Bükk National Park (Bükki Nemzeti Park)

Bükk National Park


Location: Miskolc, Northern Hungary Map

Area: 431.3 km²

Western Gate Visitor and Study Centre

3324 Felsőtárkány, Ifjúság út 34/1.,

Tel: +36 36/534-078


Description of Bukk National Park

Bukk National Park is located near village of Miskolc in the Northern Hungary. Bukk National Park is the largest national park in the country and covers an area of 431.3 km². Bukk National Park also contains the most extensive network of trails. Rolling hills are covered predominantly by untouched beech forests. Additionally the national park contains the deepest cave in Hungary. Istvánlápa Cave reaches a depth of 800 feet and a length of 2.5 miles. You can find more information about Bukk National Park in Western Gate Visitor and Study Centre.


The Bükk region is a member of the Northern Central Mountains with a different geological history than the other volcanic mountains. Most of it is built up of rocks of marine sedimentary origin, mainly dolomite and limestone. Its plateau is surrounded by steep cliffs, the Intestinal Stone, the Pes Stone, the Tar Stone, the Red Stone and other “stones” with magnificent views of the southern foot of the mountains. Most of the former peaks are affected by the route of the National Blue Tour. The beautiful forms of the mountains are also the perforated limestone surfaces divided by grooves and cavities, and the arms and devil plows. The special ornaments of the Bükk region are the excellent limestone tuff formations from the water of the karst springs.

The most uniform part of the mountain range is the Bükk plateau, which is on average 800 meters high, which is divided into two parts, the Great and the Little Plateau. The appearance of the plateaus is determined by karstification. The surface of the Bükk Plateau is varied by various karst forms: springs, sinkholes, tufts. It is characterized by ridges and gorge valleys.

We know more than 1,100 caves in the Bükk National Park, 45 of them are highly protected. Among them is the deepest cave in the country, the 275-meter-deep Miner Cave. Other significant caves are the built Anna Cave and Szent István Cave in Lillafüred, the Spring Cave in Miskolctapolca, and the open-air Szeleta and Balla Caves.

Its springs and streams are rich in water. The landmark of the region is the Veil Waterfall, which falls from a height of 17 meters on the limestone tuff dams of the Szalajka stream.

About 94% of the park is covered by forest. Among the forests of Bükk, the most widespread are the exchange oaks, which are hornbeam-oak in the higher regions, and then approx. Above 600 meters, the mountain beeches follow. One of the most interesting places in the BNP is the Primeval Forest, whose beech trees are 180-200 years old. No forestry activities have been carried out in the area for more than 100 years, and hikers have even been banned from there for a few years. (It used to be a marked hiking trail, today it is surrounded by a fence, so you can get around it with a significant detour and a non-negligible catchment.) In addition to the beeches, there are also pine forests in the mountains, which are forests without exception.

On the plateau, the most diverse flora can be connected to the meadows divided by several blocks. Rare plant species live here, such as the fiery lily (Lilium bulbiferum) (fire lily), the slender (Aconitum variegatum subsp. Gracile) and the Moldavian helmet flower (Aconitum moldavicum), the yellow violet (Viola biflora) and the northern dragonfly ruyschiana). The characteristic ornament of the grazed mountain meadows is the dry peanut cake (Carlina acaulis), which is also included in the emblem of the national park. The most feared of the orchids is the Blessed Virgin slipper (Cypripedium calceolus) (forest slipper wine, thrush glass). There are 53 species of orchids in the area of ​​the national park, including: anacamptis pyramidalis, Dactylorhiza fuchsii, Dactylorhiza incarnata, Dactylorhiza subulan (Dactylorhiza elsata), Epipactis futakii, Epipactis helleborine (Epipactis latina), Epipactis leptochila, Epipactis microphylla, Müller meadow (Epipactis microphylla), St. John's wort (Epipactis palustris), Cyclamen purple grasshopper (Epipactis placentina), St. John's wort (Epipactis tallosii), St. John's wort (Epipactis voethii), Mustache conifers (Epipogium aphyllum) Adriatic frost flower (Himantoglossum adriaticum), sedge (Limodorum abortivum), variegated warbler (Neotinea tridentata), summer flowering subspecies (N eotinea ustulata subsp. aestivalis), bee warbler (Ophrys apifera), flyworm (Ophrys insectifera), ear warbler (Orchis mascula ssp. signifera), hero warbler (Orchis militaris).

Rocky beeches, made up of steep, northern, rocky dolomite limestone sides, debris slopes, poorly closed, dwarfed, gnarled trees, which are home to many plant rarities and glacial remnant species, enjoy increased protection. The preservation of the rocky beeches and oaks of the Bükk Mountains is extremely important for the national survival of the slippery orchid, a rare orchid species of exotic beauty. On the steepest western rocky sides lives the linden-rowan relict forest, which is very rich in sub-Alpine remnant species. A characteristic association of the oak zone forming the lower levels is the relic dolomite oak.


Dolomite is relatively small in Bükk, but the rocky grasslands formed on it are even more important. Its most valuable association is the variegated rabbit tailed grassland, of which only a single occurrence is known in the mountains. The variegated rabbit tailwort and the variegated reed tip (Calamagrostis varia) are lawnmowers here, but the latent sedge (Carex humilis) also appears in the drier, sunny parts. A rare orchid in grasslands sloping to the northwest is Ophrys insctifera, one of the smallest and most northerly members of the genus Bango, often referred to as an insect-mimicking orchid. Also fragrant is the tiny pink flower fragrant pistil flower (Gymnadenia odoratissima).

Witnesses of the cold, continental times after the Ice Age include the bugweed found in Hungary only in the Bükk National Park. In Hungary, the blue-flowered northern dragon grass opens only on the sides of the Bükk Plateau, named after its characteristic shaped flower, in which Linnaeus thought to discover the head of a dragon.

In the rapidly warming forests and grasslands of the southern steep sides, plants from warmer periods also found refuge. These include the tan, which covers the mountainside with flames in the autumn with blood-red leaves.