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Tübingen

 

Tübingen is a university city in Baden-Württemberg. The city on the Neckar is about 48 kilometers south of Stuttgart. With over 27,000 students, it is the youngest city in Germany and shaped accordingly.

The oldest parts of the city are on the north and east flanks of the Schlossberg, a ridge that runs parallel to the Neckar, below Hohentübingen Castle. The upper town, still on the slope, and the lower town in the valley of the Ammer, a side stream of the Neckar, form the historic old town. The upper town, once inhabited by merchants and scholars, shows richly decorated multi-storey half-timbered houses. In contrast, the lower town, inhabited by farm workers and winegrowers, the Gogen, is built much more simply and poorly.

Tübingen is one of the oldest university cities in Germany, and university buildings shaped the city from an early age. These are both late medieval buildings in the upper town and an extensive university district northeast of the old town (and a new building area for the university outside on the mountain). Schlossberg and the east bordering Österberg are built on with lush Wilhelminian style villas and also houses of student associations.

South of the Neckar, between the river and the train station, is a business center with retail, bank branches and hotels. Beyond (south) of the railway facilities there are also industrial areas that are rather rare in Tübingen. There is comparatively industry in Tübingen. To the northwest of the old town there is still a mixed commercial area, but you can tell from the city that it is a civil servants and university town.

On the south side of the Neckar in the south-east of the city was a barracks area that was used for military purposes until the 1990s and has now been converted into a new district. With the neighboring suburbs, Lustnau in the east, Derendingen and Weilheim in the south, Tübingen has now grown together.

 

History

Prehistory and first documentary mention
The region around the city of Tübingen has been visited by Ice Age hunters and gatherers at least since the Magdalenian period, the youngest section of the Upper Palaeolithic. In the following, the presence of people in almost all prehistoric epochs can be proven in the form of tool finds, burials, house floor plans or remains of settlements. B. those of the Bandkeramischen, the Rössener, the Schnurkeramischen and also the Großgartacher culture. The Bronze Age is in Tübingen among others. represented by the sensational find of the "Menhir von Weilheim". From the older Iron Age, numerous grave mounds from the Hallstatt period are known in the urban area of ​​Tübingen, such as the grave mound of Tübingen-Kilchberg. Traces of the Romans, who built the Neckar-Limes a little further to the northeast, date from around 85 AD. In connection with the siege of "castrum twingia" (Zwingburg) by King Heinrich IV. Hohentübingen Castle is mentioned for the first time in 1078. It can be assumed that the predecessor rural settlement is located in the area of ​​the flood-proof saddle between Schlossberg and Österberg. The place name alone gives an indication: the name of the place founder Tuwo in the prefix and the name ending in -ing (en) point to the foundation during the migration period. The Tübingen lower town has its origin there. The upper town emerged later as an extension of the Burgmann settlement below the castle.

middle age
The first mention of merchants comes from 1191, which is evidence of a marketplace. In the middle of the 11th century, the area around Tübingen belonged to the Counts of Zollern. City rights are mentioned for the first time in 1231. In 1262 Pope Alexander IV founded an Augustinian hermit monastery, followed by a Franciscan monastery in Tübingen, founded with the support of Count Palatine Heinrich von Tübingen, exactly ten years later. In the 13th century, Tübingen received a Latin school, which later became the Schola anatolica. In 1342 the castle and town passed to the Counts of Württemberg. The city soon became the seat of an office.

Tübingen becomes a university town
With the relocation of the Sindelfingen Martinsstiftes to Tübingen in 1476, a collegiate monastery was founded that offered the economic and personnel prerequisites for founding a university. The parish church of St. George became a collegiate church. The Eberhard Karls University was founded one year later.

On July 8, 1514, the Treaty of Tübingen, which is considered the most important constitutional document of the Duchy of Württemberg, was concluded. Since then, Tübingen has been allowed to use the Württemberg antlers in its coat of arms as the place where the contract was concluded. With the introduction of the Reformation between 1534 and 1535, the history of the city's monasteries ended. In 1535 Leonhart Fuchs accepted a position at the university, one year later Duke Ulrich von Württemberg founded the Evangelical Monastery of Tübingen as a scholarship for Protestant theology students, which moved into the former Augustinian Hermit Monastery in 1547.

Thirty Years' War
Between 1622 and 1625, after the Battle of Wimpfen on May 6, the Catholic League occupied the Protestant Duchy of Württemberg. In 1629 the edict of restitution came into force. During the “cherry war” from June 28th to July 11th, Tübingen was looted. After the Battle of Nördlingen, the commandant Johann Georg von Tübingen handed over the Hohentübingen Castle, occupied by 70 citizens, to the imperial troops in September 1634. After all, Tübingen was not plundered thanks to the commitment of a Tübingen citizen's son, who was in imperial service as a (Protestant) Rittmeister in the Fürstenberg regiment. Tübingen was then mostly occupied by Bavarian troops.

In 1635 and 1636, 1,485 people died of the plague in the city. Two years later the Swedish army invaded Tübingen. Shortly before the end of the Thirty Years War, Hohentübingen Castle was besieged by the French in 1647 (Siege of Hohentübingen Castle). On March 14th, the southeast tower was blown up with the help of a mine. The Bavarian occupation gave up and received an honorable deduction. The French stayed in Tübingen until 1649.

18th century
In a city fire in 1771, parts of the western old town around Ammergasse were destroyed. Another city fire hit parts of the eastern old town in the area of ​​today's Neue Straße in 1789. It was rebuilt on a straightened floor plan in the classical style. In 1798 Johann Friedrich Cotta, the publisher of German classics such as Goethe, Schiller, Herder and Wieland, founded the Allgemeine Zeitung in Tübingen, which in the following years became Germany's leading political daily newspaper.

 

Tübingen during the Württemberg royal period
After the establishment of the Kingdom of Württemberg, Tübingen remained the seat of the Oberamt of the same name, but underwent some changes until 1813 in the course of the new administrative structure. From 1807 to 1843 Friedrich Hölderlin lived in care in the Hölderlin tower on the Neckar. From the beginning of the 19th century, the city grew significantly beyond the medieval borders with the right-angled Wilhelmsvorstadt at the new auditorium and the botanical garden. In the so-called Gôgen uprising of 1831, around 60 young craftsmen and wine growers marched through the city in protest against arbitrary police force and sang Schiller's robber song. The local authorities called for help to the officially non-existent and forbidden student associations, and armed student security guards were used against the insurgents. In the Tübingen bread riot of 1847, an academic security corps from the University of Tübingen, consisting of around 150 students, under the leadership of Carl Heinrich Ludwig Hoffmann, was armed from the university's arsenals. The Security Corps put an end to the unrest by resolutely opposing the social interests of the poor. In 1861, with the opening of today's central station on the Plochingen – Immendingen line, Tübingen was connected to the route network of the Royal Württemberg State Railways.

Tübingen has been a military base since 1873. An infantry barracks was set up south of the city in which the 10th Württemberg Infantry Regiment No. 180 was stationed. In 1938 the barracks were given the name Thiepval-Kaserne, named after the hamlet Thiepval in the French province of Picardy, where soldiers of this regiment fought during the summer battle in September 1916. A plaque on the barracks wall reminds of this. 16 houses were damaged in a French air raid in World War I. From 1914 to 1916 a second barracks was built, which was initially called the New Barracks and was also named Loretto Barracks in 1938 in memory of the Loretto Battle. In 1935 a third barracks was opened, which was renamed from Burgholzkaserne to Hindenburg barracks in 1938.

Nazi era
The beginning of the time of National Socialism in the German Reich in 1933 also meant the end of the short-lived, free state of Württemberg. The university town of Tübingen now came under the jurisdiction of the NSDAP district of Württemberg-Hohenzollern.

Tübingen was declared an urban district by the German municipal code in 1935, but remained within the Tübingen district, as the Upper Office of Tübingen has been called since 1934. In 1938 the district of Tübingen was considerably enlarged and the district of Tübingen was created (in the form valid until 1972). From 1933 to 1943 the Gestapo had a field service in Tübingen. During the November pogrom in 1938, the synagogue at Gartenstrasse 35-37 was burned down by SA men. A memorial stone in the Jewish cemetery north of the B 28 towards Wankheim today commemorates 14 Jewish victims of the Shoah. The Jewish victims of the Nazi dictatorship have also been commemorated with a plaque on the wall facing the collegiate church on the Holzmarkt since 1983, as has the Synagogenplatz memorial on Gartenstrasse since 2000.

On April 19, 1945, the Second World War ended for Tübingen. Three air strikes had completely destroyed 82 houses, 104 badly and 607 slightly damaged. Tübingen was destroyed to a total of 5% by air raids. On the initiative of the on-site doctor Theodor Dobler, the town was handed over to the French troops without a fight. Tübingen was now in the French occupation zone.

Post war period
In 1946, the French occupying power made Tübingen the capital of the newly established state - from 1949: federal state - Württemberg-Hohenzollern, until it became part of the new state of Baden-Württemberg. The city became "immediate district town". On February 18, 1949, the robbery murderer Richard Schuh was guillotined in the courtyard of the prison at 18 Doblerstrasse. It was the last civil execution on West German territory. In 1952 Tübingen became the seat of the administrative district of Südwürttemberg-Hohenzollern, which was transferred to the administrative district of Tübingen on January 1, 1973 during the district reform. In 1956, Tübingen was named a large district town. In 1965 Tübingen was awarded the European Prize for outstanding efforts to promote European integration. With the incorporation of eight municipalities, the urban area reached its current size between 1971 and 1974. With the district reform carried out in 1973, the Tübingen district also got its current size.

 

Tübingen remained a French garrison town until the 1990s. The French soldiers helped shape the cityscape. In addition to the three Tübingen barracks, the French garrison used numerous residential buildings, especially in the southern part of the city.

In 2015, Tübingen was awarded the honorary title of “Reformation City of Europe” by the Community of Evangelical Churches in Europe.

History of the districts or localities and residential areas
The places that, as a result of the incorporation in the 1970s, have a local constitution with their own local council and mayor, are referred to as localities, but according to the main statute of the city are just as districts as the districts that were previously incorporated. There is also a place to live that has never been an independent community.

Ammern (living space) was first mentioned around 1120 as "Ambra". Through various donations from the Count Palatine of Tübingen, the town came to the Obermarchtal Monastery in the 12th century, which had been the bailiwick from 1303. After that, the village gradually disappeared. The remaining goods came with Obermachtal in 1803 to the princes of Thurn and Taxis and from 1806 under Württemberg administration. In 1852 Ammern became the property of the royal house of Württemberg and politically belonged to the municipality of Derendingen, with which it was incorporated into Tübingen in 1934. In 1935 the sub-municipality Ammern and in 1978 the Ammern mark was dissolved.
Bebenhausen (locality) was first mentioned in 1185 as "Bebenhusin", but the settlement is older. The Count Palatine of Tübingen founded a monastery that was initially populated by Premonstratensians. Cistercians from Schönau near Heidelberg followed in 1190. From 1204 at the latest, the monastery became imperial. It only came under the rule of Württemberg at the end of the 14th century. In 1534 it was dissolved after the Reformation was introduced. The goods of the monastery and the associated place were administered by Württemberg bailiffs in the monastery office of Bebenhausen. In 1759 this was raised to the rank of Oberamt and its seat moved to Lustnau. From 1807 Bebenhausen belonged to the upper office of Tübingen.
Bühl (locality) was first mentioned around 1100 as "Buhile". Around 1120 noble free von Bühl are mentioned. In the 12th century, the place came to the Counts of Hohenberg. From 1292 Bühl was given as a fiefdom to Amman von Rottenburg, who held it until 1502. Then it was split up. Among others, the gentlemen from Ehingen zu Kilchberg and the gentlemen from Stain zum Rechtenstein were the owners. The latter built the castle from 1550. The sovereignty over Bühl was incumbent on Austria. The fiefdom was withdrawn several times and pledged again. In 1805 Bühl came to Württemberg and was assigned to the Oberamt Rottenburg. When it was dissolved in 1938, Bühl came to the Tübingen district.
Derendingen (district) was first mentioned around 1089 as "Taredingin". The lords of Derendingen were servants of the Counts of Achalm, who sold half of the town to the Zwiefalten monastery. In the 13th century, servants of the Count Palatine of Tübingen ruled over the other half, who sold their stake to Württemberg in 1342. However, the Zwiefalten monastery was able to expand its share in the village later. In 1750 the Zwiefalten monastery exchanged its property with Württemberg, so that all of Derendingen was part of Württemberg. The Württemberg part always belonged to the Office or Oberamt Tübingen.
Hagelloch (locality) was first mentioned in 1106 as "Hagunloch". The place was sold to the Bebenhausen monastery in 1296 through several lordships, with which it came to Württemberg in 1534. Hagelloch remained under the administration of the Bebenhausen monastery office until 1807 and then came to the Tübingen regional office.
Hirschau (locality) was first mentioned around 1204 as "Hizroune". The place came under the Hohenberg fiefdom through several lords and from 1381 to Austria. From 1621 Hirschau was again pledged to the Barons von Hohenverg, from 1733 to the Lords von Raßler (until 1762). After the transfer to Württemberg in 1805, Hirschau was assigned to the Rottenburg Oberamt in 1807 and when it was dissolved in 1938 it came to the Tübingen district.
Kilchberg (locality) was first mentioned in the 12th century as "Kiliberc". The local nobility were servants of the Count Palatine of Tübingen. From 1429 the place came to the Lords of Ehingen zu Hohenentringen, but one eighth of the place had been part of Württemberg since 1389. The Ehinger built the castle. In the 17th century, the place was divided between different lords, including Leutrum von Ertingen. In 1805 Kilchberg came to Württemberg and was assigned to the Oberamt Tübingen.

Lustnau (district) was first mentioned around 1120 as "Lustnow". The place was ruled by the Palatine ministerials from Lustnau. But the village gradually came to the Bebenhausen monastery, which built a nursing yard here. After the abolition of the monastery, Lustnau was the seat of the Bebenhausen monastery office, which was only dissolved in 1807. Since then the place has belonged to the Oberamt Tübingen. As a result of major construction activities, the village expanded in the direction of Tübingen from around 1930, so that today the place has grown together with the core city.
Pfrondorf (locality) was first mentioned around 1200 as "Prundorf". First with the Count Palatine of Tübingen, the place came to the Lords of Lustnau and finally around 1400 to the Bebenhausen monastery, to whose monastery office the place belonged. In 1807 Pfrondorf came to the Oberamt Tübingen.
Unterjesingen (locality) was first mentioned at the end of the 11th century as "Yesingen". From 1299 Marshals von Jesingen named themselves after the place. The village belonged to Roseck Castle, which was owned by the Lords of Ow and in 1410 came to the Bebenhausen monastery. The village and castle thus became part of Württemberg and belonged to the Bebenhausen monastery office. In 1807 Jesingen came to the Oberamt Tübingen and in 1810 to the Oberamt Herrenberg. To distinguish it from the neighboring town of Oberjesingen, the prefix Unter- was added, so that the place has been called Unterjesingen ever since. When the Oberamt Herrenberg was dissolved in 1938, Unterjesingen became part of the Tübingen district.
Waldhausen (district) was first mentioned around 1100. Around 1270 the place came to the monastery Bebenhausen and from 1534 to the monastery office Bebenhausen. In 1807 the place came to the Oberamt Tübingen, but always remained a part of the political community of Bebenhausen. In 1934 the place was re-municipalityed to Tübingen. In 1967 the district of Waldhausen was abolished. In the 1970s, not far from the hamlet of Waldhausen, a new residential area "Waldhäuser Ost (WHO)" was built, which today has grown together with the core city of Tübingen.
Weilheim (locality) was first mentioned around 1100 as "Wilon". From 1271 ministerials of the Count Palatine of Tübingen named themselves after the place. In 1342 the place came with Tübingen to Württemberg and from 1500 was assigned to the office or later Oberamt Tübingen.

 

Geography

Geographical location
Tübingen is located in the central Neckar valley between the northern Black Forest and the Swabian Alb. In Tübingen the Goldersbach flows into the Ammer. These, like the Steinlach, also flow into the Neckar in Tübingen. In the center of the city are the Schlossberg and the Österberg, on the outskirts are the Schnarrenberg, the 475 m high Spitzberg as the local mountain of the Hirschau district, the Herrlesberg and the Hüllen. The lowest point of the Tübingen urban area is at 307 m above sea level. NN in the eastern Neckar valley, the highest is the Hornkopf in Schönbuch north of the Hagelloch district with a height of 515.2 m. The Schönbuch Nature Park begins in the north of Tübingen. The Swabian Alb begins about 13 km (air line distance between Tübingen Mitte and Roßberg (tower) (869 m)) further southeast.

Geographical center of the state of Baden-Württemberg
In Tübingen in the small forest Elysium, below the Luise-Wetzel-Weg near the Botanical Garden at auf48 ° 32 ′ 15.9 ″ N, 9 ° 2 ′ 28.21 ″ E, the geographic center of Baden- Württemberg using the focus calculation method. A three-ton cone-shaped stone from the Franconian Jura symbolizes this point. It has an inclination of 11.5 °; this should represent half of the earth's inclination. If, on the other hand, the geographic center of the state is calculated using the averaging method of the respective state extreme points, it is in Böblingen.

Neighboring communities
The following cities and municipalities border the city of Tübingen, starting clockwise from the north:
Dettenhausen (Tübingen district)
Walddorfhäslach (Reutlingen district)
Pliezhausen (Reutlingen district)
Kirchentellinsfurt (Tübingen district)
Kusterdingen (Tübingen district)
Gomaringen (Tübingen district)
Dußlingen (Tübingen district)
Rottenburg am Neckar (Tübingen district)
Ammerbuch (Tübingen district)
Altdorf (Boeblingen district)
Weil im Schönbuch (Boeblingen district)

City structure
The city of Tübingen is divided into 23 districts, including 10 so-called outer districts. Of the latter, 8 were incorporated into the most recent municipal reform in the 1970s and are now also localities within the meaning of the Baden-Württemberg municipal code. This means that they have a local council to be elected by those entitled to vote in every local election, with a local mayor at the head. There is also an administrative office. The two districts of Derendingen and Lustnau, which were incorporated in 1934, each have a local advisory board and an office of the city administration. They are subdivided into three or four statistical city districts, which are indented in the following overview. Administrative and business offices are quasi district town halls, where you can take care of the most important urban matters.

Within some parts of the city there are sometimes other parts of the city that have emerged over time. These are mostly new developments or residential areas, the boundaries of which can also be fluid. Each district and its subdivisions have a three-digit number for statistical purposes.

Spatial planning
Tübingen is located in the south of the Stuttgart metropolitan area (for the scope, see Stuttgart). Together with the neighboring city of Reutlingen, the city forms the main center of the Neckar-Alb region, to which the following intermediate centers are assigned:

Albstadt, Balingen, Hechingen, Metzingen, Münsingen, Rottenburg am Neckar

For the following cities and municipalities in the district, Tübingen also takes on the tasks of the central area:

Ammerbuch, Bodelshausen, Dettenhausen, Dusslingen, Gomaringen, Kirchentellinsfurt, Kusterdingen, Mössingen, Nehren, Ofterdingen

 

Geology

The near-surface geological subsurface of Tübingen is mainly formed by the rocks of the Middle Keuper (km). The steep Keuper slopes are followed by strata formed by the claystones of the Black Jura (Lias). The strata are between 440 and 500 m above sea level. and mostly show a thin layer of loess that was deposited there during the cold ages.

The following layer sequence is open:
Loess loam: The loess loam has resulted in good arable land on which, as far as it has not been colonized, grain is grown.
Schwarzer Jura α: Most important step maker in Tübingen
Rhätsandstein: Fossil-rich sandstone that was also used for building purposes.
Tuberous marl: They form the upper slope areas and are poor building ground due to their plasticity.
Stubensandstein: This Keuper sandstone was previously broken as abrasive sand and in places also forms layered surfaces.
Lower colored marl, silica sandstone, upper colored marl: They form the lower slope areas in Tübingen.

Reed sandstone: The reed sandstone comes to light in the bed of the Neckar, for example. It forms the base of the Neckar Bridge. The Neckar River caused by the reed sandstone favored the founding of Tübingen.
Alluvial gravel: They form the level valley floor of the Neckar and its tributaries Steinlach and Ammer and are mined for construction purposes. Hence the quarry ponds in the Neckar valley.

The leveling formed by Alluvium, Stubensandstein and Lias α is of great importance as a stable building ground and also for the construction of buildings that take up large areas. University and trade were settled on the alluvial alluvial plain. New clinics, the Waldhäuser Ost district and the natural science faculties on Morgenstelle were built on Stubensandstein and Lias α.

The tuber marl is a hindrance to the building and therefore the structural development. This is why the northern slope of the Österberg and the Steinenberg, for example, are free of buildings.

About 5 km north of Tübingen there is a geological nature trail on the Kirnberg (Schönbuch), where the Keup layers are explained on several display boards. On June 2, 2017, the revised geological nature trail was presented to the public and handed over.

In 1831, for the construction of the new anatomy building (Österbergstrasse 3), a 70 m deep well bore was sunk for the water supply, which was also scientifically described and represents one of the oldest geological Keuper profiles in southern Germany.

 

Climate

The Tübingen climate is about the average for Baden-Württemberg. The mean annual temperature is 9.0 ° C and is therefore roughly in the middle between the values ​​of the climatically favored cities in the Rhine Valley (e.g. Karlsruhe: 10.5 ° C) and the cold places on the plateaus (e.g. Villingen-Schwenningen: 6.7 ° C). The long-term mean annual rainfall of 741 mm is also roughly the average of the values ​​in other cities in Baden-Württemberg (e.g. Stuttgart: 679 mm / Freiburg im Breisgau: 954 mm).

The regularly warmest month in Tübingen is July with an average temperature of 18 ° C, the coldest January with an average of −0.7 ° C. Most rain falls in June with a mean 101 mm. The months with the least rain are March and December with a long-term average of 39 mm.

The urban climate is strongly influenced by the numerous elevations. In winter it is not uncommon for the districts on the Neckar to be completely free of snow, while the high altitudes have a closed snow cover. The location of the slopes also has climatic effects. For example, the southern slope of the Spitzberg is extremely warm and species-rich, while the north side is much colder and can only show a fraction of the biological diversity of the south side.

 

Protected areas

There are five nature reserves in Tübingen. The nature reserves Spitzberg-Ödenburg and Hirschauer Berg are north of Hirschau. The Obere Steinach and the nature and landscape protection area Bühler Tal and Unterer Bürg bei Bühl, and the nature protection area Blaulach between Pfrondorf and Kusterdingen.

In the north is the Schönbuch landscape protection area and the Rammert landscape protection area in the south. The two landscape protection areas Spitzberg and Unteres Ammertal lie between Hirschau and Unterjesingen, and the Neckar valley protection area between Tübingen and Plochingen begins at Lustnau.

Reutlingen is part of the three FFH areas Spitzberg, Pfaffenberg, Kochhartgraben and Neckar, Rammert and Schönbuch as well as the two bird protection areas Mittlerer Rammert and Schönbuch. The northern part of the urban area is in the Schönbuch Nature Park.