Cegléd (German: Zieglet) is the fourth most populous city in Pest county, after Érd, Dunakeszi and Szigetszentmiklós, and the most populous in the Cegléd district, where it is based. The "Gate of the Great Plain".
It is located 74 kilometers southeast of Budapest. Its geographical position is similar to Kecskemét and Nagykőrös. The city is located in the plain between the Danube and the Tisza, at the confluence of two natural micro-regions: the Gerje – Perje plain and the Pilis – Alpári sand ridge. Grain production developed in the black part, animal husbandry in the sand part, and later viticulture and fruit growing. Its area was characterized by swampy, watery, inland parts and the Gerje stream with its floodplains.
The origin of his name
According to some sources, the name of the city is also derived from the Turkish word “cegle”, which means willow. According to other opinions, the name “corner” derives its name from the fact that important roads meet on the outskirts of the city.
Prehistoric history of the settlement
With the advent of the productive lifestyle, settlement also began. Remains of several early (for example, Copper Age) settlements can be found on the present-day Cegléd border. The site of the late Bronze Age Vatya culture in the Old Grapes is outstanding. The first people known in Cegléd to be known by name were the nomadic Scythians of Iranian origin. Their cemetery was found in Tápiószelén and their golden deer in Tápiószentmárton. Roman rule did not extend to this area, but in Roman times the nomadic Sarmatians (Jazigs) of Iranian origin lived here. After the storms of migration, during the conquest, the princely tribe probably occupied the territory of Pest county. According to the finds, the area around Cegléd was inhabited at the time of the conquest.
The Middle Ages
The formation of Cegléd began in the Árpádian era, but there are few documented mentions and historical sources, so we don't know much about this period. The excavations carried out today prove that there were several Árpádian villages on the border of Cegléd (besides Cegléd, Cseke, Félegyháza, Székegyház, Külsőhegyes, Töröttegyház and at least 3 more in the Vienna back, Máté valley and Madarászhalom), and during the research more a village remains were also found, with a church and cemetery. The depopulation of these small villages of a few hundred people was probably due to the Tartar invasion.
Cegléd's first diplomatic mention IV. It dates from the time of László (Kun), 1290. However, this royal charter does not clearly prove that the place name “Chegled” applies to this area, as even then there were several places in Hungary with such a name. The first authentic diploma for Cegléd in the Great Plain can be dated to 1358. Probably the pagan Cumans admitted to Hungary after the Tartar invasion also settled in the area.
The hitherto royal estate was donated by our King Louis I (the Great) in 1358 to his mother, Erzsébet Łokietek of Poland, who in 1368 passed it to the nuns of the Clarissa of Óbuda, who were landlords of the town until the Turkish era and then until 1782.
The city gradually took over the privileges of the market town: on May 8, 1364 (the day of the founders of the town) the city was granted duty-free status by Louis I (the Great), in 1420 by Sigismund of Luxembourg, and in 1448 by Governor János Hunyadi, For the feasts of the apostle Barnabas and Matthew the Evangelist, he granted the town the right to hold a national fair. (MOL DL 14 166.)
We also know the national fair of Andrew's Day from 1521. (MOL DL 23 567.) The market town had its own council of 12 members. The privileges and the favorable location attracted the inhabitants of the surrounding villages to Cegléd.
Data on the size of the city’s population are from the 1470s and 1510s. In previous years, approx. 750, while in recent years approx. 1100 people lived in Cegléd. The charter issued by the first city council dates back to 1521. (MOL DL 23 567.) During the Middle Ages, 13 universities were known from the settlement.
In the 14th century, the entire area from Bercel to Tószeg belonged to Cegléd, then King Sigismund of Luxembourg donated Abony, Tetétlen, and Mátyás Hunyadi to Törtel.
Zsigmond also donated the 4 steppes, the possession of which resulted in centuries of warfare and litigation between Cegléd and Nyársapát. The controversy ended with the settlement of the inhabitants of Nyársapát, who was destroyed in 1666, in Cegléd.
In 1509, the town revolted against the nuns' officer because of its various arbitrariness in collecting taxes, and after a heated debate, the townspeople killed Dean Sebestyén. The nuns sent priest Lőrinc Mészáros to the city to reassure the people. Then, with the help of the new officer, two years later he managed to reach an agreement with the Dean's family for the nuns and the inhabitants. Accordingly, the city paid 200 forints in compensation to the officer's relatives.
In 1514, Franciscan monks and rural priests played a major role
in recruiting the Crusader Army and formulating the ideology of the
Peasant War. These included Dózsa's alleged friend, the
aforementioned priest Lőrinc Mészáros (whose name used to be the
Catholic School). The army of 40,000 crusaders against the Turks
also marched in Cegléd, practiced, and from here Dózsa sent out his
proclamation calling for serfs to join. About 2,000 people from
Cegléd also joined the army, as there was also a wealthy peasantry
or vineyard peasantry who wanted to rise. However, Dózsa's famous
speech in Cegléd was never made. Regardless of this, the Dózsa
statue made by József Somogyi is not unauthorized behind the
Catholic church in Kossuth Square.
Under Turkish rule
After the Tartar invasion, another danger threatened Hungary: the Turks. Cegléd was set on fire after the battle of Mohács, and after the occupation of Buda in 1541 and then Szolnok in 1552, it came under Turkish rule for 150 years. In the Turkish era, the city became a sultan's treasury (hash) estate, so it enjoyed relative peace. The surrounding population fled to the city in the face of the devastation, and the sheer border provided opportunities for brittle cattle farming. In the 1550s he was a member of the association of 3 cities - Kecskemét, Nagykőrös, Cegléd - and had a high degree of judicial independence. As a result of the Reformation, the population of the town became Calvinist (István Kis Szegedi also preached here), such a high school operated in the town, and the Reformed also took possession of the Catholic church.
While the Turkish age brought great devastation to the whole country, Cegléd prospered significantly during the peaceful periods. This was the end of the Fifteen Years' War (1593–1606). With the recapture of Nógrád Castle in 1594, larger campaigns began in the territory of Pest County as well, which also affected Cegléd. At that time, due to the great losses suffered in Cegléd, the people were completely disbanded between 1596 and 1602. Most of the population fled to Kőrös. After repopulation, it was still a prosperous city in the 17th century with a high degree of autonomy. The Turkish world in Cegléd came to an end after the liberation of Buda, but due to the wars that led to the expulsion of the Turks, the population fled to Kőrös and Kecskemét again in 1683.
Cegléd supported the Rákóczi War of Independence, the prince himself visited the city twice. Although the population was forced to flee three times during the War of Independence, after 1711 the population of the city increased again, and from the middle of the 18th century as a result of continuous growth, by 1848 it had more than 16,000 inhabitants.
The Baroque era
After the expulsion of the Turks, the Clarissians regained the city, which was greatly offended by the population accustomed to greater independence. In the spirit of counter-reformation, Catholics were settled in the city, who made up half of the council, and one of the 2 chief justice candidates was also Catholic. They took away the Reformed church, abolished their high school. Although Cegléd had the largest serf plots in the whole country, after the decree of Mária Terézia in 1767, the size of the lands in the hands of serfs decreased. In 1785, the manor created Ceglédbercel on the "surplus lands" taken from them. The Clararis Order II. After his liquidation by József, the landlord's rights were exercised by the Cegléd Religious Foundation Estate. The King's grace decree also abolished discrimination against the Reformed.
In the 18th century, a part of the population began to move to homesteads, as a result of which the city is still the center of a large-scale homestead world. Cold beef farming still played a significant role, but viticulture also became increasingly important. The friend of István Széchenyi, a friend of János Török (the namesake of the Agricultural Vocational High School) founded in 1847, made a significant contribution to the development of agriculture.
Reformation, revolution, war of independence
The first pharmacy of the city of Cegléd was opened by János Öffner, after it was allowed on April 8, 1817, by György Forgó, the chief physician of the county. Öffner died in 1822, and after a long lawsuit between the heirs, the pharmacy in Cegléd was bought by András Schütz. The pharmacy in Cegléd, then known as the "King of Hungary", was owned by András Schütz until 1841. In the 1840s, József Ferenczy from Őkényi was the third owner, and in 1859 Sándor Persay (1818-1885) from Persai was the fourth, when the pharmacy was called "To the Holy Spirit."
After the great fire of 1834, the planned construction of today's
city began. At that time, the present-day church was built on the
site of the Gothic Catholic church and the construction of the
Reformed church was started according to the plans of József Hild.
The Budapest – Cegléd – Szolnok railway line, opened in 1847, and
the Cegléd – Szeged railway line, which branched towards Szeged in
1854, also show the strengthening of the city's
The balcony of the former Green Tree Inn in Bratislava was erected on the wall of the Reformed School in 1996, on which Kossuth presented Lajos Batthyány as the responsible Prime Minister of the country to the celebrating Bratislava on March 17, 1848. It was also announced from this balcony that Parliament had accepted the emancipation of serfs. This may have been very favorable for the people of Cegléd, as this all the serf plots became the property of their users.
The winds of the revolution also reached this small market town, and a national guard was formed, whose members marched to Bačka on the news of the Serbian attack and took part in the siege of Szenttamás. As a result of Jelačić's attack in September, Lajos Kossuth published an article calling for war on September 10, 1848. On the same day, the Chief Justice of Cegléd, Mihály Csizmadia, convened the councils of Cegléd, Nagykőrös and Kecskemét, and in a resolution called on the government and the parliament to start arming the country ("Cegléd letter"). Kossuth could also refer to this decision when he announced in parliament that he was going on a recruitment tour. On the afternoon of September 24, 1848, he arrived by train at his first station, Cegléd.
His appearance and incendiary speech - in front of the Catholic church in Cegléd - had an invigorating effect on both the insurgents and the national guards; 2-3 thousand joined the war of independence. It is said that the volunteers of Cegléd marching to Pest sang the Kossuth song for the first time. Today, a memorial plaque stands at the site of the speech, and the Kossuth Statue of János Horvay erected in 1902 in Szabadság Square also commemorates this event. The New York statue was also modeled on this in the 1920s.
From the fall of 1848, the city was again on the “path of wars”. There was only one battle here on January 25, 1849, the battle of Bede (or Paul's Day), when General Mór Perczel, advancing from Szolnok, ran out the Austrian troops of Ferenc Ottinger and chased them to Irsa. Today, a monument stands on the site of the battle, and the statue of Mór Perczel is located on Malom Square. In 1849, Austrian and Hungarian troops stationed in Cegléd.
Due to the changes taking place on the battlefield, in July 1849 Cegléd was the seat of the Hungarian government for a week. Lajos Kossuth and his family were housed in the house of József Ferenchich, a manor officer, at 6 Pesti út. Along with Kossuth, Minister Mihály Horváth and Military Commanders Mór Perczel, Józef Wysocki, Lajos Aulich and Arisztid Dessewffy took part in the July 8 military council. But Alajos Degré, József Bem (after whom the Industrial Vocational School was named) and Henryk Dembiński were also present. When Cegléd fell into imperial hands, Jelačić, Schlik and Ottinger also stayed here.
Retaliation also reached the city: the Catholic priest Károly Bobory and the Reformed pastor Károly Nánási Szabó were sentenced in 1853 to 15 years in prison. Among the heroes of the war of independence, the hero of the battle of Vác, Károly Földváry, and Kálmán Csutak, who fought with Bemmel in Transylvania, were buried in Cegléd.
After the war of independence
Cegléd adhered to the traditions of independence even after the defeat of the war of independence, and after the compromise he usually elected representatives of the independence party. In 1876-77, Mihály Táncsics lived in Cegléd, selling his own books, with little success (today a primary school bears his name). In 1877, 100 people from Cegléd met with the emigrant Kossuth in Turin to call him home a member of parliament for the city. Kossuth did not come home, but the “Turin Hundreds” and then their descendants celebrated the anniversary of the trip every year. Even today, one of the oldest associations in the country, the Turin Hundred Delegation Museum Friends Circle, operates in Cegléd, which plays a significant role in nurturing the Kossuth cult and supporting the Kossuth Museum. Even if Kossuth could not have been the representative of the city, his son did: Ferenc Kossuth not only represented Cegléd at the turn of the century, but he was also the leader of the Independence and Forty-Eight Party. Mihály Károlyi was also a member of the city's parliament during the First World War (the former Károly Mihály Commercial Vocational High School was named after him, the school's new name is László Unghváry Vocational High School and Vocational School of Commerce).
On November 26, 1881, under the administration of Lajos Jakab,
the theater was opened on the Népkör plot, performing Bánk bánt. The
Persay-born Persay Persian dr. Ferenc Persay (1854-1937), a lawyer,
later deputy lord of Bars County, and Mayor Sámuel Bába Molnár,
earned merits around the construction of the theater, as long as
they collected the 10 forint subscriptions. Ferenc Persay's father,
Sándor Persay of Persai (1818-1885), a pharmacist from Cegléd, was
one of the first pharmacists in the city; He obtained his diploma in
pharmacy in 1848 and was the fourth owner of the first pharmacy in
Cegléd, the pharmacy called "Holy Spirit". The third pharmacy of the
settlement was founded in 1896 by the other son of the pharmacist
Sándor Persay of Persia, Elek Persay (1856-1908), pharmacist,
councilor of the city of Cegléd, councilor of the city of Cegléd,
member of the board of the Roman Catholic Church, "Savior". under
the name ".
Agricultural modernization also appeared in and around Cegléd. By the end of the 19th century: mechanization began (threshing machine, steam), fruit culture and animal husbandry spread. At the turn of the century, a trend of plant growth was observed, but the nature of small-scale industry remained unchanged.
In the second half of the 19th century, the mill industry developed most strongly (water, dry, wind, steam mills). These were already capitalist industrial enterprises. The city has also increasingly benefited from the traffic situation. In the middle of the 19th century, only the size of the settlement, as well as some significant public buildings and residential houses, expressed the rank of a market town. By the turn of the century, however, urbanization had already progressed, in 1899 the city received a state grammar school (Reformed Kossuth Lajos High School in Cegléd), the establishment of which is linked to the name of archivist János Dobos (1844-1913) (his father, János Dobos, a nobleman pastor, a deep imprint in the memory of the city because of his hard work). The wife of the archivist János Dobos from Cegléd was the daughter of Sándor Persay, a pharmacist, and Anna Persay Persia (1859-1915). At that time, the most significant public buildings were built: the heyday was largely connected to the person of the then mayor, Ferenc Gubody.
Cegléd was also one of the centers of the agrarian socialist movement at that time. In 1897, the Social Democrat-motivated István Várkonyi (named after a primary school) convened the first agricultural workers' congress in Vigadó, which once stood on the site of today's Sports Hall, where the land distribution program was formulated and the Hungarian Independent Socialist Party was established. The movement was then shattered a year later. Nevertheless, on the initiative of Pál Urbán, the first (then still voluntary) producer cooperative of the country was established in 1902 in Cegléd-Homokpuszta.
The 20th century
In the First World War, nearly 1,000 inhabitants of Cegléd died, and the days of the Soviet Republic in 1919 did not pass without casualties.
The losses of World War II were also exacerbated by the deportation of Jews (about 600 victims) and the August 29, 1944 bombing of the railway station. On November 4, 1944, the Soviet army occupied the city, on the outskirts of which it operated a huge prisoner of war camp. In the following years, the communist dictatorship was established here as well. In 1952, the village of Csemő became largely independent of the homesteads in Cegléd. On October 26, 1956, high school students initiated a demonstration in the city and the revolutionaries fell into power. Then, on November 4, the Soviet troops stationed in Cegléd took part in the defeat of the revolution. In the seventies, the city started to develop, but after the change of regime, its industry and agricultural agriculture practically ceased, although the importance of tourism (Cegléd Spa and Leisure Center) is constantly growing.
Cegléd was once a significant center of the Hungarian Armed Forces. Military life began in the city in 1874, and the first barracks building in the city still stands today. The construction of another barracks began in 1905, for forty years by Hungarian soldiers and later by the Soviets after World War II. Hungarian soldiers were finally received outside the city by the "Dózsa György Laktanya" in Törteli út, built in 1951. This is where the first unit, the 30th Breakthrough Artillery Division, moved in. The artillery was monarchical in Cegléd for fifteen years. Finally, in 1966, other weapons also moved here. At the time of the closure of the barracks, the artillery division ended its career as György 10 Dózsa Fire Brigade.
The other important military unit of the barracks was the 66th MH Puskás Tivadar News Battalion. The battalion was founded on October 29, 1966 in Cegléd, under the name of the 66th Independent News Tax Battalion. The task of the battalion was to ensure the news of the 3rd Mechanized Corps in the Cegléd garrison in peace and, of course, even in wartime conditions. Rapid communication between subordinate troops was important to the corps.
In 1990, the news battalion adopted the name Tivadar Puskás in a decree of the then Minister of Defense. In 1991, the corps merged with the 3rd Police Commandant Battalion, also stationed in Cegléd, and thus the 66th MH Pivadás Tivadar Leadership Battalion was formed from the two organizations. From the end of 2000, due to the reorganization measures of the organization, the liquidation of the battalion began, and at the same time the barracks in Cegléd began to "disappear". History finally caught up with him on June 30, 2001, when the barracks were finally closed. He lived for 50 years and with that Cegléd ceased to exist as a military town.
Buildings of local significance
Reformed Great Church
New Town Reformed Church
Felszegi Reformed Church
Church of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross (Classicist)
Old Catholic Parish (18th century)
Lutheran Church (Neo-Gothic)
Chapel of Our Lady of Hungary
Chapel of St. Clare
St. Margaret's Chapel
City Hall (eclectic)
City Market Hall
Horseshoe Irma House
Freedom Square 8.
Kossuth Ferenc u. 1.
Freedom Square 2.
Kossuth tér 10.
Palace of Culture (Kossuth Cultural Center)
Artem Gallery (former brewery)
Jazz Drum History Museum
Urban Sports Collection
Church and School History Museum
Cast Iron Stove Museum
Repository of Old Times
Monuments, public sculptures
I. and II. world war memorial
European Union monument
Statue of city founders
Bust of Kossuth
Bust of Gubody