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Stuttgart

 

Stuttgart is the capital of the German state of Baden-Württemberg and with 635,911 inhabitants (December 31, 2019) its largest city. The sixth largest city in Germany forms the center of the Stuttgart region, which has around 2.8 million inhabitants and is one of the largest metropolitan areas in Germany. It is also the core city of the European metropolitan region of Stuttgart (around 5.3 million inhabitants), the fifth largest in Germany. Stuttgart has the status of an urban district and is divided into 23 urban districts. As the seat of the state government and the state parliament of Baden-Württemberg as well as numerous state and some federal authorities, Stuttgart is the political center of the state. It is the seat of the regional council of Stuttgart, which administers the administrative district of the same name. The regional parliament of the Stuttgart region, one of the three regions in the Stuttgart administrative region, meets in Stuttgart. In addition, Stuttgart is the seat of the Protestant regional bishop of Württemberg and part of the Catholic diocese of Rottenburg-Stuttgart. The city is an important business location and financial center. It is known as the home of the German automobile companies Daimler and Porsche, on the other hand for the most frequent exceedance of the fine dust limit value in Germany and the most congested German metropolitan area.

The Stuttgart cityscape is characterized by many hills, partly vineyards, valleys such as the Stuttgart basin and the Neckar valley, green spaces such as Rosensteinpark, Schlossgarten, Höhenpark, as well as a dense urban development with a high proportion of post-war buildings, various monuments, church buildings and some high-rise buildings.

 

History

Geographical location
Stuttgart (in the local Swabian dialect Schduagerd) is located in the center of the state of Baden-Württemberg. The core city is located "between forest and vines" in the "Stuttgarter Kessel", a valley basin through which the Nesenbach and its tributaries, above all the Vogelsangbach, flow from the northeast towards the Neckar. The districts reach in the north as far as the Neckar basin, in the west as far as the Glemswald and the Gäu, in the east as far as the foothills of the Schurwald and in the south as far as the Filder plain and the foothills of the Schönbuch. In the southeast, the Neckar flows into the urban area in the districts of Hedelfingen / Obertürkheim coming from Esslingen am Neckar and leaves it again in the district of Mühlhausen in the northeast.

The urban area stretches - unusually for large cities - over a height difference of almost 350 m. The height ranges from 207 m above sea level. at the Neckarschleuse Hofen up to 549 m on the Bernhartshöhe near the Stuttgart motorway junction. The most striking elevations include the Birkenkopf (511 m) on the edge of the valley basin, the Württemberg (411 m) above the Neckar Valley and the Green Heiner (395 m) on the northwestern city limits.

Spatial planning
The city of Stuttgart is one of 14 regional centers in Baden-Württemberg. It is the main center of the Stuttgart region, which in turn, together with the city of Stuttgart and its five districts, has a total of 2.67 million inhabitants.

The following medium-sized centers are located in the area of ​​the Stuttgart regional center (Stuttgart region):

Backnang, Bietigheim-Bissingen / Besigheim, Böblingen / Sindelfingen, Esslingen am Neckar, Geislingen an der Steige, Göppingen, Herrenberg, Kirchheim unter Teck, Leonberg, Ludwigsburg / Kornwestheim, Nürtingen, Schorndorf, Vaihingen an der Enz and Waiblingen / Fellbach.

The city of Stuttgart acts as a center for the cities of Leinfelden-Echterdingen and Filderstadt - both in the Esslingen district - and for the cities of Ditzingen, Gerlingen and Korntal-Münchingen - all three in the Ludwigsburg district.

The city of Stuttgart is the center of the Stuttgart metropolitan region and one of the three main centers within it. The Stuttgart metropolitan region is home to a total of 5.3 million inhabitants.

Neighboring communities
The following cities and municipalities border the state capital Stuttgart. They are called clockwise, starting in the northeast:

Fellbach, Kernen im Remstal (all Rems-Murr-Kreis), Esslingen am Neckar, Ostfildern, Neuhausen auf den Fildern, Filderstadt and Leinfelden-Echterdingen (all district Esslingen), Sindelfingen and Leonberg (district Böblingen) as well as Gerlingen, Ditzingen, Korntal- Münchingen, Möglingen, Kornwestheim and Remseck am Neckar (all districts of Ludwigsburg). Thus four of the five districts of the Stuttgart region border on the Stuttgart city district.

City structure
The urban area of ​​the state capital Stuttgart is administratively divided into five "inner" and 18 "outer" city districts. The city districts have a district advisory board and a district chairman who only works on a voluntary basis in the inner city districts.

The city districts are further divided into districts. The number of districts was increased by the amendment of the main statutes of July 1, 2007 and January 1, 2009. Since then, the urban area of ​​Stuttgart has consisted of 23 districts and 152 districts (districts on the city map can be clicked on).

 

Climate

Due to the location in the broad Stuttgart basin and the dense development, there is a comparatively warm and sometimes humid climate. The Black Forest, Swabian Alb, Schurwald and Swabian-Franconian Forest mountain ranges also shade the entire region from winds. Because of this, viticulture is even possible on the slopes of Stuttgart. Viticulture in Stuttgart comprises 423 hectares of vineyards, a good two percent of the city's area.

The annual mean temperature in Stuttgart is 9.3 ° C (Schnarrenberg weather station), in the city center and in the Neckar Valley 10.6 ° C and on the Fildern at the airport 8.5 ° C. In winter, the inner city in the valley basin is mostly free of snow and ice. Strong “felt” winds are also rather rare in the city center because of the dense development. In order to have enough fresh air in the boiler despite the recurring inversion weather, many places on the slopes - especially in Stuttgart-West - are undeveloped and serve as fresh air corridors. The deer and wild boar park in the west also serves as a fresh air supplier for the lower inner city. In order to improve air pollution control and reduce particulate matter levels, a passage ban for trucks was issued in 2005, but this had to be lifted on March 1, 2008 in connection with the introduction of the particulate matter ordinance. A new truck drive-through ban has been in force since March 2010.

 

The lee position of the Stuttgart region is the reason why it is one of the regions in Germany with little rainfall. The clouds rain down on the Swabian Alb and the Black Forest, so that only relatively dry air reaches Stuttgart. At the beginning of the 20th century, increasing population numbers led to a shortage of drinking water, whereupon the first pipeline from the Donauried over the Alb went into operation in 1917 (state water supply). In 1959, the Lake Constance water supply followed.

Nature
The following nature reserves are located on the marking of the state capital Stuttgart: According to the protected area statistics of the State Institute for the Environment, Measurements and Nature Conservation Baden-Württemberg (LUBW), 1,353.19 hectares of the city area are under nature protection, that is 6.53 percent.

Büsnauer Wiesental: 27.8 ha; Vaihingen district
Oak grove: 34.2 ha; Markings Riedenberg and Sillenbuch
Greutterwald: 151.3 ha (of which 149.4 ha in Stuttgart); Districts Weilimdorf, Zuffenhausen, Feuerbach and Korntal (Ludwigsburg district)
Häslachwald: 53.6 ha (including 45 ha in Stuttgart); Landmarks Plieningen and Kemnat (Esslingen district)
Red deer park near Stuttgart (red deer and wild boar park): 830.5 ha; Districts Stuttgart and Vaihingen
Lower Feuerbachtal with hillside forests and surroundings: 47.5 ha; Districts Mühlhausen and Zuffenhausen
Weidach and Zettach forest: 226.0 ha; Landmarks Möhringen and Plieningen
Stuttgart is known nationwide for its yellow-headed amazon population, which is the only one in the wild outside of America.