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Frankfurt am Main
Eisenhüttenstadt is a town in the Oder-Spree district of
Brandenburg on the west bank of the Oder. It was created as a
planned town after a resolution in July 1950 as a socialist
residential town for the Eisenhüttenkombinat Ost (EKO). The plant is
still a major employer today. It was built near the historic village
of Fürstenberg (Oder), which has existed since the 13th century,
with which the district, known as Stalinstadt since 1953, was
combined to form Eisenhüttenstadt in 1961. The city is a
medium-sized center and formed its own urban district until 1993.
Since then it has had the status of an unofficial Greater District
Due to its history as a completely new city and the urban development with various architectural monuments, Eisenhüttenstadt is a special building ensemble.
As early as 1251, the city of Fürstenberg was founded in what is now the city area as part of the territorial policy of the Meissen margrave Henry the Illustrious. In 1286 it is attested as a civitas and customs post. In the 14th century, Emperor Charles IV ordered the construction of a city wall. From 1316 to 1817 the manor was with the Neuzelle monastery with few interruptions. The council formed in the first half of the 14th century held the lower courts and, together with the abbot von Neuzelle, also the higher courts.
After the Peace of Prague in 1635, Fürstenberg and Niederlausitz became part of the Electorate of Saxony, and in 1815 it fell to Prussia. The small town located off the Frankfurt (Oder) - Guben highway on a less important Oder ferry, but important as a customs post, in which fishing and shipping were also carried out, had 1,686 inhabitants in 1830. With the construction of the railway from Frankfurt (Oder) to Breslau in 1846 and following the Oder-Spree Canal, which flows into the Oder (1891), industrial development began with glassworks, shipyards, sawmills, oil and grain mills. The city's Jewish community began using its cemetery in 1890, which was later destroyed by the Nazis. Between 1871 and 1900 the population doubled to 5,700, by 1933 it had increased to 7,054. In 1925 an Oder harbor was created.
DEGUSSA's central chemical plant was built between the canal, the railway line and Schönfließer Chaussee (today Beeskower Strasse) for war preparations by the National Socialists, in which during the Second World War prisoners of a satellite camp of the Sachsenhausen concentration camp and prisoners of war of the main camp III B (prisoners of war) Team main camp) performed forced labor that killed thousands. They were also used in the Oder device construction, an armaments factory outsourced from Rheinmetall-Borsig, in the Vogelsang power plant on the Oder, in forestry and in road construction. Between 1940 and 1943 the GBI port was built on the Oder-Spree Canal, with a granite store for the planned imperial capital, today's port of Eisenhüttenstadt.
On April 24, 1945, the Red Army occupied the city. Fürstenberg (Oder) became a garrison town for the Soviet troops. Most of the industrial facilities were dismantled as a reparation payment.
On the III. At the SED party congress from July 20 to 24, 1950, the decision was made to build the Eisenhüttenkombinat Ost (EKO) and a socialist residential town near Fürstenberg (Oder). The new residential town was to be built according to the “16 principles of urban development” and in the architectural style of socialist classicism.
On August 18, 1950, the symbolic first ax blow
was made to mark the start of construction on the ironworks combine.
On January 1, 1951, Minister Fritz Selbmann laid the foundation
stone for the first blast furnace, which went into operation on
September 19, 1951. Five more blast furnaces were built by 1955. On
February 1, 1953, the residential town was detached from the
Fürstenberg district as an independent urban district and renamed
Stalinstadt on May 7, 1953 on the occasion of the death of Stalin.
Originally, on the 70th anniversary of Karl Marx's death, the city
was to be given the name Karl-Marx-Stadt, which was then given to
Chemnitz instead. At the end of 1953 the city had 2,400 inhabitants,
in 1960 already 24,372. Fürstenberg (Oder) became a district town in
1952 and in 1960 had a population of 6,749.
On November 13, 1961, the cities of Fürstenberg (Oder) (with the Schönfließ district) and Stalinstadt were merged to form Eisenhüttenstadt in order to erase the name that had become undesirable as part of the de-Stalinization. The city of Fürstenberg (Oder) was separated from the Fürstenberg district and added to the city already existing under the name Stalinstadt. Eisenhüttenstadt was then until the formation of the Oder-Spree district, both an independent city and a district town in the Eisenhüttenstadt district in the Frankfurt (Oder) district.
On September 19, 1986, with great political participation in the Federal Republic of Germany, an agreement on the first German-German town twinning between Saarlouis and Eisenhüttenstadt was signed.
With the expansion of the iron and steel works, the number of inhabitants rose to an all-time high of over 53,000 by 1988. In 1993 the village of Diehlo was incorporated. In 1996 the new dyke bridge was rebuilt over the Oder-Spree Canal. With the structural change after reunification, the population almost halved. In order to cope with the shrinking process, an urban redevelopment program has been started, which involves the demolition and renovation of numerous apartments.
The somewhat cumbersome name of the city has always encouraged
people to create more catchy names. In colloquial language, the city
is often shortened to “Hüttenstadt” or “Hütte”. Due to the decline
since 1989, the city is now popularly called "Schrottgorod". Scrap
corrupted the iron as a material to be recycled, the ending -gorod
the Russian ending for -stadt.
The community of Diehlo became part of Eisenhüttenstadt in 1993.