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Weimar

 

Weimar is an independent city in Thuringia in Germany, which is best known for its cultural heritage. The middle town is located on an arch of the Ilm, southeast of Ettersberg, the highest mountain in the Thuringian Basin at 478 meters. The city is the fourth largest in Thuringia after Erfurt, Jena and Gera and is located about halfway between Erfurt in the west and Jena in the east.

Weimar is a medium-sized center that partially fulfills the functions of a regional center and has been officially designated as a university town since 2004. In addition to the Bauhaus University, the city is home to the Liszt School of Music and the Duchess Anna Amalia Library. In addition, numerous authorities have their headquarters in Weimar, for example the Thuringian Higher Administrative Court, the Thuringian State Administrative Office, the Thuringian Constitutional Court and the Thuringian State Office for Monument Preservation and Archeology.

In addition to the traditions of the Weimar Classics around Wieland, Goethe, Herder and Schiller, the city's cultural heritage also includes the Bauhaus and a large number of other high-ranking cultural legacies from the 16th century (Lucas Cranach the Elder and the Younger), 17th century Century (founding of the Fruit Bringing Society), 18th century (Johann Sebastian Bach), 19th century (to be mentioned are Franz Liszt, Richard Strauss, Friedrich Nietzsche, the landscape painters of the Weimar School of Painting at the Grand Ducal Saxon Art School Weimar) and 20th century (Harry Graf Kessler, Henry van de Velde). The Bauhaus and its sites in Weimar (and Dessau) were declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1996, the “classic Weimar” in December 1998. The last-mentioned decision was justified by the "great art-historical importance of public and private buildings and park landscapes from the heyday of classical Weimar." Humanity recorded as World Document Heritage (Memory of the World). Since 2015, early writings of the Reformation have also been part of the world document heritage, some of which are kept in the Duchess Anna Amalia Library in Weimar. National and international cultural heritage is presented in over 25 museums and exhibition venues.

Weimar had been the capital and residence of the Duchy of Saxony and Saxony-Weimar from 1547/52, later Saxony-Weimar-Eisenach (from 1815: Grand Duchy). In 1816 this became the first state in Germany to adopt a constitution. Parallel to the meeting of the National Assembly from February 6, 1919 to September 1919, Weimar was temporarily the seat of government of the Weimar Republic, which was being constituted. From 1920 to 1952 Weimar was the capital of the state of Thuringia. In 1999 it was the European Capital of Culture.