Érd (Hanselbeck in German, Andzabeg in Croatian) is a county town in the Budapest agglomeration, Pest County, the seat of the Érd District. Érd has been a city since 1979 and a county town since 2006. Érd is the largest settlement in Pest county, but it is not its seat, so it is the only city in Hungary that is not the county seat as the most populous settlement in a county.
The settlement on the banks of the Danube is located
east of Tárnok and west of Diósd in the region of the Tétény Plateau
and the Érdi-roofed hills. Érdliget and Ófalu are located in the
former floodplain of the Danube.
During the Kádár era, the city was divided into districts (this was a great help to the population, especially before the introduction of postal codes), but today the local people recognize the names of the districts where they go (despite the size of today's districts. differs from the change of regime in several places).
Traces of human life have been found in today's area of Érd since ancient times. In 1963-64, the hunting ground of the Neanderthal man was excavated in the Fundoklia Valley under the leadership of Vera Gáboriné-Csánk, archaeologist of the Budapest History Museum. The approx. Based on the cracked stone tools of the people who settled here 50,000 years ago, the culture here was classified as a mousterien in France. The processing of about 50,000 animal bones and teeth was performed by Miklós Kretzoi, who found that among the more than 30 species of animals hunted, the killing of the cave bear was typical. Remains of woolly rhinoceros, mammoth, cave hyena, cave lion, red deer, reindeer and other species were also found. Some of the material has been returned to Érd and can be viewed in the Érd-themed exhibition hall of the Hungarian Geographical Museum.
On Sánc Hill, which is a continuation of Kakukk Hill above the Old Town, as its name suggests, traces of a Bronze Age (circa 1600 BC) earthen castle can be seen, where the Romans later also maintained a watchtower. A little further towards Százhalombatta, the so-called Early Iron Age (built around 650-550 BC) so-called there is a mound tomb field known as hun mounds. Its attribution to the Huns is named after the archaeologist János Luczenbacher (1796–1871), who dug seven mounds in 1847 and Hungarianized his name to Érdy in memory of his successful work here. Enthusiastic about his example, Érd's first local historian, Gyula Kereskényi (1835–1911), also excavated the mounds. According to today's general archaeological concept, the so-called the ashes of the nobles of the population of the Hallstatt culture were placed. The Archaeological Park of the Vignette Museum in Százhalombatta deals with its presentation. The Roman road in the Old Town refers to the war journey (limes) of the former legions.
In the time of the Árpád House
Based on the present administrative area of Érd, several villages were formed in our area after the conquest: Érd, Székely, Deszka and Berki. In Turkish times, several of these were destroyed and depopulated. Later, in or near some of them, our landowners established majors.
Today's Érd is constantly - although the changing inhabited core in terms of nationality was today's Old Town. The first documented mention of Érd is known from 1243. According to this, János, the son of Tádé, sold his part of the estate in the village of Érd together with half of the island belonging to Mihály to Veszprém comes (ispán). Other documents show that in addition to these families, Érd also owned the abbey of Ócsa, the royal forest guards and the royal gunsmiths (gun manufacturers). Presumably, the name of the place is derived either from the word forest or from the d-diminutive version of the word vessel. According to a charter of 1278, the land of the armed women was already uninhabited at that time. This was acquired by the Berki family, Mihály's descendants. This area further away from the Danube has become the core of the 20th century Park City. The lush deciduous tree of the city coat of arms, created in 1990, is reminiscent of the forests and oaks here, while the cross that strikes the dragon is the anti-Turkish struggle of the owner of the place, Ambrus Ákosházi Dragon, in a figurative sense, the centuries-old struggle against all kinds of pagan invaders. The blue bar indicates the proximity of the Danube River, which is both a blessing and a curse. The three branches of the golden crown symbolize the three large-owned families that played the most significant role in the history of the locality, the Counts of Illésházy, Prince Fülöp Batthyány and the family of Count Károlyi. In the nine peaks of the crown we can see the oldest seeds of the settlement: Old Town, Újfalu, Erlakovecz major, Fülöp major, Fekete Sas csárda (Újtelep), Csillag csárda (Érdliget), Kutyavár (Diósdliget), Berki (Vincellért), Ilkamajor (Parkváros).
During the Turkish occupation
In the year of the fatal battle of Mohács leading to the Turkish
conquest, in 1526, Érd and its castle became a nationally famous
place. II. King Louis marched in front of the upcoming Turkish army
on the ancient road for approx. With a small army of 3,000, he
camped in Érd for the first time. Captain Ambrus Ákosházi Sárkány
from Bratislava, Chief of Zala, stayed in the mansion of the country
judge for a few days after July 20.
He crossed the ferry to Csepel Island to say goodbye to his wife, Mary of Habsburg. Before moving on, his favorite black horse passed out, which his entourage interpreted as an ominous sign. Dragon Ambrus was not at home at that time, because the king had previously sent him to rescue the besieged castle of St. Petersburg. Royal Chancellor István Brodarics VII. According to his letter to Pope Clement, the king was still in Érd on July 27th. The following line of the letter well describes the conditions of the time and the desperate mood, hopelessness: "King has nothing, the situation is completely confused, people are evil and divisive, the enemy is outnumbered ...."
After the battle of Mohács - where Ambrus Sárkány also fell - the Turks did not take possession of Érd immediately, only after the conquest of Székesfehérvár (1543) it was connected to the Sandzak in Buda. In order to protect the famous Danube war road and Buda in several other places (Ercsi, Adony, Dunaújváros, Dunaföldvár, etc.) a small palisade castle was built in Érd in the 16th century. It was destroyed several times, but was rebuilt. It was expanded in the 17th century to include a mosque. Excavations between 1962 and 1965 put the width of the plank at around 147 meters, while the mosque at 11x10 meters. In the military events of the abolition of Turkish rule, Érd also played an important role as a battlefield: on July 22, 1684 (before the recapture of Buda in 1686), the allied forces of Charles Lorraine defeated Pasha Mustafa, who was trying to break the siege ring from the south. This battle was also captured by a work of art. In the engraving of J. Waldtmann and U. Kraus: Battle of Érd in 1684, 2 minarets can be seen in an interesting way and the camel formations used in the Turkish army can also be observed.
As is well known, the Turks placed the sons of subjugated peoples as soldiers in the castles of the conquered territories. This is how not only Turks but also Serbs could get to Érd. Some families in Érd have names of Turkish origin: Kávrán, Kurán, Deffent, Csibrák, Bandzi, etc. During the 15-year war, both Érd and Berki were depopulated. The Hungarian population was supposed to replace Ercsibe around 1630. To Tököl - The South Slavs fleeing the Turks moved to Érd. According to research, most of them were Bunyevacs, Dalmatians and Croats from Sarajevo, although the local population called them Razs, as did the Serbs. (Ecclesiastical sources later mention the ethnic group as an illusion.) However, they are separated by their dialect and Catholic faith. Some of their surnames are Bilics, Romics, Tokics, Polákovics, Kokics, Jovicza, etc.
The Hungarian landlords also maintained their demand for their occupied estates. Thus, on paper in Érd, the Illésházy family took over the estate from the Sárkány family in 1675 through marriage. (Ferenc Illésházy married Erzsébet Sárkány.) The Illésházy stayed in their castles in Trencs and Liptov counties, which provide greater security, and pledged their estate in Érd to Péter Szapáry in Ercs. He fought a lot with the Turkish invaders, his person was elevated to hero by the memory of the locals, he was immortalized by legends of fiction. The shape is known by the 16th-century Hamza Beginning, which gives the castle its name and builds a castle here. Recent research, however, suggests Hamza's descendants may have come into contact with him. In the still existing cellar system of the medieval castle, a corner is considered to be the site of Szapáry's Turkish captivity. According to sources, however, the place of imprisonment was the Buda Castle.
According to the legend, Hamza Beg cruelly tortured, captured Szapár in front of a plow on the mountain, tortured in a cruel way, kept on water, dry bread. However, his friend, Ádám Batthyány, released him from his bondage in exchange for a Turkish aga. Once (according to some versions, when Buda was recaptured), the cube turned and Hamza was led as a prisoner to Szapáry. However, he pardoned him out of Christian mercy and released his former torturer. The Turk, who had already swallowed up the contents of his ring of poison in fear, was shaken by this generosity and had even adopted Christianity in his last minutes.
The name of Hamza Beg is preserved in the Ottoman-era name of Érd, Hamzsabég.
Holders of 18-19. century
The Szapáry and then the Illésházy family played a decisive role
in the reconstruction after the Turkish rule in Érd.
Miklós Illésházy (1653–1723) replaced Érd in 1722. He regulated serf burdens in a local urarium. He is also known nationally .... as chancellor shortly before his death he signed the Pragmatica sanction, which made it possible to inherit the throne of Maria Theresa.
József Illésházy (1700–1766) was the owner of Érd only for a short time, because between 1735 and 1752 he also pledged it to Baron András Pongrácz, and then to Baron János Péterffy through his daughter. The Peterffy family built the Chapel of the Suffering Christ on Calvary Hill. (1749).
János Illésházy (? -1799) did the most to beautify Érd. In 1774, he added a tower to the church of St. Michael, which was rebuilt in the time of Szapáry, and drew a floor to the new parish house. He adorned the church garden with statues (eg St. John of Nepomuk) and crosses. He made a statue of St. Walburga and built a small chapel in the rebuilt castle. In his time, in 1776, Érd (presumably after an earlier but ceased status) received the status of a market town again. His son, Francis, died at the age of 10 in unknown circumstances (perhaps in an epidemic) in Érd and was buried in the church. (1789).
István Illésházy (1762–1838) Acquired the right to hold trade fairs in Érd. Not having a son, his family became extinct.
Prince Fülöp Batthyány bought Érd from him, whose paternal branch was Countess Teréz Illésházy. The Great Danube Flood of 1838 falls into his short, twenty years of possession. Instead of the destroyed settlement, the prince founded New Town, in an area a little further from the river (Philippines). It was around this time that the Pelikán Inn, later Batthyány – Wimpffen – Károlyi Castle (today: Hungarian Geographical Museum), could have been built on the corner of the Fehérvár highway and the road to Újváros.
In 1848, Érd became the property of Baron George Sina, a Viennese banker of Greek descent who excelled in supporting the construction of the Chain Bridge. His son, Sina Simon - who also surpassed his father with his patronage of generosity - rebuilt the castle in 1869 in the Neo-Renaissance style and significantly expanded it. After his death (1876), through the marriage of his daughter, Count Anastasia Wimpffen, to Viktor, Érd fell into the hands of the Wimpffen family of Swabian descent. After the Wimpffens, in 1911, the Counts of Károlyi became the largest owners of Érd. The castle, on the other hand, fell into the hands of the Catholic Church in 1920. A Jesuit priestly educator (novitiate), a visiting convent from 1928, and from 1940 until the arrival of the front here, the country's first KALOT folk high school operated within its walls. The school, run by the National Secretariat of the Catholic Agrarian Youth Bachelors' Association, held economic, village-leader-training and folk cultural courses. It is acknowledged that two of our prime ministers, Pál Teleki and László Bárdossy, visited here in 1941 and 1942, respectively.) The castle was used as a military hospital in the war. was sentenced to demolition.
After the second half of the 1920s, the Károlyi family (Count Imre Károlyi and his son, Gyula) gradually parceled out more than 3,000 acres of land here, mostly consisting of forests and orchards. Due to the relatively cheap land prices and the possibility to walk to nearby jobs, settlers later came from all over the country. The initial resort soon became the largest settlement in the agglomeration around the capital, “the largest village in Central Europe.” The ill-considered and fast-paced settlement became a source of depressing problems (water shortages, high groundwater, impassable roads, etc.) for decades after the war. it did not develop, only the traditional mill industry (Danube ship mills) and brick production developed in a more modern form and smaller plants were established (Mezőgép, Texelektro, ÉRUSZ, Bread Factory, etc.)
Viticulture and sheep farming have traditionally been typical economic sectors in Érd. In 1851, the statistician Elek Fényes writes about Érd in the Geographical Dictionary of Hungary: "His main farm is in a vineyard, which produces very precious wine". It declined as a result of the phylloxera epidemics of the 1870s and 80s, and was replaced by peach cultivation. Remaining memories are the hole cellars carved into the wall of the old town of Gyorma (deep road). Scenes of sheep farming, 18-19. century majors (Erlakovecz, Fülöp major, etc.) were demolished during the socialist tea age.
Until 1945, Érd belonged to the Adonyi district of Fejér county;
during the 1945 county arrangement, Érdet and its surroundings were
annexed to the territory of Pest-Pilis-Solt-Kiskun county, since the
1950 county arrangement it has been part of Pest county.
The development of the urban center began in 1972 with the establishment of the shopping complex, which also served as a bus station, continued with the housing estate and the ÁFÉSZ Department Store, and in recent years it has gained a truly high-quality appearance with the construction of the Budai út business service line.
With the reconstruction of the Thermal Hotel in 1990, the Old Town became a bathing place, which meant a new tourist perspective for Érd at that time, but the spa and the hotel had to be closed by the municipality in 2015 due to its debts (the popular artesian well was taken over). The building is currently being auctioned off.
The chimney of the brick factory operating between 1910 and 1980 was blown up on August 31, 2016 (to the exclusion of the public), and the area is planned to be converted into a place for excursions.
In 1977, the combat position of the 11th Hungarian Air Defense Missile Brigade moved to Érd. The brigade was first transformed to regiment level, then liquidated in 2000, and the garrison ceased to exist. Parts of the object are preserved to this day.