (thirds). Alongside Magdeburg, Braunschweig developed into a suburb of the Saxon city union and thus led the so-called "Saxon quarter" and thus the Hanseatic cities between the Weser and Elbe. In 1669 Braunschweig was one of the last nine cities remaining in the Hanseatic League. From an economic point of view, Braunschweig was not only a trading city, but also a production location, primarily for cloth, metal goods and agricultural products. Braunschweiger Mumme beer was internationally known then and still is today.
Originally a ducal Vogt was at the head of the city of Braunschweig, but the office was given to citizens as early as the 12th century. There was a council in the three soft areas of Altstadt, Hagen and Neustadt in the first half of the 13th century. The three councils merged into a single council in 1269. The composition of the council varied several times in the course of history, in 1386 it had 105 members, from 1614 only 56. The current administration was incumbent on a committee of the council, the "narrow council", which from 1386 had 25, from 1614 15 members.
In 1671 a force of the Guelph princes
conquered the city and put it back under the rule of the
Principality of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel. This ended the era of the
independent, almost imperial city of Braunschweig. In 1753 the
residence was moved back to Braunschweig in the newly built
Braunschweig Palace. More than 4,000 people followed the ducal
family and also moved to Braunschweig, which at the same time led to
the decline of Wolfenbüttel.
After the city lost its independence in 1671, there was only one council consisting of 16 senators, which had to be confirmed by the duke. The council was headed by a mayor.
After the Peace of Tilsit
(1807) and the creation of the Kingdom of Westphalia by Napoleon
Bonaparte, the city and duchy of Braunschweig were occupied by the
French and Braunschweig was the capital of the newly designed Oker
department. It was now the "Maire constitution", with a "Maire"
(mayor) at the head of the city.
During the Wars of Liberation in 1813 Braunschweig troops under the leadership of Johann Elias Olfermann entered the city and restored the old Duchy of Braunschweig for Duke Friedrich Wilhelm. This was confirmed by the Congress of Vienna in the following year and the city was initially assigned to the Wolfenbüttel district directorate.
The old constitution with the council, which was now called “City Court”, was reintroduced. After the judiciary and administration were separated in 1825, the council was called magistrate. As early as 1813, the mayor had the title of “city director”, and since 1848 Braunschweig has had a lord mayor.
In 1825 the city was given the status of a city directly connected to the state. In 1833 it became the seat of its own district directorate (from which the district of Braunschweig later emerged), before it again became directly regional in 1850. From 1870 the city finally belonged to the Braunschweig district administration. In 1871 the duchy became a federal state of the German Empire.
The 7th German Fire Brigade Day took place in Braunschweig from September 6th to 8th, 1868.
In 1874 Konrad Koch introduced the soccer game in Germany as a teacher at the Martino-Katharineum.
When Guelph Duke Wilhelm died in 1884 without a legitimate heir, a “Regency Council” initially took over the affairs of state in Braunschweig. It was not until 1913 that the Hohenzollern and the House of Hanover were reconciled, and Ernst August, the last Welf, ruled the Duchy of Braunschweig until the abdication in 1918.
The Braunschweig – Calvörde postal route ran through Braunschweig in the 18th and 19th centuries.
As in the rest of the German Empire, towards the end of the First World War there was an economic, social and political crisis in Braunschweig, which led to the November Revolution in Braunschweig. After the workers 'and soldiers' council under August Merges forced the abdication of the last duke, Ernst August von Braunschweig-Lüneburg, on November 8, 1918, the council took over political leadership and proclaimed the "Socialist Republic of Braunschweig" under the leadership of President Merges.
The situation in the city of Braunschweig came to a head when the
Spartakists called a general strike on April 9, 1919. The strike
meant that the trains were no longer dispatched and the important
east-west traffic was blocked. The result was a backwater that
caused traffic chaos across Germany. From April 11th, public life in
the city came to a standstill. In order to restore law and order,
the Reich government imposed a state of siege on the city and the
Free State of Braunschweig. On April 17th, 10,000 Freikorps troops
under General Georg Maercker entered the city and took it over
peacefully. After the formation of a new government under Prime
Minister Heinrich Jasper, the troops left Braunschweig again in May.
Almost a year after the Freikorps troops had withdrawn, the Kapp
Putsch took place in Berlin on March 13, 1920, which failed after
just 100 hours, but also had political and social effects in
Braunschweig; i.a. there was a general strike in 141 Braunschweig
companies and incidents similar to civil war with injuries and
deaths. In the end, the Jasper government resigned and there were
new elections. The new Prime Minister was Sepp Oerter of the USPD.
As a result of the hyperinflation of 1922, there was unemployment,
poverty, unrest and political crises in Europe and around the world,
and Braunschweig was not spared.
Some Braunschweig artists became known worldwide through their turn to constructivism, including Thilo Maatsch, Walter Dexel and Rudolf Jahns. In September 1924, the collector Otto Ralfs founded the Society of Friends of Young Art (GFJK) in the city. Lyonel Feininger and Paul Klee belonged. Wassily Kandinsky designed the signet for this artists' association. The GFJK. dissolved itself under pressure from the National Socialists in 1933.
From 1923 the National Socialist German Workers' Party gained more
and more influence and already moved into the Braunschweig Landtag
with a member in 1924. In the state elections on November 27, 1927,
the NSDAP received 3.7% of the votes and in the election on
September 14, 1930 (although the population of the city of
Braunschweig was more proletarian). The DVP refused to form a grand
coalition; on October 1, 1930, the state parliament elected (with
the votes of the civil unity list) a coalition government made up of
the DNVP and NSDAP. This government ("Ministry Küchenthal" under
Werner Küchenthal) held office until May 7, 1933. In 1931, around
100,000 SA men marched in front of the Braunschweig Castle in the
presence of Adolf Hitler (SA deployment in Braunschweig). On
February 25, 1932, Hitler received a state office in Braunschweig at
the instigation of the NSDAP. This gave Hitler German citizenship,
which was a prerequisite for his candidacy in the 1932 presidential
In the time of National Socialism, the head of the city was appointed by the NSDAP. Under the Klagge cabinet, shortly after the Nazi regime came to power in 1933, there were numerous acts of violence against political opponents, Jews and other unpopular groups of people. An early example of organized repression against Jews is the “Warenhaussturm” of March 11, 1933. After the Stahlhelm Putsch on March 27 and the Rieseberg murders of July 4, 1933, the SPD politician Hans Reinowski, who had fled into exile, published the documentation Terror in Braunschweig. Klagges ’goal was to build a National Socialist model state and thus to consolidate his own position. To this end, he brought important National Socialist institutions such as the German Aviation Research Institute and an SS Junker School to the city and also built and expanded the Free State of Braunschweig into an armaments center for the German Reich from 1933 to 1945. Companies that were important to the war included the Lower Saxony Motor Works, the Braunschweig Aircraft Works, the Braunschweigische Maschinenbauanstalt, the MIAG, the Luther-Werke, the Vorwerk Braunschweig, the Büssing NAG, the Schuberth-Werke, Franke & Heidecke, Voigtländer and the Braunschweig canning industry.
These businesses attracted thousands of new workers who needed
affordable housing quickly. Based on the Nazi honorary title of
German cities, Braunschweig gave itself the nickname “German
settlement city”. Parallel to the expansion of industry, "National
Socialist model settlements" emerged, such as the
"Dietrich-Klagges-Stadt" (today garden city), the Lehndorf
settlement, Mascherode-Südstadt, Schunter and Wabetalsiedlung.
As the war progressed, however, the number of employees in the factories fell not only because workers were drafted into military service (and fell or were wounded), but also because of civilian casualties due to the effects of the war. Since the armaments industry grew at the same time and produced more war material, a “supply” of workers had to be brought in. As in the rest of the Reich, where around six million civilian forced laborers, around two million prisoners of war and more than 700,000 concentration camp prisoners had to work for the German war economy at the end of 1944, this also happened on a smaller scale in the city and country of Braunschweig. There were 802 camps of all kinds here. Among other things, foreign workers were recruited, but mostly forced laborers had to do the work. These forced laborers mostly lived in camps near the factories. There were two satellite camps of Neuengamme concentration camp in the city: the Schillstrasse concentration camp and the SS riding school concentration camp. In addition, there were numerous other camps, such as the “Camp Schützenplatz” or the camp Ackerstraße, Frankfurter Straße, the “Voigtländerlager” or the maternity home for Eastern workers. There were also several camps outside the city, some of which existed until shortly before the end of the war. The highest number of forced laborers was reached in autumn 1944: around 43,000 civilian forced laborers, including around 15,000 women, had to work together with around 8,800 concentration camp inmates. At the truck manufacturer Büssing NAG alone, under Director General Rudolf Egger-Büssing, 1,300 concentration camp inmates (1,200 of them Jews) had to work. Most of these forced laborers and concentration camp prisoners were Eastern workers, the majority from the Soviet Union and Poland.
During the Second World War, Braunschweig was the target of numerous Allied air raids. These destroyed around 90 percent of the inner city and 42 percent of the entire city. The most devastating was the bombing raid on Braunschweig on October 15, 1944, in which 233 Lancaster bombers of No. 5 Bomber Group Royal Air Force (RAF) sparked a raging firestorm for two and a half days by dropping around 200,000 phosphorus, incendiary and high-explosive bombs. More than a thousand people died in this attack. During the entire war, around 3,500 people died in bomb attacks; almost half of them were prisoners of war, forced laborers and concentration camp inmates.
On April 10, 1945, the Braunschweig combat commander, Lieutenant General Karl Veith, negotiated with Leland S. Hobbs, commanding general of the 30th US Infantry Division, about the surrender of the city. Veith agreed to withdraw the remaining German troops from the city, but refused to formally surrender. Thereupon the US troops continued the artillery bombardment of the city, accompanied by low-flying attacks, until the evening hours of April 11th. On this day, the then incumbent NSDAP Lord Mayor Hans-Joachim Mertens committed suicide. NSDAP Prime Minister Dietrich Klagges appointed lawyer Erich Bockler to Mertens ’successor. NSDAP district leader Berthold Heilig and other NS functionaries fled from the approaching troops in the evening and at night. The surrender of the city of Braunschweig was completed on Thursday, April 12, 1945 at 02:59 a.m., after which US troops occupied the city without a fight. Klagges was arrested on April 13, and the Allied military government moved into Veltheim's house on Burgplatz. On June 5, 1945, the British Army replaced the United States Army; Braunschweig came to the British zone of occupation.
At the beginning of the Second World War, Braunschweig had 202,284 inhabitants; At the end of the war, this number had decreased by 26 percent, i.e. by more than a quarter to 149,641. The city was one of the most heavily destroyed German cities. The degree of destruction in the city center (within the Okerring) was 90 percent, the total degree of destruction in the city was 42 percent. The total volume of rubble was around 3.7 million cubic meters. The demolition took 17 years until it was officially declared over in 1963. In fact, however, it continued on a small scale for decades afterwards.
In 1946, the military government (Control Commission for Germany)
of the British zone of occupation introduced the local constitution
based on the British model. Then there was a council elected by the
people. This elected the mayor from among his number as chairman and
representative of the city, who was active on a voluntary basis. In
addition, from 1946 there was a full-time senior city director, also
elected by the council, as head of the city administration. A Jewish
community has existed again since 1945. At first it was under the
protection of the military government.
Due to the acute need for living space, reconstruction made rapid progress in the 1950s and 60s. Since the inner city was almost completely destroyed, city planners and architects built a new, modern and above all “car-friendly city”, trying to implement the maxim of the “Braunschweig School” developed at the Technical University. For this purpose, the remainder of the urban landscape, which had grown over centuries, was significantly interfered with, which, for example, led to the further demolition of intact buildings in many places for newly constructed streets. More than a hundred buildings were demolished for the main station southeast of the city center, which opened in 1960 and replaced the old terminus as a through station. For decades, these breaks were the cause of controversial discussions.
Numerous new buildings were built, for example the new Karstadt department store based on plans by the architect Ernst Kreytenberg.
In a representative EU citizens' survey "Urban Audit" carried out in 2010, Braunschweig was certified as having a high quality of life. Braunschweig, for example, ranks fifth in Germany when it comes to the satisfaction of citizens with living in the city. Otherwise, Braunschweig scores above all for cleanliness, the appearance of the city and public safety. The high level of public safety is confirmed by a current study from 2012, according to which Braunschweig ranks first among the 50 largest cities in Germany due to its high clearance rates and a low number of offenses. In the city ranking of Wirtschaftswoche, in which 71 cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants were examined, Braunschweig turned out to be 7th place as one of the most rapidly developing cities and scored particularly well in terms of childcare and strong economic data. For the future, the Zukunftsatlas 2013 study predicts “very high opportunities” for Braunschweig, since it houses not only top-level university research but also a large part of VW's added value. For these reasons, Braunschweig is also a “swarm city”, one of the few cities in which particularly many 25 to 34 year olds settle down. There have been contacts between Braunschweig and the Israeli city of Kiryat Tivon since 1968, which resulted in a twinning between 1985 and 1986.
In 2017, Braunschweig was awarded the honorary title of “Reformation City of Europe” by the Community of Evangelical Churches in Europe.
The respiratory disease
COVID-19, which appeared in Germany at the beginning of 2020, also
spread to Braunschweig. The first medically proven and officially
registered case in the city was documented on March 4, 2020. The
first SARS-CoV-2-related death was registered on March 30, 2020.
As in the whole of Germany, the laws and ordinances issued in connection with the health crisis were implemented in Braunschweig, including exit and contact restrictions and the closure of general schools. On March 18, there was a ban on large gatherings in the city and the closure or restriction of leisure activities. Online information platforms have been set up for the population. On April 25, 2020, Braunschweig introduced the obligation to wear so-called everyday masks in shops and in local public transport.
In addition to other medical research institutions and companies from Braunschweig, such as B. the company Yumab, is the local Helmholtz Center for Infection Research (HZI) with scientists such. B. Melanie Brinkmann, Luka Cicin-Sain, Gérard Krause or Michael Meyer-Hermann in association with other research institutions around the world developing diagnostic and therapeutic concepts and coronavirus vaccines.
Braunschweig lies in the north German lowlands on the dividing
line between the loess bordes of the northern Harz foreland and the
geest plates beginning in the north of the city. In detail, four
natural areas meet in the area of the core city: the hill country
east of Brunswick, the Braunschweig-Hildesheimer Lössbörde that
extends to the south-west, the Burgdorf-Peiner Geestplatten to the
north-west and the east Brunswick flatland that extends north-east
towards Wolfsburg. The Oker, which runs in a south-north direction,
forms a natural boundary with the Börßum-Braunschweiger Okertal and
the partly fragile, formerly swampy soils.
The river is dammed in the south by a weir and flows around the city center to the west and east in two flood ditches that were created for better defense in the Middle Ages and reunite in the northwest of the city. The water level in the urban area is regulated by two further weirs. Other bodies of water are the Wabe and Mittelriede, which flow into the Schunter in Braunschweig.
The urban area extends over an area of 192 km², enclosed by a city boundary with a length of 98 km. The north-south extension is 19.1 km and the west-east extension 15.7 km. The inner city area is located at an average height of 70 m above sea level. The highest point is the Geitelder Berg with a height of 111 m above sea level; the deepest point is an old Okerschleife with 62 m above sea level in the northwest.
Clockwise, starting in the northeast, the following communities border on Braunschweig: Lehr (Helmstedt district), Cremlingen, Sickte (Sickte municipality) and Wolfenbüttel (all Wolfenbüttel district), Salzgitter (district-free city), Vechelde and Wendeburg (Peine district) and Schwülper, Vordorf and Meine (all of the municipality in Papenteich, Gifhorn district).
As of November 1981, the city area was divided into 22 city districts in accordance with the then applicable Lower Saxony municipal code (NGO). Their number was reduced to 21 after ten years (through the merger of Lehndorf-Lamme-Kanzlerfeld and Watenbüttel-Ölper-Völkenrode to Lehndorf-Watenbüttel), after another ten years to 20 (through the merger of Südstadt-Rautheim and Mascherode to Südstadt-Rautheim- Mascherode) and again after ten years to 19 (through merging of Wabe-Schunter and Bienrode-Waggum-Bevenrode to Wabe-Schunter-Beberbach). As a result of a reorganization of the Lower Saxony state electoral districts, from whose constituency number the first digit of the city district number is derived, the official city district numbers were also changed.
A district council is elected for each district - with a number of, depending on the number of inhabitants, a minimum of 7 and a maximum of 19 members defined in the city's main statute, each of whom has elected a district mayor and his deputy as chairman. In addition to the general representation of the interests of their respective districts and the promotion of their positive development within the Braunschweig city as a whole, the area of responsibility of the city district councils includes decisions on the matters of their own sphere of activity and above assigned to them by the Lower Saxony Municipal Constitutional Act (which replaces the NGO) and the main statutes Citizens' surveys in the municipality. In addition, the city district councils have the right to be heard on land-use planning as well as on other questions of their own and delegated sphere of activity before resolutions of the council and the administrative committee, to request residents' assemblies to be held by the main administrative officer, to submit suggestions, to give suggestions and to express concerns.
For voting in political elections, the city is divided into 169 general electoral districts and 36 postal voting districts. In municipal elections, the electoral area for the election of the city district councils consists of the area of the respective city district, for the election of the representative (city council) and the direct election of the main administrative officer (lord mayor) from the entire city area, which is divided into eight electoral areas.
In the case of state elections in Lower Saxony, the urban area is divided into the three state electoral districts of Braunschweig-Nord, Braunschweig-Süd and Braunschweig-West, with the special feature that the municipality of Vechelde, located in the district of Peine, belongs to the Braunschweig-Süd constituency. In the case of federal elections, the Bundestag constituency of Braunschweig is congruent with the city area, which is also not further subdivided in European elections - except for the division into electoral districts for voting.
The city of Braunschweig lies in the transition area between the maritime climate in the west and the continental climate in the east. The proximity to the North Sea is also a decisive climate factor. The mean annual temperature is 8.8 ° C, and around 600 to 650 mm of precipitation fall per year. The mean temperature in July is 17.5 ° C, in January 0.2 ° C.
The Brunswieker Platt was spoken in Braunschweig up to the middle
of the 20th century and is still used in isolated cases today. It is
a regional variant of the dialect of Lower Saxon, officially named
as Ostfälisch. In the 19th century it was increasingly replaced by
Standard German. The dialect high German of the Braunschweig region
is called Braunschweigisch and is characterized in particular by the
“clear A” (long pronunciation of the letter A, but it sounds a bit
like an open O). In general, the High German spoken in the
Braunschweig-Celle-Hannover region is considered to be the purest
nationwide, since Low German had the best supply of sounds in this
Lower Saxony area to reproduce the standardized written German.
Nevertheless, there are many phonetic peculiarities that have made Braunschweig an independent dialect. So one speaks z. B. from "Tüsch", "Füsch" and from "Köache", "Höasch" or "Köaschen" - means table, fish, church, deer and cherries. Brunswick also tends to have a very open, short u, which comes close to o: "Gorke", "korz", "Korve", "Borg", "Worst" (for nhd. Cucumber, short, curve, castle and sausage). Diphthongs are "smoothed out", but generally not completely: "Broounschwaaich". The colloquial language that dominates the city today is inconspicuous, only slightly colored standard German.
The use of the spelling of the "unhappy Verification German, Braunschweig" from "Brunswiek" "is first documented in 1542. Internationally, the historical form Brunswick with the Middle Low German stretch-c has also been preserved.
According to the latest status of place name research from 2018 by Herbert Blume et al. it seems likely that the original form “Brūnes-wīk” may go back to the (pre-) migration period and the meaning “settlement above an edge, on a higher bank” (meaning “on a bank section above the river Oker” “) Is. The linguist and name researcher Werner Flechsig had already pointed out the possibility in 1954 that it could be a settlement created by clearing and burning. At the beginning of the 2000s, Jürgen Udolph also presented his interpretation of the meaning of the name, in which, like Flechsig before, he also came to the conclusion that the original component of the place name can be traced back to a slash and burn at the later settlement location.