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Peenemünde is a municipality on the northern part of the island of Usedom in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. It belongs to the district of Vorpommern-Greifswald and is administered by the Usedom-Nord office based in the town of Zinnowitz. The place is known for the rocket development in the Peenemünde Army Research Institute, which was once stationed there, under which the missile aggregate 4, known as V2, became operational.
History of Peenemünde
Gold rings, which were discovered in the forest at Peenemünder Haken between 1905 and 1908 as a deposit, and another that was discovered in 1938 in the Peenestrom near Peenemünde as an excavation, document contacts to Scandinavia during the Viking Age. The rings are considered to be Danish goldsmiths from the time of Kings Gorm and Harald Blauzahn in the 10th century.
Peenemünde was first mentioned in 1282 in a document by Duke Bogislaw IV, in which he gave the place to the city of Wolgast.
During the Thirty Years' War, the Swedish King Gustav II Adolf landed at Peenemünde with a 15,000-strong force on June 26, 1630 and soon occupied the entire Oder estuary after the conquest of Usedom. After the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, Peenemünde and Western Pomerania became Swedish.
During the Great Northern War, the Prussian general Georg Abraham von Arnim conquered the place from August 21 to 22, 1715. But only after the Peace of Stockholm in 1720 did the place with Usedom-Wollin and Old Western Pomerania become Prussian. Although a ski jump was built in front of Peenemünde on the Peenestrom as early as 1630, the facility was only expanded as a real fortress in 1717. In 1759 this facility was modernized again because there were constant disputes between Prussia and Sweden.
After the administrative reform in 1815, Peenemünde came to the Prussian province of Pomerania and belonged to the district of Usedom-Wollin from 1818 to 1945.
In 1835 an amber mine was recorded in the PUM (Preußisches Urmes Tischblatt) in Peenemünder Haken, which existed there as an open pit. Apparently this was not profitable or was exploited and was discontinued before 1880.
In 1858 Peenemünde had 550 inhabitants with the Gaatz Vorwerk, 33 families lived from fishing. There were 82 residential buildings and a school in the village. The village belonged to the city of Wolgast
In 1876 a chapel was built in the cemetery in Peenemünde.
After the storm floods of 1872, 1904 and 1913, which also severely destroyed Peenemünde, the construction of a dike with a height of 1.8 m began in 1927.
From 1936: Army Research Institute
Peenemünde became known through the Peenemünde Army Research Center (Peenemünde-Ost) and the test site of the Air Force Peenemünde-West from 1936 to 1945. In 1936 the Wehrmacht acquired the entire north of the island from Karlshagen to Peenemünder Haken from the city of Wolgast and from private individuals. The population had to leave the place, only five residents remained as civil employees of the HVA (Heeresversuchsanstalt Peenemünde).
Since the high water of 1872 exceeded 2.64 m, that of 1904 with 1.90 m and that of 1913 with 1.91 m over the dyke of 1.80 m that had been built in the meantime, the dyke from Peenemünder Haken to the harbor was in 1939 Karlshagen increased to 4.0 m. Large quantities of sand were washed into the dike from the emerging harbor basin, the Peene River and the Baltic Sea, so that the level for the entire village area and the areas of the HVA could be increased by 2.0 m.
post war period
In accordance with the provisions of the Potsdam Agreement, the HVA facilities in and around Peenemünde were blown up after 1945, after all remains of the HVA had been secured and transported away by the Red Army. The area of Peenemünde after leaving Karlshagen was still a restricted area and could only be entered with separate passes to Peenemünde.
The HVA power plant was soon put back into operation to supply the military base and the population. It worked until 1990.
The site was used as a Soviet naval and air force base for the Red Army - later a group of the Soviet armed forces in Germany - until 1952.
In 1952 the base was handed over to the Kasernierte Volkspolizei See as a forerunner of the National People's Army of the GDR. This used it, among other things, as a naval base of the 1st Flotilla of the People's Navy and the airfield by the 9th Fighter Squadron of the NVA Air Force. These military locations, the airfield and the military port, were further expanded; a repair yard was built north of the power plant for the NVA flotilla (now the north port). In the three control and testing facilities of the HVA in the south-east of Peenemünde, ammunition stores with the appropriate infrastructure were set up for the NVA.
Until 1990, the entire northern area of the island of Usedom up
to Karlshagen was a restricted area of the National People's Army,
which operated an important military airfield there. The Peenemünde
airfield already belonged to the former test site of the
Peenemünde-West air force and was structurally expanded from 1958 to
After the reunification of Germany, the military base was dissolved in 1993.
The Nordic history of the island of Usedom was taken into account with the Viking camps at Pentecost from 1995 to 2000 in Peenemünde. A specially designed modern rune stone with rune signs later found its place in the harbor. The massive granite boulder has an inscription carved into the runes of the younger Futhark, which in translation contains the following: fusnan (= island of Usedom) - jomsbork (= Jomsburg) - CMXCV - MCMXCV (995–1995). The Roman numerals refer to the 1000th anniversary of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, which was celebrated in 1995.
From 1945 to 1952, the municipality, with the part of the district of Usedom-Wollin that remained in Germany after the Second World War, formed the district of Usedom in the state of Mecklenburg, which was added to the Wolgast district in the Rostock district in 1952. The community has belonged to the state of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania since 1990 and to the district of East Western Pomerania from 1994, which in 2011 became part of the Western Pomerania-Greifswald district.