10 largest cities in Germany
Berlin
Hamburg
Munich
Cologne
Frankfurt am Main
Hanover
Dusseldorf
Leipzig
Bremen
Dresden

 

Eisleben

 

Lutherstadt Eisleben is the second largest city in the district of Mansfeld-Südharz in the eastern Harz foreland in Saxony-Anhalt. It is known as the place of birth and death of Martin Luther. In honor of the city's greatest son, Eisleben has been nicknamed "Lutherstadt" since 1946. The Luther memorials in Eisleben and Wittenberg have been UNESCO World Heritage Sites since 1996. Eisleben belongs to the Federation of Luther Cities. The Luther sites in Eisleben and Wittenberg were combined to form the Luther Memorials Foundation in Saxony-Anhalt.

Eisleben extends over an area of ​​about 25 by 10 kilometers, as several surrounding communities have been incorporated. The largest district is Helfta with the 1999 revitalized monastery.

The core city is 30 km west of Halle (Saale) in a long lowland tongue, the so-called Eisleben lowland in the south-eastern part of the district. The urban area through which the evil seven flows is dominated by agricultural land. Between Unter- and Oberrißdorf the landscape rises to the Mansfelder Platte, a low mountain plateau, the urban area covers the main part of the Platte. The southern part of the urban area is traversed by the wooded ridge of Hornburger Sattel, the southernmost district of Osterhausen is almost in the Helmetal.

 

History

The time of the great migrations
In the 3rd to 5th centuries, the time of the great migrations, Suebian tribes, fishing and warning from the Holstein, Schleswig and Mecklenburg area moved south. West of the Elbe and Saale as far as Thuringia, this path can be traced by the endings of the place names “-leben”. For example, between Haldensleben and Erfurt, around 100 towns and villages with this ending in the place name emerged. According to Hermann Großesler, the word “life” in this context means heritage or genetic material. The front part of this place name refers to the clan of the landlords.

In the 5th century, the immigrants had mixed with the resident Hermundurs and belonged to the Thuringian Empire, which was ended in 531 by the Franks. Northern Thuringia was settled as a result of the defeat by Saxony. In the further course of history, Franconian kings settled Swabian, Hessian and Frisian farmers in some regions. Dormer designations such as Schwabengau, Hassegau and Friesenfeld were created.

The middle age
The moated castle on Faulen See
In the 9th and 10th centuries, a moated castle was built on the west bank of the so-called "Lazy Lake". On November 23, 994 Eisleben is in a document of the later Emperor Otto III. named as one of six places that had previously received market privileges including coinage and customs rights. The market town, which developed at the intersection of two trade routes and under the protection of the royal moated castle, was a royal table goods in which the taxes from the surrounding villages were received.

The garlic king
In 1081, the Saxon princes in Eisleben confirmed the election of Hermann von Luxemburg (1053-1088), Count von Salm, to be the anti-king of Henry IV while he was in Italy. Hermann resided in the Eisleber moated castle and was besieged by Heinrich's troops from Friesland. Count Ernst von Mansfeld came to the rescue and defeated the Frisians. For a long time the battlefield was called Friesenstrasse, today Freestrasse. After Hermann could not collect enough support to enforce his claim to the throne until 1084, he left the city. Since a lot of garlic is said to have grown in front of the walls of the castle at that time, he was called the "king of garlic". On the north wall of the town hall there is a sandstone sculpture which, according to tradition, represents the king. Today he is an image figure in tourism advertising.

First documented mention as a city
In 1069 the Mansfeld family, which had their ancestral castle in Mansfeld, received the office of count from Emperor Heinrich IV. Eisleben soon developed into the capital of this county. From 1121 the Counts of Mansfeld appointed a city bailiff for the city's government. It was not until 1809 that Eisleben had an independent mayor who had not been appointed by the authorities. Around 1150, the draining of the "Faulen See", a wetland on the eastern edge of the settlement area, began. Bishop Wichmann of Magdeburg had called in Frisians and Flemings for the construction of drainage ditches and dams, which were then settled in the later Nicolaiviertel. The traces can still be read today by means of many ditches and dams, for example on the Landwehr.

In the middle of the 12th century, the construction of the first city wall, which encompassed the market and the surrounding streets, began. The wall was built by the townspeople, and each craft guild was responsible for maintaining and defending a section. Guarding the gates was the responsibility of the city servants paid by the city. This wall only surrounded the market and a few surrounding streets.

In 1180 Eisleben was first mentioned as a city (civitas) with twelve councilors (consules) under the direction of the town bailiff. The townspeople were liable to pay taxes to the Counts of Mansfeld, and the town had lower jurisdiction. The oldest known coinage of the Eisleber coin dates back to 1183. There were two parishes, St. Andreas and St. Gotthard.

The origin of copper slate mining
Around the year 1200, a copper ore deposit was discovered for the first time on the Kupferberg in Hettstedt; according to legend, by the miners Nappian and Neucke, who are the symbolic figures of the Mansfeld mining industry to this day. At first the farmers were still digging on their own land, but it soon developed into a trade. The Bergrecht (Bergregal) granted Emperor Friedrich II. The Mansfeld Counts in 1215; In 1364 it was confirmed by Charles IV. Mining changed the economic structure and became the basis for the wealth of both the counts and the city.

 

The Helfta monastery
The Cistercian monastery of St. Maria was founded by Count Burchard I of Mansfeld in 1229 and was initially built near Mansfeld Castle. This also included the Katharinenhospital in Eisleben. In 1234, Count Burchard's widow relocated the monastery to the current desolation of Rossdorf (northwest of Eisleben, near Katharinenhölzchen, written Rodhersdorf in 1229, last mentioned as Rostdorff in 1579), whose location close to Castle Mansfeld was of course not wisely chosen. But Rossdorf also turned out to be an unfavorable place due to the great lack of water.

In 1258, at the instigation of Abbess Gertrud von Hackeborn, the monastery was moved to Helfta, today's district of Eisleben. The abbess had bought the piece of land in Helfta from her brothers Albrecht and Ludwig, who held the castle and rule in Helfta. As early as 1284, however, the monastery was plundered by Gebhard von Querfurt.

During the unsuccessful siege of the city by the Duke of Braunschweig in 1342, the surrounding villages and thus the monastery were destroyed. Then the fifth extension of the city wall began. The monastery was moved to the edge of the city fortifications on today's monastery square in Eisleben. But this should not be the last hike of the convent, because in 1525 the monastery of Neuen Helfta was devastated by the rebellious peasants during the Peasants' War, whereupon the abbess Katharina von Watzdorf and the nuns first fled to Halle before they at the orders of the emperor Karl V. were sent to Moravia to re-establish an abandoned monastery there. But already in the same year they returned to Alt-Helfta at the request of Count Hoyer, who had the monastery restored. The nuns had no permanent home there either.

The Reformation forced the introduction of Protestant worship in 1542. When all efforts to convert the women under the last abbess Walburga Reubers to Protestantism failed, the monastery was dissolved under the Protestant Count Georg von Mansfeld-Eisleben in 1546. The nuns left. The last documented mention of the monastery was dated June 19, 1542. Many farmers from the destroyed villages now settled, with the Count's permission, south of the city wall, beyond the Bad Seven (at that time still Willerbach). Today the typical arable houses are in Rammtorstraße.

The monastery subsequently fell into disrepair and was used as a warehouse in GDR times. Its reconstruction began in 1998 after some initiatives under the art teacher Joachim Herrmann had campaigned for it since 1988. The Cistercian women now also run a guest house and an educational establishment.

Construction and fire in 1498
A century of steady growth followed. During the Halberstadt bishop's feud in 1362, the city fortifications proved their worth against the besiegers. The Heilig-Geist-Stift was first mentioned in documents in 1371 and in 1408 the first stone town hall was built. In 1462 the choir of the St. Nicolai Church was consecrated, which had been built on the foundation walls of the Gotthard Church. In 1433 a department store and clothing store with scales was mentioned on the market square; the location corresponds to the house Markt 22. In 1440 the town had 530 house owners and around 4,000 inhabitants. The construction of the towers for St. Petri-Pauli began in 1447, for the Nicolaikirche and the Andreaskirche in 1462.

In 1454 the city council acquired the lower courts within the Petrification from the Counts of Mansfeld as pledge for 900 Rhenish guilders. The counts could never redeem the pledge.

Martin Luther was born on November 10, 1483 in Langen Gasse (suburb of Brückenviertel, trans aquam), today's Lutherstrasse. The next day, Martin's Day, he was baptized in the Church of St. Petri Pauli. The Luther family only stayed in Eisleben until the spring of 1484. Through his baptism, Luther remained connected to the city throughout his life. City administration and tourism have endeavored in recent years to work out this link more intensively; this is especially true for 2017, the anniversary year of the Reformation.

A second city wall was built between 1480 and 1520. The suburbs Petriviertel (farmers), Nicolaiviertel (Frisians) and Nussbreite (miners) came into the city. In 1498 a devastating fire devastated the city within the first wall ring. In addition to the many residential buildings, the town hall burned down and St. Andrew's Church was damaged. Only through a five-year tax exemption from the Mansfeld counts could a drastic migration of the population be averted.

 

Renaissance
The reconstruction of the old town, including the suburbs
After the devastating city fire of 1498 within the oldest city wall (Andreas- / Marktviertel), reconstruction began on August 17th, 1498, based on the privilege of the Mansfeld Counts. This initially took place comparatively quickly, with late Gothic architectural elements being used in the first phase. For the inclusion of the suburbs in the expanded wall ring and the water supply it proved to be beneficial that 1480–1566, when the Magdeburg archbishops were also administrators of Halberstadt, the Mansfeld counts for market district (Diocese of Halberstadt) and suburbs (Archbishopric of Magdeburg) only one Person as feudal lords. 1520–1540 the Reformation was carried out in several steps in Eisleben and the county of Mansfeld, including a Protestant boys' school founded under Agricola in 1525, which became the forerunner of the Latin school (grammar school) established in accordance with the Lutheran Treaty of 1546.

The transition from late Gothic to Renaissance styles can be seen at the town hall in the old town, the Hinterort seat (1500/1589) and the furnishings in the St. Andrew's Church. Berndinus Blanckenberg (around 1470–1531), who was councilor from 1507 and city bailiff from 1518, played a special role in the reconstruction of the city; his Renaissance epitaph, created by Hans Schlegel in 1540, is in the St. Andrew's Church. In the church there is the tomb tumba (1541) of Count Hoyer VI by the same artist.

After 1530, due to the crisis in the Mansfeld mining industry, construction was no longer carried out with the same intensity as in the first third of the 16th century, but the Campo Santo was built in 1538/1560, the Latin school was built in 1564, and the renaissance tower dome of the St. Paul Church, 1568 of the economic building of the Katharinenstift, 1571–1589 of the Neustadt town hall and 1585–1608 the completion of the Annenkirche.

After the city fire of 1601, which destroyed, among other things, the Renaissance moated castle, the Mittelort city seat, the grammar school, the weighing machine and numerous town houses, no such remarkable reconstruction could take place. This resulted, for example, from the sequestration of the Mansfeld Counts in 1570, the permutation recessions 1573/1579, in which the Electorate of Halberstadt and Magdeburg exchanged Eisleben with its suburbs, the burdens of the Thirty Years' War and the decline of mining and the industry that was dependent on it until his release of mining in 1671 by the Elector of Saxony. In addition to the existing complex administrative structures (there was also a count's administration until 1780), all of this led to an economic decline in the city, which lasted until the end of the 18th century and was also evident in the building work.

Neustadt and Reformation
In 1501 the house of the Counts of Mansfeld split into the Mansfeld-Vorderort, Mansfeld-Mittelort and Mansfeld-Hinterort families. At the beginning of the 16th century, each of these families built a city residence in Eisleben. Count Albrecht IV (1480–1560), a scion of the Hinterort branch, settled miners and ironworkers from other areas of Germany west of the old town to revitalize the mining industry and also granted this settlement town charter. They were called "New Town near Eisleben", today "Neustadt" or "Annenviertel".

The Neustädter Rathaus was built on today's “Breiten Weg” from 1571 to 1589, into which the regional and municipal court moved in 1848 and then the district court until 1853. This is why the house is also known as the "Old Court". In 1514, Emperor Maximilian I asked Albrecht to cancel the town charter. Albrecht, however, opposed this demand and instead founded the Annenkloster mit Kirche, an Augustinian hermit monastery, where he met Luther in 1518. In 1520, the Augustinian General Convention in the Annenkloster decided in favor of Luther's teaching. In 1523 the monastery dissolved.

 

While the Counts of Mansfeld-Vorderort adhered to their Catholic faith, the representatives of the Mansfeld-Hinterort family under Gebhard VII and above all Albrecht VII, who was a close friend of Luther, joined the idea of ​​the Reformation. In 1525 they introduced Protestant teaching and decided to found a Protestant school next to St. Andrew's Church. Yet they treated their subjects no better or worse than their Catholic relatives did. When the peasant wars, in which many dissatisfied miners from Eisleben took part, devastated large parts of the Mansfeld county, Albrecht VII had the rioting bloody and mercilessly put down. The turmoil of the wars of the Reformation even meant that related Mansfelders faced each other as opponents on different sides. During the peasant war the Benedictine monastery in wooden cells and the Helfta monastery were also devastated, the nuns were driven out. In 1529, hundreds of ice livers died of the plague. Count Hoyer IV of Mansfeld-Vorderort died in 1540, one of the most influential opponents of the Reformation in the Mansfeld region (grave tumba in St. Andrew's Church). Luther personally tried several times to settle the disputes among the counts - especially about the new town. In 1546 he came to the city for the last time. On February 16, he and Justus Jonas signed the deed of foundation for the first Latin school, today's Martin-Luther-Gymnasium. Martin Luther died in Eisleben on February 18, 1546. The house where Martin Luther died is dedicated to the memory of this event. Due to his commitment to the Reformation, Emperor Charles V imposed the imperial ban on Count Albrecht VII in 1547. It was lifted again in 1552.

In 1550 another plague epidemic killed around 1,500 people. Many miners left the city, so that in 1554 some of the shafts had to be closed. Wage cuts caused civil unrest and work stoppages. In 1562 the Katharinenkirche burned down and was not rebuilt. In 1567, the Saxon Elector August closed an Eisleber printing works that had printed a pamphlet against his preachers and had the printer arrested. The numerous inheritance divisions, excessive expenses and the poor economic situation led to the bankruptcy of the Mansfeld counts in 1570. They lost the sovereignty of Saxony, which sent a supervisor to Eisleben. Due to the lack of labor in the mining industry, emigration was made a criminal offense.

The 17th and 18th centuries
City fires, plague and the Thirty Years War
The century began in 1601 with the worst fire disaster in the city's history. In the city center, the fire could spread quickly under the half-timbered houses lined up closely together. 253 residential buildings, the superintendent's office, the scale, the towers of St. Andrew's Church and the city palaces of the Counts of Mansfeld were destroyed. The social grievances from which the miners had to suffer led to the siege of the house of the mint master Ziegenhorn on the Breiten Weg on February 8, 1621. 1000 miners demanded the end of counterfeiting. In 1626 there was another plague epidemic with hundreds of deaths. In 1628 the Thirty Years' War came to Eisleben with Wallenstein, and the city was devastated by the mercenaries of the Catholic League. As a result, mining also came to a standstill. In 1631 troops from both war camps marched through the city several times and forced quarters and provisions. When the Saxon Elector Johann Georg I concluded a separate peace with Emperor Ferdinand II in 1635, thanksgiving services were held in all churches. But already in 1636 the city was sacked by the Swedes. The raids lasted until 1644. In 1653, another city fire destroyed 166 houses, and in 1681 900 people were killed by the plague. Luther's birthplace burned down to the ground floor in the city fire of 1689.

Reconstruction
In 1671, the Saxon elector allowed mining in the Mansfeld region to be “released”. This was the prerequisite for the further development and industrialization of mining. In 1691 the weighing house was rebuilt. Luther's birthplace followed in 1693 and was now used as a school for the poor and as a museum.

 

The house of the patrician family Rinck was rebuilt after the city fire in 1498 at the beginning of the 16th century as the city seat of the Vorderort line, from 1563 it housed the count's office and was completely rebuilt after the fire of 1689 1707. From 1716 the chancellery also performed the tasks of the Prussian part of the county of Mansfeld, which had been released from sequestration, was closed in 1780 because of the feudal fall and from 1789 was the seat of the electoral Saxon governor. On July 14, 1798, on the initiative of the government of the Electorate of Saxony, the Bergschule zu Eisleben was founded as an educational institution for technical mine officials.

The 19th century
Napoleonic Wars
After the defeat of Prussia in the war against France near Jena and Auerstedt in 1806, French troops occupied the city, although Eisleben had not belonged to Prussia, but to the Electorate of Saxony. In spite of posters in the city that assured "The entire Electoral Saxon state is neutral", all supplies were requisitioned. In 1808, King Friedrich August of Saxony ceded a large part of the County of Mansfeld with Eisleben, which was under Saxon sovereignty, to the newly formed Kingdom of Westphalia under Napoleon's brother Jérôme, as a thank you for letting the Cottbus district lease.

Thus serfdom was abolished here too, and freedom of trade, the separation of powers, equal rights for Jews, the civil code and the keeping of church records were introduced. The new town was incorporated into the old town. The abolition of the old regulations enabled Jewish traders to settle in the city, who were able to inaugurate their first synagogue in Langen Gasse, today's Lutherstrasse, in 1814.

After Napoleon's defeat in the Battle of Leipzig in 1813, Westphalian rule ended in Mansfeld. The Westphalian coats of arms were replaced by Prussian eagles. Eisleben took part in the Wars of Liberation by founding a voluntary pioneer battalion under the command of the Mining Captain of Veltheim (1785-1839).

restoration
In 1815 the former county of Mansfeld was incorporated into the Kingdom of Prussia as a result of the Congress of Vienna. From 1816 the municipality of Eisleben belonged to the Mansfelder Seekreis, which had its district seat in the city. In 1817 a new building was built for the Luther school in the courtyard of Martin Luther's birthplace. The city received its first post office in 1825 as the so-called Land-Fußbothen-Post next to the Petrikirche. In 1826 the Eisleber teachers' seminar was founded on the site behind the Petrikirche. In 1910 it was given a new building in the upper city park, which today houses the Martin Luther Gymnasium. The seminar existed until 1926 and used the Luther School as a practice school. In 1827, with the expansion of Halleschen Chaussee between the Heilig-Geist-Tor and the Landwehr, the fortification of the Eisleber streets began. In 1835 the new city hospital was completed. In 1847 a famine led to social unrest, which the authorities put down through the use of the military. Because the prayer room had become too small for the steadily growing Jewish community, the building was rebuilt and the now expanded Eisleber synagogue was inaugurated in 1850.

The industrial revolution
In 1852 the five Mansfeld mining companies merged and formed the Mansfeld copper-slate-building union. In 1858 the last remains of the city fortifications were demolished. In 1863 work began on the Halle-Kassel railway line. The first section to Halle was put into operation in 1865. After the closure of the Ober and Mittelhütte, mining began in the west of the city in 1870 in the Krughütte and the Kupferrohhütte. The first cable car in Europe was built in 1871 between the Martinsschacht and the Krughütte. It was used to transport ore and spoil. On the occasion of the 400th birthday of the reformer, the Luther monument created by Rudolf Siemering was erected and inaugurated on the market square in 1883.

In 1892 the water of the Salty Lake began to penetrate the mining shafts below, which meanwhile reached below the city center. To save them, the lake was pumped out from 1893 and thus disappeared from the map. As a result, there was also threatening subsidence in the city of Eisleben. By 1898, more than 440 houses had been damaged as a result, and many had to be demolished. The damage and the renovation measures can still be seen on numerous houses today. The damage to the shafts forced mass layoffs. Together with the resentment about the slow and unjust compensation for the mountain damage, there was ultimately unrest among the population. In 1896 the Mansfeld copper-slate-building union made 500,000 marks available to compensate the house owners.

 

The 20th century
Between 1908 and the GDR district reform in 1950, Eisleben was a separate urban district.

Upswing and First World War
The century began with the commissioning of the first section of an electric tram in Eisleben. On June 12, 1900, the 700 year anniversary of the mining industry was celebrated with a large parade in the presence of Emperor Wilhelm II and his wife. Due to the flourishing mining industry, the city's general prosperity increased in the period before the First World War. The population rose to over 25,000, and Eisleben became a district-free city, leaving the Mansfeld lake district. New public facilities were: a new building for the mountain school (1903), a new hospital (1904), sewerage and municipal sewage treatment plant, the new secondary school on Stadtgraben (today's primary school "Geschwister Scholl"), the new girls' elementary school in Katharinenstrasse (1911) , the new building of the teachers' college (1911) and the regional history museum (1913). In 1909 the miners won the right to form trade union associations.

According to official information, 575 inhabitants of the city died during the First World War.

Weimar Republic
In the elections to the Prussian state parliament on February 20, 1921, the parties of the left in the Central German industrial area received a majority. For fear of a Communist takeover, police units of the Prussian police, newly organized by Wilhelm Abegg, were sent to Hettstedt and Eisleben on March 19, 1921 in order to maintain control of the factories. In the course of the March fighting in central Germany, around 100 workers were killed.

Since 1931 the copper production was subsidized by the state in order to prevent the closure of the Mansfeld operations, on which the region was largely economically dependent.

Period of National Socialism and World War II
On February 12, 1933, when an SA troop attacked the office of the KPD sub-district leadership at Breiten Weg 30 (during the GDR era, “Street of the Victims of Fascism”), numerous people were seriously injured and four were killed. Since then one speaks of the ice liver Blood Sunday.

On November 9, 1938, the night of the pogrom, members of the SA and SS in plain clothes broke into the synagogue and destroyed the prayer room. Jews were mistreated, Jewish property was destroyed.

As everywhere in Germany, the Jews were discriminated against, so that many left the city or even the country. In 1938, 42 Jews were named in the city, of whom at least 24 were murdered in the Shoah.

The most famous Nazis were the later lieutenant general of the Waffen-SS Ludolf von Alvensleben and the later SS-Standartenführer and camp commandant of the Majdanek concentration camp Hermann Florstedt.

In addition to political opponents, clergymen also offered resistance to the Nazi regime, according to Pastor Johannes Noack from the Confessing Church, who was sentenced to prison for "state agitation", as a result of which he died in 1942. 913 inhabitants of the city were killed in the Second World War.

Until the end of the war, the city remained almost untouched by the war, although it was in the midst of not insignificant mining and industrial operations. All schools and hospitals served as military hospitals for thousands of wounded soldiers. The American armed forces reached the town of Eisleben while bypassing the Harz fortress in the south on April 13, 1945, and it was surrendered without a fight. Units of the 1st US Army immediately set up a prisoner-of-war camp on the north and east side of the heap of the Hermannschacht near Helfta. German soldiers and civilians were interned in the open air on an area of ​​around 80,000 m². At times there were 90,000 prisoners here, of whom 2,000 to 3,000 died, mainly from the inhumane conditions. The camp was disbanded on May 23, 1945, and the prisoners were taken to other cities. The remains of the deceased have not been found to this day. On May 20, 1995, a prisoner of war memorial was erected and inaugurated in Helfta in memory of these people.

Post war period
On July 2, 1945, the Soviet army marched into Eisleben. Due to the 1st London Zone Protocol of 1944 and the decisions of the Yalta Conference, it became part of the Soviet zone of occupation. As a greeting, Eisleber communists put a Lenin monument on the plan. On August 1, 1945 - in front of a sold-out house with 714 seats - the curtains of the Eisleben Citizens' Theater were raised; it was the first German post-war theater. It was founded and managed by Ralph Wiener, the pseudonym for Felix Ecke.

 

In 1946, on the 400th anniversary of Martin Luther's death, the city was given the name "Lutherstadt". On March 22, 1949, more than 2,000 residents demonstrated for the unity of Germany. In 1950 Eisleben celebrated the 750th anniversary of the Mansfeld mining industry in the presence of the President of the GDR Wilhelm Pieck. The great circle created in 1950 was dissolved and the circles Eisleben and Hettstedt were formed. From 1951 the city area was expanded to include the Ernst-Thälmann-Siedlung and the Wilhelm-Pieck-Siedlung. In 1963, the progress shaft, the last copper slate shaft in Eisleben, was closed. The mining era in the Mansfeld Mulde finally came to an end by 1969. The Mansfeld Combine was transformed into a production facility for tools and consumer goods. For example, the Mansfeld Process Controller series of computers was manufactured in Eisleben between 1985 and 1990. At the same time, the mining and metallurgical engineering school was developed into an engineering school for electrical engineering and mechanical engineering.

To make room for a department store, the remaining keep of the old moated castle was blown up on the corner between Freistrasse and Schlossplatz. Between 1973 and 1975 subsidence occurred again in the urban area, especially in the area of ​​seven heat. Prefabricated buildings with 640 apartments were built on Sonnenweg and the Old Cemetery.

The celebration of Luther's 500th birthday in 1983 was long and lavishly prepared and celebrated with guests from 36 countries. The GDR Post Office (November 9, 1982 and October 18, 1983) and the Federal Post Office (October 13, 1983) issued special stamps on this occasion. The Luther sites had been restored and the facades of the houses on the market renewed.

End of the GDR and the period after the reunification
In autumn 1989 demonstrations for democracy and social change took place in Eisleben as well. Eisleben has been part of the state of Saxony-Anhalt since German Unity Day on October 3, 1990. In 1994 the district of Hettstedt and the district of Eisleben were merged to form the district of Mansfelder Land with the Eisleben administrative center. The Luther houses have been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1997. In the course of the district reform in 2007, Eisleben lost its status as a district town to Sangerhausen.

On May 25, 2009, the city received the title “Place of Diversity” awarded by the federal government.

In 2016 Eisleben was awarded the honorary title of “Reformation City of Europe” by the Community of Evangelical Churches in Europe.

Population development
The population has been decreasing continuously since the mid-1960s due to emigration and declining birth rates, although the urban area has been steadily enlarged by incorporations. The expiry of copper slate mining in the area of ​​the Mansfeld Mulde at the end of the 1960s and its relocation to the Sangerhäuser Revier played an important role.

 

Geography

The core city is located 30 km west of Halle (Saale) in a long stretch of lowland, the so-called Eisleben lowland in the south-eastern part of the district. The urban area through which the evil seven flows is dominated by agricultural land. Between Unter- and Oberrißdorf the landscape rises to the height of the Mansfelder Platte, the urban area covers the main part of this landscape. The southern part of the urban area is crossed by the wooded ridge of Hornburger Sattel, the southernmost district of Osterhausen is almost in the Helmetal.

Neighboring communities
Neighboring communities are Gerbstedt in the north, Lake Mansfelder Land in the east, Farnstädt and Querfurt (both Saalekreis) in the south, and Allstedt, Bornstedt, Wimmelburg, Hergisdorf, Helbra and Klostermansfeld in the west.

City structure
Lutherstadt Eisleben is divided into a core city and 11 incorporated localities. The majority of the population lives in the core city and in the immediately south-west bordering town of Helfta.

The core city consists of various settlements, the so-called city quarters. These emerged at different times. The old town of Eisleben consists in its center of the market district, which is also named after the city church St. Andreas Viertel. It is enclosed by the Nikolaiviertel in the north, the Petriviertel in the southeast and the so-called New Village in the west. The latter should not be confused with the Neustadt of Eisleben, which was built around 1511. This is located on the area near the Breiten Straße and the St. Annen Church and is located west of the New Village, bordering the old town. To the north of the old town of Eisleben are the suburbs of Nussbreite and Freistraßenviertel, to the south the Siebenhitze and to the southeast the Parkviertel.

The most recent city extensions emerged in the GDR with the large housing estates Ernst-Thälmann-Siedlung and Wilhelm-Pieck-Siedlung and Helbraer Straße. Furthermore, the residential areas Neckendorf and Oberhütte, which are already in the surrounding countryside, belong to the core city.

The incorporated localities of Eisleben are located in the Eisleber lowlands in the east and on the adjacent heights of the Mansfelder Platte and in and south of the Hornburger Sattel.

 

Waters

Several brooks flow in the urban area, for example the Böse Sieben in the city center. It arises as the confluence of seven brooks from the Vorharz and is called evil because its floods used to be particularly devastating. The bad seven flows east to the sweet lake. Another river is the Schlenze in the north, it rises in Polleben and then flows northeast to the Saale. The Schlenze can also rise sharply during high water. The Glume, which rises south of Helbra and flows east of Eisleben into the Böse Sieben, and the Laweke, which rises in the Hedersleben district and then flows off to the east, are to be mentioned as smaller streams. The valley of the Hegebornbach south of Volkstedt is beautifully landscaped, this brook rises west of Volkstedt, then flows through the village and then flows east of Eisleben into the Glume. The most important body of water in the south is the Rohne, which begins near Bornstedt and flows through the Osterhausen district.

climate
The average air temperature in Eisleben-Helfta is 8.5 ° C, the annual precipitation 509 millimeters. It is so low that it falls into the lower twentieth of the values ​​recorded in Germany. Lower values ​​are registered at only 2% of the measuring stations of the German Weather Service. The driest month is February, with the most rainfall in June. In June there is 1.9 times more rainfall than in February. The precipitation hardly varies and is very evenly distributed over the year. Lower seasonal fluctuations are recorded at only 7% of the measuring stations.