Balmazújváros is the city of Hajdú-Bihar county, the seat of the Balmazújváros district. It is the fourth most populated settlement in the county after the county seat.
Balmazújváros is a special, market-town settlement of the Great Plain in Hajdú-Bihar county. The large city is located on the border of two typical Great Plain landscapes, Hortobágy and Hajdúság. It is located 23 km from Debrecen, 16 km from Hajdúböszörmény and 21 km from Hajdúszoboszló.
The administrative area of the city is crossed by two natural living waters, the Hortobágy River and the Kadarcs-Karácsonyfok canal, which receives the water of the main catchment area. The Eastern Main Canal, built in 1953, is 3 km from the city.
In an east-west direction, Route 3316 runs through the administrative area of the city, including its center; this road provides a connection for the settlement to the west towards Tiszacsege and to the east also towards Debrecen. In the city center, two more four-digit roads branch from the former road, in the south-southwest direction, towards Nagyhegyes-Hajdúszoboszló in the direction of 3321, in the north-east direction, and towards Hajdúnánás in the direction of 3323. From the latter, the road 3318 branches off on the outskirts of the city, leading to Hajdúböszörmény
The settlement can also be reached by train on the Debrecen – Füzesabony railway line; Balmazújváros railway station is located near the center, a little northeast of it; access to the road is made possible by side road 33 321 branching east from road 3323.
The area of today's Balmazújváros has been inhabited since ancient times. In the time of the kings of the Árpád dynasty, several smaller settlements developed on its borders, their names are still preserved by a part of the border or a vineyard (Bakóc, Cucca, Balmaz, Hímes, Darassa, Hort, etc.). The settlement that developed after the conquest was completely destroyed during the Tartar invasion. The Hímes estate, which is to be found in the interior of today's settlement, was first mentioned in the papal tithe register in 1332. The name of Balmaz - as a wilderness - can be found in written sources only at the beginning of the 15th century, when King Sigismund (in 1411) donated the accessory of Debrecen to István Lázárevics, a Serbian voivode. The name of the settlement from 1465 is certainly New Town. King Matthias' charter dated 1465 allowed Újváros to hold 3 national fairs and a one-week fair. In addition to the right to hold fairs, the diploma also endowed the settlement with market town rights. During the Hunyadians, New Town developed into a thriving market town. Due to the stabilized war conditions, the settlement was uninhabited between 1591 and 1610, and then only by the 1720s did it reach its former population again. In 1753, Maria Theresa donated the entire New Town border to the Andrássy family. They developed the farming of the majors. In 1773, the New Town with city rights was again sunk into a robot-binding village.
Their other notable action was the settlement of the German population in New Town in 1766. The village became the property of the Semsey family in 1798. The Semseyes settled semi-Slovak Catholics from the Košice area in the village as manorial servants. In the second half of the 19th century, capitalization began here as well. The stratification of an already differentiated population has accelerated. In Újváros, the number of celery was always above the national average. For this reason, it became one of the strongest bases and venues of agrarian socialist organizations and movements in Hungary.
In 1877 the administrative division of the settlement changed, from Újváros Szabolcs county to Hajdú county and became the district seat. In World War I, 600 people from New Town died. The proletarian dictatorship did not bring about the desired changes. The occupying Romanian troops arrived here on April 23, 1919, and withdrew only a year later. On October 22, 1944, the II. world War.
After that, the most significant event was the land reform in the landless city of Újváros. In the village, the first in the country, the commencement of the division of land was announced on March 20, 1945. After the forced collectivization of the 1950s, 10 producer cooperatives were formed, while eventually two producer cooperatives remained in the village. Lenin and the Red Star Producer Cooperatives operated well until the late 1980s and were the largest employers in the town.
On March 15, 1989, Balmazújváros was again given the title of city.