The town of Kiskunfélegyháza (German: Feulegaß, Yiddish: פֿיילעדאַז) is located in Bisk-Kiskun County, in the middle of the sand ridge between the Danube and the Tisza, in Kiskunság, the center of the Kiskunfélegyháza district. According to the resident population, it is the third largest settlement in the county. It is also called the town of Petofi and Mora. On February 4, 1774, he received the rank of a market town.
The central town of Bács-Kiskun County is located between the Danube and the Tisza.
Significant transport hub: the city is crossed by the main road No. 5, the M5 motorway; the main road 451 starts from the city to Szentes. This is where the 4625 road from Szolnok, touching Tiszakécske and Tiszaalpár, and the 4614 road from Nagykőrös to this end (the latter, in its current state, functions only as an agricultural road in most of its sections).
The city's railway traffic is also outstanding: it is located on the Budapest-Szeged railway line, but there are also direct trains to Kiskunhalas, Szentes, and through Lakitelek to Szolnok. Kiskunfélegyháza is an optimal accommodation for hikers, as Bugac, the famous spa of Kiskunmajsa, the Tőserdő and Tősfürdő, Ópusztaszer and the Kiskunság National Park are nearby.
Kiskunfélegyháza is located less than 100 km from Budapest by road, which is only an hour's journey thanks to the motorway.
Prehistory during migration
The settlement is located on Pleistocene sediments. The oldest museum values were found in the quicksand layer from the Pleistocene end. Traces of primitive animals and plants have been observed in the wake of Gyula Szalay: spruce, ancient moss and bones. All this testifies to a former tundra-like climate.
There is no material memory of man's appearance. There are only relics from the Neolithic, but the human presence can be guessed from the excavations in Csongrád county. There is only one Neolithic (or rather Bronze Age) monument, an ax head unearthed in 1973, which is preserved in the Kiskun Museum. The processing of the further archaeological material collection was hindered by the fact that no archaeologist had worked in the museum for years, the exact location of the finds remained unknown. The area belonged to the Sarmatians until the 5th century, and in the middle of the century it came into the possession of the Huns and then the Scythians living under the rule of the Huns. Traces of the Scythians are preserved in the photographic documentation of a 1901 find, which was destroyed in the City Museum in Kecskemét during the First World War. The Avars are shown in Figures 6-7. In the 16th century, smaller settlements were established in the area. Several Avar tombs have been unearthed.
Conquest, Árpádian era
There are scattered relics from the time of the conquest. The wearer of a tarso plate unearthed during a 1970 excavation (led by Elvira H. Tóth) took part in the 924 adventure.
The first Christian church was built by order of King Stephen, which is now hidden in the Church Hill. Excavations have been taking place in the area since the summer of 2008. In addition to the abundance of memorabilia and details of the old burial site, the trail of the south wall of the church also appeared. After the excavations were completed, a memorial park was established.
A kunok IV. They arrived in the area during the time of Bela, first in 1239 and then in 1246. The settlements of the Cumans affected Félegyháza.
From the Anjou era to 1727
The Anjou era was a period of feudalization of the Cumans. The process accelerated during the reign of Sigismund. A documentary memorial first mentions Félegyháza in the form of Feleghaz in 1389: the document forbids the nobles of Seri to collect customs duties from merchant citizens passing through Szeged, Félegyháza. Thus, Félegyháza lay along the trade route to Buda. However, it is not known if it was a market town and when it became part of the 17th century Kiskunság. (The name Kiskunság did not exist before the 16th century.) Poor Anjou and Sigismund finds were found in the Templomhalom (excavation was led by Alajos Bálint, director of the Ferenc Móra Museum in Szeged). It is interesting that a form of burial for the Kun population has not been found.
After the battle of Mohács, the Turks completely destroyed Félegyháza. After the siege of Buda, Suleiman burned it together with several other cities of the Great Plain, according to the records of the Kálpasazáde, on September 27, 1526. According to the record, the cities “Feleghasz”, “Kamika”, “Perlek”, “Kecskeme”, “Pesher” tried to resist with guns. The area is depopulated.
In 1699, Lipót I pledged Jászkunság (the summary name of Kiskunság, Nagykunság and Jászság in the former documents). The area of Félegyháza is still uninhabited at that time. After the Rákóczi War of Independence, the German Order of Knights was able to hold Jászkunság as a temporary lien. In 1731 the area was abandoned, the jurisdiction passed to the House of the Disabled in Pest.
Resettlement probably began as early as 1727. The call for settlement took place in 1743, issued by György Podharadszki, the appointed administrator of the Jászkun district. The letter of the settlers of Jászfényszarus has survived.
In 1745, Maria Theresa authorized the redemption of previously
illegally sold territories. It confirmed the old privileges of the
Jász and Kunas, exempting them from serf duties. Therefore, they had
to pay a pledge of HUF 573,000 for the leave. The redemption amount
of the redeemed areas: HUF 12,100 for the land of Félegyháza, HUF
7,000 for Ferencszállás steppe, HUF 5,000 for half Galambos steppe,
HUF 2,750 for half Kisszállás steppe, HUF 2,000 for Félegyháza
restaurant, a total of HUF 28,850. This amount has not been paid
when In 1753 Csólyospuszta was redeemed for HUF 6,000, and in 1758
the other half of Galambos was redeemed for HUF 5,000. The city’s
border has thus grown to 58,000 cadastral moons.
In 1774, Kiskunfélegyháza received the rank of a market town from Mária Terézia, which allowed the holding of 4 national fairs a year. By this time the baroque church of the town had been built, the stones of which were built from the stones of the church of the old Félegyháza destroyed by the Turks.
The semi-church was raised above the other Kiskun settlements by trade. In Kiskunfélegyháza, the Greeks were the first merchants to bring with them the once famous traditions of the Eastern Levantine trade, and the city was included in the procession area of the Hanseatic cities. The main occupation of the settlers of Félegyháza was agriculture. The city status and the right to hold fairs promoted as the development of certain industries (blacksmith, wheelwright, Szíjjártó, furriers, etc.), And after the Compromise boom created a relatively affluent live layer, but agriculture remains monocultural nature. The city's industry began to develop at the end of the 19th century (mill industry) and then continued from the 1950s (chemical machinery factory, plastic factory, shoe factory).
In the 19th century, public buildings indicated the novel needs of the bourgeoisie: the first, classicist town hall, which was demolished during its new construction, the also classicist Swan House, in which Sándor Petőfi's father rented a butcher's chair, the old Duttyán inn. In the second half of the century, the houses in Budapest were already flourishing in architectural styles: the Neo-Renaissance St. Stephen's Church, the Klazsik House, the romantic Raven House, the eclectic Kalmar Chapel, which was built as a foundation church. At the end of the century, art patronage was also significant, the Kalmár family had a private chapel built, and the young painters sponsored by them could even travel to Paris, so László Holló. At the turn of the century, the new town hall was built in the Art Nouveau style, and there were plenty of civic residential houses, and the street plan of today's Félegyháza was formed.