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Mühlberg / Elbe is a town on the Elbe in the Elbe-Elster district in southern Brandenburg. Mühlberg is located on the Elbe in the southwestern part of the state of Brandenburg, halfway between Riesa in the south and Torgau in the north. The 1.2 km² area around the ferry landing stage at the mouth of the Dahle west of the Elbe, including a section of the federal highway 182, is the only area in Brandenburg on the left-hand side of the Elbe, belonging to Mühlberg.
Mühlberg was first mentioned in a document in 1230. Long before
this, Slavic settlements since around 600 AD can be proven through
archaeological excavations and grave finds. The city was founded on
a valley sand island at the Elbe crossing under the protection of a
moated castle. The lords of the castle were initially the
ministerials of Ileburg (Eilenburg), who also founded the
Marienstern monastery here in 1228. The city and its rulers were
under the changing influence of Bohemian and Meissen lords. In 1397
Mühlberg fell to Meissen, but in 1443 it was exchanged for the rule
of Hohnstein to Hincko Birke von der Duba. After the death of his
descendants, Mühlberg came back to Meissen in 1520, and after the
Schmalkaldic War was integrated into the now Albertine Electoral
Saxony. During the war, the decisive battle took place on April 24,
1547 near Mühlberg. In the electoral state the Mühlberg office
belonged to the Meißnische Kreis formed in 1547.
In 1815, as a result of the Congress of Vienna, Mühlberg went to Prussia together with other Saxon areas and became part of the newly founded district of Liebenwerda. In 1854, straightening the Elbe resulted in Mühlberg no longer lying directly on the Elbe. A preserved Elbarm was converted into a harbor in 1883.
In 1939 the prisoner-of-war camp, main camp IV B, was set up near Neuburxdorf, in which around 3,000 prisoners died by the end of the war. From September 1945 to November 1948 this camp was operated as special camp No. 1 Mühlberg of the NKVD, in which around 7,000 of a total of 22,000 people died of starvation and secondary diseases and are buried in mass graves near a shooting range in the north.
After the end of the Second World War, Mühlberg, which previously belonged to the Prussian administrative district of Merseburg, became part of the newly founded state of Saxony-Anhalt. In the GDR, as part of the administrative reform of 1952, it was assigned to the Cottbus district. The official name of the city was Mühlberg (Elbe) until 1990. When the borders of the new federal states were determined with the reunification in 1990, Mühlberg came to the state of Brandenburg with a large part of the Cottbus district. In 1992 Mühlberg was accepted into the working group "Cities with historic town centers" of the state of Brandenburg.
On July 21, 1992 the Mühlberg / Elbe office was established. The municipalities of Altenau, Brottewitz, Fichtenberg, Koßdorf, Martinskirchen and the city of Mühlberg / Elbe from the then Bad Liebenwerda district were combined in this administrative association. On August 31, 2001, the new city of Mühlberg / Elbe, which was free of charge, was approved from the municipalities of Altenau, Brottewitz, Fichtenberg, Koßdorf, Martinskirchen and the city of Mühlberg / Elbe, with effect from August 31, 2001. The Mühlberg / Elbe office was dissolved on the same date.
The high water level of the Elbe during the floods in August 2002 forced the district and state administration to completely evacuate Mühlberg. But the dikes held, celebrated by the locals as the “miracle of Mühlberg”.
Another severe natural disaster hit the city on May 24, 2010. A hailstorm was followed by a tornado that destroyed over 300 houses, some severely, including the tower of the monastery church. Mühlberg was cut off from the outside world for several hours.
When the Elbe floods in 2013, three quarters of the residents were evacuated by June 8th and the dykes were raised and reinforced, which - as in 2002 - held. The Elbe level reached 9.62 m.
In March 2019, the city council decided that Mühlberg / Elbe should merge with Bad Liebenwerda, Falkenberg / Elster and Uebigau-Wahrenbrück (all districts of Elbe-Elster) to form the community of Liebenwerda on January 1, 2020.