Gyöngyös (German: Gengeß, Slovak: Dindeš) is a town in Heves County, the seat of the Gyöngyös district. It is the second most populated settlement in the county after the county seat. Gyöngyöspüspöki, Mátrafüred, Mátraháza, Sástó and Kékestető belong to the city from an administrative point of view.
To the north, the city is bordered by the Mátra, to the south by the Great Plain.
The city is crossed by the Gyöngyös stream, the Külső-Mérges stream, the Belső-Mérges stream and the Tarján stream.
The origin of his name
It got its name from the Gyöngyös stream flowing through it, whose alternative name is Nagy-patak today, and the name variant of Gyöngyös can first be given from 1284 in the form of Gungus. This stream name, found in many places in the country, refers to a watercourse on the banks of which there were many mistletoe, from which bird-catching spleens were cooked and also used for fodder in times of need, or in which river mussels were abundantly farmed.
The romantic and nepetimological explanations according to which the name of the town may have been obtained from one of the female members of the “kún-palóc” tribe occupying the Mátra Region, who was named Gyöngyös, are incorrect. Or that one of the daughters of Árpád would have been called Gyöngy, who, following his father to the Mátra region, died here and was buried by the stream from Mátra. This creek and the town built near the tomb would have been named Gyöngyös after him. It is against them that this geographical name occurs in different parts of the country, and the female name that can be read as Gyöngyös cannot be given in the known documents of the Árpádian period, no Hungarian names are formed from personal names, the Kippach-Turkish-speaking Cumans moving to the country at one time.
Gyöngyös is likely to be AD. It was founded between 700-800 years by the Avars, and their traces can still be found in the form of the former stone dams built by them, known as the Avar rings, partly here in Mátra, next to Bene, Gyöngyössolymos, Gyöngyösoroszi and Gyöngyöstarján.
The name of the settlement was first mentioned in 1299 in the form Gywngus. Other Árpádian name forms: Gunges, Gyunges, Gyungus.
The first known data about this region are from the narrative of Anonymus; according to which leader Árpád gave great land to the leaders of Ede and Edömér kun in the forest of the Mátra and its region at the time of the conquest, where their grandson built Pata castle. Later, King Samuel came from the tribe of Pata, who was called Aba (father) for his piety. Through his family connections and palatine dignity, Samuel Aba gained tremendous influence, elevating his clan to great authority. She was the brother-in-law of King St. Stephen because she married her sister; he also wore the palatine dignity for seven years, after which he became king.
The clan of the Abaks was later divided into several branches and had several names, for by dividing the ancient estates, the members of the clan named their estates, separated from each other, by the most excellent members of their clan; therefore, as members of the ancestral tribe and royal offspring, they always referred to the common tribe, calling themselves nobles of the genus Aba - nobiles de genere Aba.
The name of the settlement first appears in the charter of King St. Ladislaus from 1261 in the name of Gyöngyöspüspökki near today's Gyöngyös. The king then donated Bishop Gyöngyös to the Bishop of Eger. Gyöngyös probably already existed at that time, because only in this way could the name Gyöngyös appear as a prefix to the name of the neighboring settlement, which the settlement probably got after the Gyöngyös stream here.
Gyöngyös and its surroundings were at that time in the possession of the Csobánka branch of the Aba clan. According to the donation letter of King Jr. V. of 1267, he donated Halás (Gyöngyöshalás) to János, the son of Csobánka, as an estate belonging to the castle of Heves, for his merits in the battle of Isaszeg.
The sons of János come: Master László, Samuel and Dávid, who divided their estates in 1301 in front of the chapter of Eger. According to the class agreement, their inherited estates were divided between the three brothers, but Gyöngyös, as well as the neighboring town of Benevár and Beneváralja, remained their common property after the division, with the participation of all three brothers, who provided both Gyöngyös and Benevár and Beneváralja within the city limits, as well as within their borders, received their inheritance.
Among the brothers, László Csobánka was involved in a lawsuit for infidelity and domination in the summer of 1299 before the division, at the end of which László Csobánka was sentenced to death and his property confiscated. In 1322, Lampert received his estates, including Gyöngyös, as a donation from King Charles Robert.
The Csobánkák then turned against Károly Róbert under the banner of Máté Csák, and in 1312 they collided with the royal army on the plane of Rozgony, near the Tarna stream, where the party fighters lost the battle, and Dávid Csobánka also fell in the battle.
The king donated Gyöngyös and Bene Castle to Tamás Széchenyi
Farkasfia from the Transylvanian Voivodeship. Tamás Farkassy soon
provided Gyöngyös with defensive walls, towers and gates, giving him
the status of a city. Today, no trace of these fortifications is
visible; the gates of benei, tapó, tóutcca and solymosi, together
with the gate of light and small, were partially demolished in the
early 19th century.
The sons of Thomas; Miklós, also known as Kónya ban, Mihály was the provost of Bratislava, then the bishop of Eger, as well as Gáspár and László.
King Charles Robert declared Gyöngyös a city in 1334, mainly due to the wine trade developing in the north and northeast.
After the Farkassy family, the Pohárnok, Berzeviczy and Salgó families were the owners of the town of Gyöngyös, whose property later became the Rozgonyi family, especially favored by King Sigismund.
In the 15th century, Franciscan monks settled here, who, in exchange for the protection they received from the city, also provided treatment for the physical and mental ailments of the inhabitants.
In 1455, half of Gyöngyös was sold by László's son of Szécsény voivode, together with several other estates, for 40,000 forints to Mihály Gúthi Országh, who had risen to great power and glory at that time; and pledged the other part of his estate in Gyöngyös to Albert Losonczy, who held it as a pledge for thirty years. According to the document of King Matthias dated 1467, the most prestigious landlords of the town became the Gúthi Országh family and the Losonczyak. Both families played an excellent role in the history of our country. In 1468, Mihály Országh was already a palatine officer in the Bratislava Parliament, and in 1496 László Losonczy received the honor of being entrusted with the examination of treasury accounts.
After the death of King Matthias in 1490, the lords of the town II. They joined Ulászló's party and thus Gyöngyös was also part of the inconveniences of the partisan fights, because II. At the beginning of 1491, Ulászló's brother and rival Albert destroyed Gyöngyös and his countryside with Péter Perényi.
Around 1518, László Móré and members of the Gosztony family were the largest owners of the town.
The 17th-century state of the town is faithfully reflected in a roadmap that mentions clean streets, many merchants, charming girls and fiery, succulent wines of a "sapphire-like color" that even Turks enjoyed tasting.
During the Rákóczi War of Independence, the prince negotiated with the emperor's envoy in the city. The most famous Kuruc general, Vak Bottyan, who died of the plague, was buried in the Franciscan church. The area around the church has recently been rebuilt, significantly changing the image of the area.
A sad event in the city’s 20th-century history was the fire of May 1917, which destroyed much of the residential buildings. During the reconstruction, today's harmonious, unified cityscape was formed. The famous buildings, churches and houses have been rebuilt in a way worthy of their rank.
The city was a military city for a long time. Between 1950 and 1991, higher formations of the Hungarian Armed Forces stationed under the new name of Mihály Táncsics in the Ignác Török Barracks. These were the headquarters and direct units of the MN 4th Mechanized Rifle Division. On October 10, 1991, the garrison closed its doors.