Komárom (German: Komorn), unofficially, is the cultural, tourist
and commercial center of South Komárom in Hungary, on the right bank
of the Danube. In terms of population, Komárom-Esztergom is the
fourth largest city in the county and the capital of the Komárom
district. Komárom is strategically located at the 1768 km of the
Danube, at the mouth of the Váh and the Csallóközi Danube branch.
Located on the eastern edge of the Little Plain, the city is an
important road and railway junction. The Elisabeth Bridge connects
the Komárom railway connecting bridge with Komárom and Archbishop's
Castle, which belongs to Slovakia. The city, which is equidistant
from Budapest and Vienna, is connected to the economic circulation
by the M1 motorway to the south and the main railway line 1 crossing
the city. It used to be Hungary's western river border post, but
since the adoption of the Schengen agreement, the border can be
crossed freely without control.
The right bank of the Danube has been inhabited since Roman times, and one of the major border towns of the Roman Empire, Brigetio, stood here. During the Turkish occupation, the right bank of the Danube became depopulated, and Komárom became the border fortress of royal Hungary. The unsuccessful Turkish siege of the town took place in 1594, after which the gradual construction of the Komárom fortification system began. The forts built to protect the right coastal settlements then played an important role in the War of Independence of 1848-49, during which three battles took place between the troops of the Habsburg Empire and Hungary. An important milestone in the development of the settlement is the construction of the Budapest-Vienna railway line, which was completed by 1884. The railway network was further expanded in 1860 and 1890 in the direction of Székesfehérvár and Esztergom. The part of the city on the left bank was torn from Hungary by the Treaty of Trianon, concluded in 1920, which ended the First World War. The new Czechoslovak-Hungarian border was drawn here, and this is when the real development of the southern part of the city began. The division of the city remained even after the Second World War. During the Soviet occupation from 1945 to 1991, the city was the station of the Soviet Southern Army Group.
In the time of the
Kingdom of Hungary, the name of the settlement was originally
Új-Szőny, which was united only in 1896 with Komárom on the left
bank of the Danube. It was only in 1977 that it merged with Szőny,
built over the ruins of a Roman military town.
The main attraction of Komárom is the fortification system surrounding the city, which is included in the UNESCO World Heritage List. The Monostori Fortress, which belongs to the fortification system, plays a particularly important role in the cultural life of the city. The thermal bath in the city center and the waterfront leisure park built on the outskirts of the city attract many visitors every year.