Nyíregyháza is the seat of Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county, a town
with county status since 1990 (before that it was a county town
since 1989). It is also the seat of the Nyíregyháza district. It is
the seventh largest city in the country with a population of nearly
120,000. A dynamically developing city. The economic and cultural
engine of the region. Attractive tourist destination. Prior to the
county settlement in 1950, it belonged to and was the seat of
It is the second most important settlement in the Northern Great Plain. Its Zoo, which showcases more than 500 species, including many special species, is also recognized at European level.
Nyíregyháza is located in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg
county, in the northern Great Plain region (Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg
county, Hajdú-Bihar county, Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok county). It is the
second most important city in the Northern Great Plain (after
Debrecen). It is located in the center of Nyírség as a market town.
The boundaries of the city are usually understood in a very broad
sense, as the nearby bush farms are usually listed here.
It is located at the intersection of Main Roads 4, 41, 36 and 38, making it easily accessible. Going to Transcarpathia, the northern part of Romania, is pretty much inevitable.
region of Nyíregyháza was already inhabited at the time of the
conquest. Nyíregyháza was first mentioned in 1209, when it was still
called Nyír. In 1236 the settlement already had a church, from where
it got its second half of its name. It was inhabited by about 400 in
the middle of the 15th century. In Turkish times, the city was
abandoned by many, replaced by Hajdús in the first half of the
1600s, and gained the status of Hajdúváros. It was occupied by
István Bocskai in 1605, after his death the city was annexed to
Transylvania until 1620. Around 1750 it had only 500 inhabitants.
After the Rákóczi War of Independence, the population of the town started to increase, mainly after in 1753 the owner of half of the settlement, Count Ferenc Károlyi, promised significant discounts to the settlers. The majority of the new settlers were Slovak Lutheran immigrants from Békés County and the Highlands, who founded their first grammar school at that time, which is today the Lajos Kossuth Lutheran High School in Nyíregyháza. Growth began even more when, in 1786, the city was given the status of a market town and held four fairs a year. At that time, with 7,500 inhabitants, it was already the most populous settlement in the county. In the 19th century, Nyíregyháza redeemed itself from its landlords with money, in 1803 from the Dessewffy, in 1824 from the Károlyi family, and in 1837 it received a special royal privilege. The town began to flourish more and more, a new town hall and hospital were built, schools were founded, and a spa and restaurant operated in nearby Sóstó.
The citizens of Nyíregyháza took part in the revolution and the war of independence in 1848–49, after the fall of which several citizens were imprisoned, including the mayor, Márton Hatzel.
In the second half of the 19th century, Nyíregyháza was further urbanized: in 1858 the railway line under construction reached the city, many new buildings were built - theater, telegraph office, post office and financial palace - and . In 1876, Nyíregyháza became the seat of Szabolcs County.
The Nyíregyháza Royal Prison was established in 1891. During the Soviet Republic, a workers' and military council was formed in the city, then from April Nyíregyháza was under Romanian occupation for ten months.
Between the two world wars, the inhabitants
celebrated the 100th anniversary of the Eternal Pride with a grand
ceremony. Then Szabolcs Nyíregyháza and Ung c.e.e. was the seat of
During World War II, more than 6,000 Jewish residents of Nyíregyháza were deported and another 2,000 were sent to Russian labor camps. Many buildings were also destroyed. After the war, hundreds of families were resettled as part of the Czechoslovak-Hungarian population exchange.
In 1952 Sóstóhegy was connected to Nyíregyháza from Nyírpazony, and Borbánya from Oros in 1954, and from 31 December 1978 Oros itself became part of Nyíregyháza.
Since the 1960s, the city has been constantly evolving. Today, Nyíregyháza is an important cultural and educational center and the second most important city in the Northern Great Plain region after Debrecen.
Today, the county town with a population of over 120,000 boasts rich cultural and sports institutions, public collections, a museum village, an animal park, a picturesque Sóstó, and a high-quality artistic life.