Hajdúböszörmény is a town in Hajdú-Bihar County, the seat of the Hajdúböszörmény district. It is the second most populated settlement in the county after the county seat. It is the fourth largest settlement in the country in terms of area.
It is located at the confluence of Nyírség and
Hajdúság. It can be approached by road from both Debrecen and
Miskolc on the main road 35; From the direction of Budapest on the
M35 motorway, and by train on the Debrecen – Tiszalök line.
Outlying areas: Bodaszőlő, Nagy-Bocskai vineyard, Kis-Bocskai vineyard, Pród, Meadow, Telekföld, Vid, Zelemér.
Hajdúböszörmény is the largest city of Hajdúság, the "capital of
Hajdúk". The area has been inhabited since prehistoric times. The
Hajdúság Museum preserves the finds from the migration period.
Together with today's large border of Hajdúböszörmény, the Great Plain, more specifically one of the characteristic settlements of the Trans-Tisza region, is a small town that still bears its historicity in its appearance. The border of the town is in contact with Hajdúnánás and Hajdúhadház in the north, Hajdúhadház in the east, Józsa in the south, Balmazújváros and Görbeháza in the west and northwest. It covers an area of 311 square kilometers, or 31,078 hectares, so about 58,000 cadastral acres. The current size of the border was the result of a long historical process. Of course, this vast area does not have the same soil conditions. The sandy soil of Nyírség extends to the eastern part of the border, while the black earth is typical in the west, in some parts of which there are also saline areas. The city's vineyards are located in the sandy, eastern part of the border, and there is a significant forest here, while in the western part, beyond the Eastern Main Canal, there are deep parts, clay soils and saline areas, watercourses, water levels, grasslands and groves. The best field loam soil is located around the city, where outstanding yields are achieved.
The height of the western part of the border is 100-110 meters above sea level, while in the eastern part the individual hills also exceed 160 meters. The small protrusions and bumps in the beautiful number are called flat in the area. The city has no larger natural rivers, but there are several smaller watercourses in the southern and western parts, such as the Zelemér River, the Gát River, the Brașov River, the Döglő River and the Horgas River. On the edge of the Meadow and Nagypród, Kadarcs, Viden and on the pasture of Őród, the Vidi River, the Süldős River, the Dedő River and the Szőke River run along a pasture. The Hortobágy River also originates on the border of Hajdúböszörmény, which flows into the Balmazújváros border, touching the Meadow and the Bagota. The tributary of the Hortobágy is the Hollós River, which also originates here. Its stagnant waters are insignificant, mostly saline ponds such as the Kerek-Kaján saline, Lake Csukás and Lake Ludas. In addition to one of these saline lakes, Viden used to have a spa known around the area.
The border names of the town reflect the former settlement structure of the area, the former water conditions and the border use order of the town of Hajdú as a living history book. Thus, for example, Vid, Zelemér, Pród and Bagota were thriving medieval villages, but the border names Seventy and Solomon can also be included in this circle. The order of border use is preserved by Telekföld, the eastern herd pressure, the western herd pressure, and the Gátmegett border name and the Meadow, which was really a floodplain before the flood planning, also refer to the former water conditions.
The name Hajdúböszörmény first appears in our historical sources in 1248, Nagyböszörmény, of course without the Hajdú prefix. However, when you first mention it, you can look back on a much older past, a fact that the name of the city proves primarily. Böszörmény was a common word in the old Hungarian language, and it meant a folk element of the Mohammedan religion, probably of Bulgarian-Turkish ethnicity. Knowing the activities of the Ishmaelites or Bohemians, it is highly probable that our settlement may have been an important commercial center during the time of the principality, and then during our kings in the House of Árpád. It is known from the Oradea Register that one of the villages of the Ishmaelites of Arrow was Solomon, located exactly in the area of today's Hajdúböszörmény border. The Bohemians disappeared from the stage of our history after the Tartar invasion, and certainly our settlement was destroyed at that time.
The town received the prefix Hajdú from the Hajdús, who supported István Bocskai's war of independence. Bocskai donated the town of Kálló to them, where, however, they could not settle. In 1609 Gábor Báthory settled the Hajdú districts in Böszörmény, they established the Hajdú District with the six Hajdú towns, which became the seat of Hajdúböszörmény. It existed as an administrative unit until 1876, when Hajdú County was formed.
Soon, however, he soon had to revive, for in 1325 he already appeared before us as a considerable place. By this time he had a weekly fair. However, the population of the old Böszörmény was destroyed or merged into the majority Hungarian and Christian population. Böszörmény received the rank of a market town (oppidum) during the reign of Sigismund (1410), and with this privilege he finally stood out from the mass of serf villages in the area. As part of the Debrecen estate, György Brankovics came under Serbian despotism from the donation of Zsigmond Böszörmény. After the confiscation of the Brankovics estates, it became the property of the Hunyadi family, and as part of the Debrecen estate it served as an important substation in the administration of the estates. According to all indications, by this time the famous settlement structure of the city, on the basis of which it formed two cross streets, had already developed in its essential features.