Mosonmagyaróvár (Latin: Ad Flexum; German: Wieselburg-Ungarisch Altenburg, Croatian: Stari Grad) is a town in Győr-Moson-Sopron County, the seat of the Mosonmagyaróvár district. It was established in 1939 through the unification of Moson and Magyaróvár.


The settlement was already inhabited in Roman times, when its name was Ad Flexum. In German, Wieselburg-Ungarisch is the name of Altenburg. There are three names known in Croatian. The Kimleys call it Možun, the Peresznye call it Starograd, the Bezenye call it Stári Grâd. The latter figure is the most common.

Natural features, geographical environment
Mosonmagyaróvár is located in the northwest corner of the square marked by 47-48 ° north latitude and 17-18 ° east longitude. This micro-region is a natural link between Slovakia, Austria and Hungary. Mosonmagyaróvár has a station on the Vienna-Budapest (Paris-Istanbul) international railway line, the main road 1 from Hegyeshalom (Vienna) and the main road 150 from Rajka (Bratislava) meet in its territory, and there is a branch of the M1 motorway. . It is 39 km by road from Győr, 34 km from Bratislava, 84 km from Vienna and 160 km from Budapest, and can be easily reached by road and rail from both the Hungarian and Austrian capitals.

Mosonmagyaróvár is the third largest city of Győr-Moson-Sopron county, with 25 settlements in its catchment area on an area of ​​931 km², where about 70 thousand people live. Its proximity to the country's two important border stations, Hegyeshalom and Rajka, make it an important economic, financial (customs), tourism, transport, industrial and commercial center. Its intellectual and human infrastructure also meets the needs of the inhabitants of the catchment area, and its university is an important higher education and scientific base.

Mosonmagyaróvár is located in the northwestern part of Transdanubia, in the deepest central part of the Kisalföld, in the Győr basin. Its small regions are the Mosoni plain filled with river sediments and the Szigetköz. To the north and east is the Szigetköz, to the south the Hanság, and to the west the plain to the Pándorfi plateau. The Lajta flows through its territory, which joins the Mosoni-Danube here. The city itself was built on a huge 50-200 m thick cone of rubble on the Danube. From the two rivers of Mosonmagyaróvár, the Mosoni-Danube branches off from the Danube between Oroszvár and Dunacsún, the riverbed is winding, of a middle section nature, its water level is regulated by the Rajka sluice. The water of the balanced water, lined with gallery forests, is especially suitable for water sports. After 125 km, it flows back into the Danube.

The Lajta originates in Lower Austria, is 182 km long and has a fall of 1,150 meters from the source to the estuary. Its water cycle is highly dependent on precipitation, it is quite capricious, its water quality requires protection.

The Ancient Danube played a decisive role in shaping the landscape, laying a huge layer of sand and gravel as it reached the plain through the Brucki Gate. The surface of the area is completely flat, with an altitude of 112-128 meters above sea level. Due to the young recharge, there are few minerals available for sale: in addition to sand and gravel, there is thermal water here. In and around Mosonmagyaróvár, the bedrock is gravel everywhere, the soil is weakly humus-rich soils, and meadow soils are common in the deeper areas.

This region is characterized by a moderately warm, moderately dry, mildly balanced climate, which is also one of the most cloudy and windiest parts of Hungary. The number of hours of sunshine per year is 1820-1900, the annual average of overcast days is 130-140 days, that of clear days is 40, that of foggy days is 20, and that of snow-covered days is 35-40. The distribution of precipitation is quite extreme, with an average annual amount of 560–600 mm, but on some days heavy rain falls on the area. The number of rainy days is around 130-140 per year, June and July have the most rainfall, the driest month is January, the warmest is July, the average annual temperature is 9.5-10.5 ° C, the winter average is 3.3 ° C. The difference between the January and July averages is 21-32 ° C, but the difference between the extreme values ​​can reach 55-58 ° C. Frost in late spring and early autumn is common, which sometimes causes serious damage to crop production. There are floods twice on the rivers, the spring (icy price) is caused by snowmelt, the early summer (green price) is caused by the maximum precipitation. Throughout the year there are only 50-60 windless days, with the prevailing wind direction being west and northwest, followed by the frequency in terms of southeast and south winds.

Once upon a time, the natural vegetation in this landscape was very diverse. In the Hanság, before the drainage, the alder bogs, marshes and swamps were typical, the low floodplain areas were decorated with soft and hardwood groves and oaks. Natural plant communities are now found only in floodplain areas, on the banks of the Mosoni-Danube and in abandoned watercourses. The trees of the natural forest association are oak, ash and elm, the most common trees of cultivated forests are poplar, willow, acacia, ash. Today, the settlement and its surroundings are largely a cultivated cultural landscape. The oldest and largest grove in the city is Wittmann Park, named after Antal Wittmann, manorial governor, regulator of Lajta and organizer of the academy.


Today, the biggest treasure and attraction of the city is the thermal water that erupted in 1966 from a well 2,000 meters deep. The water flow of the well is 1800 l / min, the water is 75 ° C sodium bicarbonate and chloride thermal water. It was declared a medicinal water in 1967, which is suitable for the treatment of rheumatic and locomotor diseases, inflammations, respiratory ailments, and gastrointestinal ailments. From the mid-1990s, a significant investment was made in the spa area (hotel, restaurant, apartments, service and medical departments), and today, in winter and summer, Hungarian and foreign guests wishing to play sports, relax and recover can enjoy high-quality services.

The history of the settlement until 1526
Mosonmagyaróvár is a composition formed from the names of the two settlements united in 1939. Moson's name is probably of Slavic origin, meaning a swamp castle. Its first occurrence in the form of Mussun from 1137, its German name (now in its present form Wieselburg, first mentioned in 1063: Miesigenburch, 1074: Miesenburc) in its territory refers to the castle that once stood at the confluence of the Lajta and the Danube, The place name Óvár is certainly related to the Roman military camp called Ad Flexum, which was located in the present-day downtown of Magyaróvár and in the area of ​​the castle. The first occurrence of the name Magyaróvár in the form of Owar from 1263, its German name in the form of Altenburch from 1271. Its Hungarian prefix (Ungarisch-Altenburg) served to distinguish it from Bad Deutsch-Altenburg, east of Vienna.

Mosonmagyaróvár and its surroundings were presumably inhabited from the early stages of human history, but archaeological evidence only dates back to the i. e. Districts from the 5th millennium. There are archeological finds from the area of ​​Mosonmagyaróvár only since the beginning of the 19th century AD. From the beginning of the 1st century, the territory of the later Moson County was annexed to the Roman Empire as part of Pannonia. From then on, the border of the empire stretched along the Danube, of which the military camp established along the Mosoni-Danube was a significant strategic point. Although the creation of Ad Flexum was primarily a military reason, the development of the settlement next to it was aided by the fact that east-west trade took place on the military route through it. Behind the modern line of defense, the layer of craftsmen and merchants created alongside the military also felt more secure. But this also proved weak when, between 169 and 171, the Germans living on the left bank of the Danube rushed to the border with enormous force. In the struggles of these three years, the limes and the settlement next to the camp were also almost completely destroyed. Later, in the 3rd century, there was a boom here again, from which time many finds (jewelry, pots, bronze and ceramic objects) were found. The population of the settlement could have been 3000-4000 people at that time, and the military camp could spread from today's Magyar utca to the middle of Károlyliget. After the death of Valentinian in 375, the attacks of the Huns forced the population to flee, and during the later Longobard and then Avar rule, the settlement and the camp could be largely destroyed. The name Óvár proves that in the Árpádian era some details of the Roman camp and the settlement may have existed, and these formed the basis on which the medieval city could be built.

After the overthrow of the Avar Empire in 796, Charles the Great annexed the largely Slavic area of ​​the Mosoni-Danube to his empire. Moson's role grew when, after the forced abandonment of adventures, Stephen I established a county center and a royal castle to protect the borders as the base of central power. Around this, the settlements of the area were organized around the Spanish castle (Királydomb) of Moson, which was assembled from beams. The inner circumference of the rampart, which was later fortified with a stone wall, may have been 150-170 x 70-90 meters. Moson was mentioned in the chronicles as a strong castle and a busy trading town in the 11th century. In 1030, however, the guard could not prevent the invading II. Occupy the German emperor Konrad and break forward to the Raba. Between 1063 and 1067, during the thrones, King Solomon often stayed in Moson Castle. The fortress played an important role during the crusades of 1096, when King Kálmán defeated the Swabian-Bavarian army between Moson and Győr, which had been destroyed and looted by 15,000 people, and then this year he ran the army of Count Emicho 30,000 here. Moson underwent significant development in the first half of the 13th century. The Danube and the former Roman road were important trade routes on which royal customs were levied. Ship mills milled the grain of the area on the Mosoni-Danube, and the maintenance of the ports involved some industrialization. A charter mentions a large stone house on the castle market, and a stone church may have stood in the middle of today's Soproni Street as early as the 11th century. This development ended in II. The campaign of the Czech king Ottokár in 1271, in which the fortress of Moson was destroyed so much that our kings no longer considered it worthwhile to rebuild, and the seat of the Spanish was moved to Old Castle.


The construction of Óvár Castle was started by Konrád of the Győr family, who therefore IV. He received estates from Béla in Moson County. In 1282, László Kun gave him half of the royal part of the Moson customs to continue his commendable castle-building activities. Konrád - primarily in defense of his estates - repeatedly to the enemy of the Hungarian king, II. Ottokár sided with the Czech king and then with the Austrian prince Albert, so the unfaithful lord was deprived of the estates of Moson county, and although he had significant merits in the development of Óvár, he eventually died on the estate of Baranya county. In the 1270s and 1280s, the two-storey residential tower of the Old Town Castle and the city's first Romanesque church may also have been built. From 1291, Old Castle was the property of the Hungarian queens.

The earliest settlement level of Magyaróvár was formed after the destruction of Moson Castle, when the remaining population moved here for protection. A 14-15. In the 19th century, multi-storey brick buildings were erected next to the timber-framed and clay-plated buildings in the present-day street network. At that time, two streets of the city center (Fő u., Magyar u.) Were formed, including smaller streets and squares. The development of Óvár was greatly contributed by its lively trade, industrialization and the advanced mill industry mentioned in the diplomas. In addition to the royal mills in Lajtán, the inhabitants of the town also owned several mills. Queen Elizabeth recognized this urbanization when, in 1354, she elevated Óvár to the rank of the Queen's city, granting her own judiciary, free parish election, inheritance and duty-free customs for the entire territory of Hungary. Louis the Great and then Sigismund also affirmed these privileges, but the city had to fight constantly to enforce its rights. From the 14th century onwards, the chief of Moson was seated in the castle of Óvár, at the beginning of the 15th century it became the pledge of the fort as a pledge of strength to Wolfurt from Vöröskö, and then to the Szentgyörgy (Bazini) family. In January 1522, the tragic fate of II. Lajos donated it to his wife, Queen Mary, on the occasion of his wedding in Buda, and since then his fate has been intertwined with the Habsburgs for centuries, becoming one of the advanced bastions of Austria's defense.

The history of Magyaróvár and Moson from the Mohács disaster to 1848
After the election of Ferdinand I as king, the Lower Austrian Chamber took over the management of the Magyaróvár estate and the Magyaróvár thirtieth.

In 1529, the Turks retreated from Vienna as a war-torn army and set the city and the castle on fire, at which time the two-tower Romanesque church and the medieval archives of the county were destroyed. But János Szapolyai and II., Who were fighting for the possession of the country, caused a lot of suffering. Also the armies of Ferdinand. After the advent of Martin Luther, the teachings of the Reformation spread rapidly. By the middle of the 16th century, the majority of the inhabitants of Magyaróvár became Protestant. It was then that Gál Huszár, a scholar preacher and traveling printer, settled in the city. In 1555 he founded the first school in Magyaróvár and also taught in Moson. He published three significant religious and literary works from his printing house, and also began writing his famous Protestant songbook here, which he completed in Debrecen due to the harassment. A chamber decree in 1672 banned Protestant religious practice in the city and closed their schools and churches. The offensive counter-reform provision was only partially implemented by the city, so no one was forced to change his religion.

As Moson and Óvár often fell in the way of the armies, after the 16th century turmoil of the Turkish and German mercenaries, the castle was set on fire by the Hajdú of Bocskai in 1605, and in 1619 it was occupied by Gábor Bethlen for two years. After the Turkish occupation of Buda, and after the fall of Győr in 1594, it was strengthened and modernized according to the plans of Italian military engineers, and its star-shaped bastions were connected by a rampart reinforced with stone walls. In 1607, the manor mill on both banks of the Lajta was rebuilt and equipped with modern equipment. The amount of customs duties collected on animals and crops exported from the country increased rapidly, the income of the thirtieth of Magyaróvár was half of the total customs revenue of the country at that time. However, this huge amount was usually spent by the Habsburgs to cover their family expenses, little of which went to the city. Although the independence of Magyaróvár and the privileges of the citizens were guaranteed by a law in 1556, which was confirmed by Ferdinand in 1557 and Archduke Miksa in 1558, the city was constantly fighting with the castle estate for the enforcement of its rights. Much of the burden was placed on the population by the cost of the military, and the soldiers and foreign castle captains did not shy away from excesses.


At the beginning of each year, after the service, the citizens of Magyaróvár gathered at the Council House and elected a judge by secret ballot. A citizen could only be one who had a house or a livelihood in the city. In 1584 the number of citizens governing the city was 54, and a century later it was only 63. The main task of the city judge was to ensure the order, peaceful life and enforce the rights of the city. On legislative days, he handed down judgments at his house, while at the town hall, the affairs of the administration were directed by the clerk. In the evening, the city gates were closed, and from then on it was forbidden to be on the streets. Residents of the city organized a fire guard and a civil guard to protect the population. In the middle of the 17th century, a poor house was also established in the settlement. In 1665, as a member of a Turkish delegation, the city was also occupied by the famous traveler Evlija Cselebi, who described the contemporary Old Town based on his own experiences. By this time, the two famous inns, the predecessor of the Black Eagle (Ranthof) and the huge Ox Inn outside the city walls, were already in operation.

After the unsuccessful siege of Vienna in 1683, the retreating Turks burned down Moson, Óvár and almost all the settlements of the county. It was then that the archives of the city, and with it the documents of the guilds, were almost completely destroyed. But we have been working in saddle and harness manufacturers, szűcsökről, millers on the Danube, vargákról, cooper on, keys and knitting product Moson Rope céhéről 1640 onwards. From 1609, bricks were burned in the city’s brick factory for two years to build the church.

At the time of Rákóczi's uprising, the Kurucs could not permanently set foot in the city, and after the fall of the War of Independence, the equipment of the castle, which had lost its military significance, was transported to Bratislava in 1712. The governors of the Habsburg estate, relying on counter-reform measures and the economic power of the manor, gradually abolished the city's hard-to-retain privileges. Only a few judges took the courage to confront the mighty lords of the manor. The bravest and most successful of them was András Kehrling, but due to the war of the Kurucs, he did not manage to raise the amount needed to save the city forever. In 1716, the Court Chamber abolished the economic independence of the city, and a few years later the manor also took over the rights of the benefactor.

After the war, the trade and guild industry of Moson and Magyaróvár flourished again. In addition to the flourishing animal trade, Moson’s grain trade and mill industry have been increasingly important since the second half of the 17th century. In 1743, the fee for ships docking on the banks of the Danube was officially established, and the Mosoni-Danube riverbed was cleaned in order to ensure smooth transport. During these years, the old guilds became stronger and even newer. There has been a Pharmacy for the Helping Mary in Óvár since 1690, and from 1736 a city doctor was employed to improve the health care situation. It was a significant event in the life of the city that in 1739 a Piarist grammar school was founded from the legacy of the Zsidanits family. In 1766, Maria Theresa donated the manor to Magyaróvár to her daughter, Mária Krisztina. It was endowed with the right to lose its head from 1770, which created an opportunity to humiliate the city presidency. II. József united the counties of Győr and Moson by decree, and during his reign the manor had full power over the city. All this aroused great resentment from the population, so in 1794 a delegation was sent to Vienna and Buda to remedy their grievances. As a result of this mission, after two years of negotiations, the manor entered into an agreement with the city called Liber Regulationis that regulated their relationship until World War II. In 1809, Napoleon's soldiers survived the city's reserves in such a way that there could be no question of a planned redemption.

Prince Albert Kázmér, the owner of the Magyaróvár estate, founded an economic school in the town in 1818 to train higher professionals for his estates. This institution operated continuously after a few years of interruption, and its successor is today’s university. Its famous professors made the institution of high quality famous, introduced the farmers to cutting-edge methods, and also took a pioneering role in research and development. In 1776, Mária Krisztina established a post factory in Moson to process the wool of sheep bred on her estates, which operated here until 1809. In 1835, Sándor Czéh established a successful book printing workshop in the city. In 1847, Count István Széchenyi was elected one of the ambassadors of Moson County for the Reform Parliament.


From 1848 the II. until the end of World War II
The news of the Hungarian revolution in March soon reached Óvár and Moson as well. Sándor Czéh published Der Emancipierte Satanas, a newspaper politicizing the Viennese government, which can be considered the first periodical in Moson County. In the summer of 1848, the national guards of the two settlements were organized, which were forced to retreat from Jellasich's excess on October 4, but the 40 soldiers left behind were seized by the hussars of the rescuing Hungarian army. On October 23, Lajos Kossuth gave a recruiting speech on the balcony of the Archduke's Castle. In December, General Windischgrätz recaptured the city, once again the beginning of a lasting Habsburg rule in the two settlements.

In 1842, the Archduke's estate converted the granary built at the port of Moson into a sugar factory, which processed beet crops in the area until its cessation in 1873. The railway traffic between Győr and Bruck started in 1855, from now on the cargo of the ships was placed in wagons at the railway station here. Founded in 1856, the Moson machine repair shop was later developed by Ede Kühne into a famous agricultural machine factory. In 1899, the Hirtenberg ammunition factory established a branch factory in Magyaróvár, and in 1913 the construction of the monarchy's large weapons factory began here, which was dismantled and largely destroyed after the Trianon peace. In 1923, the country's first rayon factory, the country's first alumina factory, and in 1935 the toothbrush factory started operating in its vast public utility area.

In 1863, the Karolina Hospital was opened in Magyaróvár, and the medical care of social institutions (poor house, shelter) was also systematized. The first kindergarten was founded in 1881 in Moson by Károly Ostermayer, and in 1882 the Moson County Historical and Archaeological Society, which founded the museum, was established. In 1874, the Institute of Economics was promoted to an academic rank, the teachers of which established several national research institutes in Magyaróvár.

As a result of the Peace of Trianon, the independence of Moson County ceased to exist in 1924, it lost almost two-thirds of its territory, and both Óvár and Moson broke away from much of their economic relations. At the end of the 1930s, 7,287 Hungarians, 1,205 Germans and 41 Croats lived in Magyaróvár, 4,619 Hungarians, 1,701 Germans, 61 Croats and Slovaks lived in Moson. As early as 1908, the idea of ​​uniting the two settlements arose, which was finally stated by a resolution of the Minister of the Interior, and was solemnly approved by the two councils on 28 June 1939. According to the data of the 1941 census, 83% of the 17,073 inhabitants of Mosonmagyaróvár were Hungarian, 13% German, 3% Jewish and 1% of other nationalities. Hungary's war economic policy also brought a boom in Mosonmagyaróvár. Unemployment has disappeared, with industry and construction employing 47.5% of people, agriculture 17.8%, and transport, trade and services 8.4%. From 1939 to 1943, the production of the Kühne Agricultural Machinery Factory almost tripled, and the Vadásztölténygyár and the Bauxit Ipari Rt. In the fall of 1942, the Academy of Agriculture was given a college rank and 4 years of training were introduced. In May 1944, 466 Jews from Mosonmagyaróvár were abducted, and the city's population swelled to 45,000 in the last days of the war. In late March 1945, the Germans blew up the city’s bridges and radio transmission tower. On April 1, Soviet troops occupied the settlement without any particular fighting.

A II. from World War II to the present day
The city suffered relatively little war damage, but due to the paralysis of transport and the lack of materials and labor, it was difficult to start production on the plants. In 1946, members of the SS, the Volksbund and also those who declared themselves to be German native speakers or German nationals in 1941 were expelled. City bus traffic started in 1946, and by 1948 some permanent and emergency bridges were completed. The results of the 1945 elections (Social Democratic Party 37%, F. Smallholders' Party 30%, M. Communist Party 22%, other 11%) were similar in 1947 (SZDP 33.3%, Democratic People's Party 27.9%, MKP 27.5%, other 11.3%). In 1948 and 1949, economic organizations and educational institutions were nationalized. The abolished academy was reorganized in 1954. In 1959, the Lajta-Hanság State Farm was established from several smaller farms. In 1950, the museum came under state management, and in 1951, the city library and several cultural halls began operating.


On October 26, 1956, protesters marching in front of the ÁVH border guard barracks were received by two gunfire and hand grenades. Dozens of more than fifty dead and wounded were innocent victims of barbaric retaliation. From the last days of October, tens of thousands of refugees crossed the city to the western border.

Life slowly started again in the intimidated and convicted city. In 1959, the town planning plan was completed, which included the construction of a new city center on the empty part between Moson and Magyaróvár. In 1957, the Academy of Agriculture was classified as a university-level higher education institution, and the training period was increased to 4 years. In 1969, the thermal bath was opened with two sitting pools. Between 1960 and 1990, four new kindergartens, 2 schools, a post office, a police station, a cultural center, a new grammar school and a vocational school were built, and the University of Agricultural Sciences was expanded. In 1983, the museum was able to take possession of the beautifully renovated Cselley House. Boat houses were built on the banks of the Mosoni-Danube, the sports associations of the factories and the university operated with several departments, and from 1969 the City Sports School began its activities.

As a result of the municipal elections after the change of regime, the Fidesz-led representative body elected István Plutzer as the mayor of the city. Within a few years, the city's plants were privatized, and tourism to the city (thermal baths, shopping, dentistry) continued to grow, resulting in the formation of a number of private companies. Two basic infrastructure investments were made: the city's gas supply was built in two years (1996-1997) and the expansion of sewerage was in full swing. Six-class bilingual training was started at the Kossuth Lajos High School, and a Piarist primary school and grammar school began operating in the former Piarist building. Since the 1994 municipal elections, the strongest faction of the representative body has been the Hungarian Socialist Party, and the population has directly elected Pál Stipkovits as mayor of the city three times (1994, 1998, 2002). In 2006, the citizens of the city elected Miklós Szabó as mayor.

The place and role of Mosonmagyaróvár in space and time
The city and its surroundings have always been at the crossroads of significant interregional connections, where in ancient times and in the Middle Ages the only well-trodden route stretched here, between the swamps of the Danube and the Hanság. Routes from the southern German territories to Pannonia (east-west) and from the Czech Basin to the Mediterranean (north-south) met in this landscape. Already in Roman times, the route of the limes followed the route Vindobona (Vienna) - Carnuntum (Petronell) - Ad Flexum (Magyaróvár) - Arrabona (Győr) - Brigetio (Szőny) - Aquincum (Óbuda). Ad Flexum was a significant stop in this. The military, defense, and commercial significance of the place stems from the fact that there was a narrow lane between two large swampy, wetlands here, which became part of the east-west and north-south trade and military routes.

This fact was decisive in the history of the countryside and is still significant for the region today. It is no coincidence that this area was called the “Mosoni Gate” in the early Middle Ages. István I. organized the important base of the feudal Hungarian state, the county center, around the Spanish (royal) castle of Moson, because here there was an excellent opportunity to control and close the traffic. This role was significant during the Crusades and then the Turkish fighting, and brought enormous benefits to the cattle trade of later centuries. After the destruction of Moson Castle in 1271, Magyaróvár took over the military and administrative role, so Erzsébet elevated the settlement to the rank of Queen's town in 1354, which was the seat of Moson County until the unification of the counties after the Peace of Trianon.

The fortified castle of Magyaróvár and the huge Habsburg estate belonging to it enabled the strong development of trade and the fine arts industry from the 16th century, and despite the city's limited privileges, this central role in the establishment of the academy and the early manufacturing industry brought many benefits. Significant trade routes passed through Moson County, the grain market rivaled that of Győr, and the rivers allowed the development of a thriving mill industry. In the first third of the 20th century, a developed manufacturing industry was established in Moson and Magyaróvár, which also provided work for the area. In 1939, Moson and Magyaróvár merged, and Mosonmagyaróvár was strengthened as a small regional center. Until the cessation of the districts in 1984, it was the seat of the district, but due to its offices, schools, hospital, commercial and financial services, and transportation location, it is still the natural center of the neighborhood.

Other curiosities
In 2012, the lowest annual sunlight duration was measured here on an annual basis. In this year, the sun shines a total of 2090 hours.
In 2013, the lowest annual sunlight duration was measured here on an annual basis. In this year, the sun shone in this city for a total of 1883.1 hours.