The city of Jászberény is located in the Northern Great Plain region, in Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok county; the center of the Jászberény district. It is often referred to as the capital of Jászság. It had a population of 27,439 on January 1, 2019, making it the second most populous settlement in the county.
It is located in the northern part of the Danube-Tisza, in the north-western part of Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok county, in Jászság, on the two banks of the river Zagyva, 79 km east of Budapest. The county seat, Szolnok is approx. It is 45 km away. Neighboring settlements: Pusztamonostor, Jászárokszállás, Jászdózsa, Jászjákóhalma, Jásztelek, Farmos, Nagykáta, Jászboldogháza, Jászfelsőszentgyörgy.
station can be approached on the electrified Hatvan – Szolnok
railway line No. 82. With the exception of 1 in the morning, there
is an hourly schedule on weekdays, 2 hours on weekends, and the
Campus Express, which runs from Szeged to Miskolc on Fridays and
from Miskolc to Szeged on Sundays during the teaching period. The
city’s other railway station (Portelek Railway Station) is located
southeast of the city, 2 km from the eponymous Portelek.
It can be reached by road from Budapest on the main road 31 and on the main road 32 connecting Hatvant to Szolnok. There are several other inferior routes to the city: Jászárokszállás, Jászfelsőszentgyörgy, Farmos.
Long-distance and local public transport is provided by Volánbusz, with flights to Budapest, Eger, Kecskemét, Miskolc, Nagykáta, Szeged and Szolnok, among others.
area around the town was already inhabited in the Stone Age, as
indicated by the remains of the Mesolithic (Middle Stone Age)
settlement found in the vicinity of Jászberény. Archaeological
relics also refer to the Celts who lived here in the Iron Age and
later to the Sarmatian and Avar presence. The route of the Csörsz
ditch connecting the Danube with the Tisza, built by the Sarmatians
between 324 and 337, passes north of the settlement. The settlement
was probably founded in the time of the Árpád House, but it was
destroyed by the Tartar invasion.
The region, inhabited by the Jász in the 13th century, is the economic, spiritual and religious center of Jászság from the beginning, Jászberény, which is first mentioned in 1357 in the form “Beren”.
The origin and meaning of the Berény form are unknown. It was previously associated with the Beren brand name Kabar or Besenyő, which means who gave himself, others say the root of the word is ber or bere, which means as much as a market place or commodity market. And according to another theory, it comes from the word beri of Manchu-tunguz, which means bow. According to the explanation at the end of the word, there is, according to the explanation, a so-called denominator that forms an occupation and tribal name. The berin that can be reconstructed in this way means an archer tribe, an archer genus.
Since their settlement, the Jászis have enjoyed various privileges (exemption from taxes and duties, life independent of the counties, independent administration, Pallos law), in return for which they owed the king military service. In the 15th century, Franciscan monks settled in the town and built a monastery to convert the Jász to the Christian faith. In 1550 it was already an urban settlement, although it was considered so before, and it was the administrative seat both in Turkish times and during the existence of the Jászkun Triple District.
In the early modern era, the city was subjected to great shocks, it was plundered in 1526 and then in 1536 as well. With the takeover of Buda by the Turks, the settlement came to the border and the raids became permanent. At first the Hungarians wanted to build a castle here, but finally in 1566 the Turks built a palisade castle around a Franciscan monastery. Shortly afterwards, in 1594, the Turks set it on fire and left the plank, fleeing from the emperors. At the same time, the population of the settlement fled and presumably did not live until 1618. The city then began to develop again, which was temporarily hindered by the fact that it was looted again in 1637 by the soldiers of the frontier castle. Finally, in 1685, the city was liberated from Turkish rule and allowed to start developing again.
Administratively, in Turkish times, it was the center of the Nashhi of Jászberini, which belonged to the Sandzak of Hatvan. In Turkish times, the city belonged to the Sultan's private treasury, which was considered favorable given the circumstances. The privileges of the Jász were endangered in 1702, when Leopold I sold the Jászság to the German Order of Knights, into which they did not rest and in 1745 they redeemed them with their own money. This was Redemptio, self-redemption in Hungarian.
Description of the settlement at the end of the 18th century:
BERÉNY: Jász Berény. It is a populous Hungarian Field City in
‘Jászság, the residence of the Captain of the Jászok, its
inhabitants are Catholics and Reformed, its buildings are low, its
school is notable compared to those in the‘ Jászság ’. Its
boundaries are especially fertile for its assets, and it 's not
possible for non-first-graders to be counted. "
(András Vályi: Description of the Hungarian Country, 1796–1799)
The town also took part in the War of Independence in 1848-49, and the Lehel hussar regiment was formed in Jászberény from the volunteers recruited from the Jászber, the 3rd century of which did not lay down its arms even at Világos. Many soldiers of the 12th Nádori Regiment, consisting of Jász and Kuno, also fled from their station in the Czech Republic. In the spring of 1849, Lajos Kossuth, Artúr Görgei and János Damjanich, as well as the I., II. and III. body.
Here is one of the oldest museums in the country, the Jász Museum, founded in 1874, where you can see the city of Jászberény and the symbol of the Jászság, the horn of our national relic, Lehel.
The Teacher Training College was founded in the city in 1917, which currently operates as a faculty of the Károly Eszterháy University.
After World War II, the first large-scale industrial plants, such as the Lehel Refrigerator Factory and the Shredder Factory, were established, providing the population with more job opportunities and better livelihood security. In the decades of socialism, Jászberény was a particularly prosperous city. The city owed a lot to Ignác Gorjanc, the director of the Lehel Refrigeration Factory, who used his influence to keep the factory's resources in the city several times. Thanks to him, Jászberény has developed a lot in recent decades.
The period after the change of regime was particularly well-tolerated, which can be explained by the favorable privatization partners. The corporate acquisitions, which also deal with northern (Swedish, Finnish) stakeholders, were not followed by factory closures, only by organizational changes. From a company theory point of view, the period is the golden age of outsourcing. The operating companies were present as significant customers, which enabled the formation of supplier companies. Jász-Plasztik Kft., Which is now becoming one of the largest family companies in Hungary, was also such a supplier. As a result of the favorable conditions, instead of the unemployment typical of the country at that time, there was a shortage of labor in the city already in the early 2000s. Although the further development envisioned at that time did not materialize, the city and, more broadly, Upper Jászság are still the economic center of the county near Szolnok.
In 2012, the lowest annual precipitation was measured here. This year, only 324.5 mm of precipitation fell. In the summer of 2016, the "JÁSZOK" historical dance game was presented, which processes the history of the Jászzs.