Paks (German: Paksch) is a town in Tolna County, the center of the Paks district. With a population of almost nineteen thousand, it is the second most populated settlement of Tolna county after Szekszárd. Its history spans from prehistoric civilizations to the most modern, and the limes and the war along the Danube that once stretched here have made it significant for centuries. It is famous far and wide for its Swabian customs and excellent fishing soup. Being a small town, it is home to many events, such as the Gastroblues Festival, the Paks Accordion Festival, and the Harvest Parade and Fun. Its national reputation is mainly due to its nuclear power plant, which is the only nuclear power plant in Hungary connected to the energy network. The economic strength of the city also attracts a large part of the population of the surrounding settlements, many of whom work here as commuters.
The origin of his name
The first known written form of the place name Paks is Pakws from the 14th century, and then it also occurred in the form Paxi, Pax. Its origin can sometimes be traced back to the personal name Pakus, which may have been a variant of the Bakos surname still used today. According to another version, it is of Roman origin, as pax means peace in Latin and it is conceivable that some kind of peace was made here. Roman auxilitary troops were stationed on Sánchegy, while jazig tribes lived on the other side of the Danube, with which the Romans fought a lot.
The city is located in the middle part of the country, on the right bank of the Danube, at the end of the bend starting at Dunaföldvár, about 100 kilometers as the crow flies south of Budapest, in Mezőföld. It is bordered on the north by the Imsósi Forest and Sánchegy (known as Lussonium in Roman times), on the east by the Danube, on the south by the nuclear power plant and Csámpa-puszta, and on the west by the Ürgemező. The highest point of the city is the 103 meter high loess hill, Sánchegy, which is under landscape protection because it is one of the largest loess formations in Central Europe. Prior to the construction of the power plant, it was a typical market town. There are also forests in the area suitable for game farms; the Danube was once an opportunity for fishing, and the lakes are now an opportunity for fish farming. Ürgemező is a landscape protection area where protected plants and animals (birds, snakes and endangered rodents) live.
The easiest way to get there is by road on the M6 motorway or the main road 6, and by rail on the Pusztaszabolcs – Dunaújváros – Paks railway line, but on the section of the line between Mezőfalva and Paks the passenger transport stopped on 13 December 2009. It is also possible to reach it by water, being also a river port.
The city consists of the following parts:
The Old Town is the historic part of the city, most of the sights are located here. These include the northern part of the city, the main street and the streets opening from it, as well as the Alvég (streets opening to the Danube), the Békaváros (the traffic road park and its surroundings), Öreghegy and Malomhegy, and the streets around them.
Szérűskert is Pál utca and Fehérvári út, as well as the other side streets opening from them.
The area bounded by the Kohn settlement or Officer's colony, Virág utca - Kossuth Lajos utca - Fehérvári út - Csendes utca, was once the sawmill of a Jewish entrepreneur named Kohn, and was built in its place in the early 1900s by middle-class families.
The New Town is Tolnai út and the streets that open from it; Kishegyi, Újtemplom utca and the streets opening from them, the Housing Estate and its surroundings, the streets opening from Kölesdi út and the southern Industrial Park.
In the Old Town, in addition to the historical center and other institutions and shop lines, there are mainly old but renovated farmhouses, while the New Town mostly consists of new family houses. Szérűskert is a kind of garden-like part of the city, which now consists mostly of modern family houses, and there are almost no commercial or small-scale services in it.
Parts of settlements belonging to Paks
Dunakömlőd is a small village in the northern part of the city (after the war, its German population was evacuated, their leftovers were preyed on by tirpas, house by house), while in the south the Csámpa-puszta opposite the nuclear power plant Cseresnyés-puszta, Hegyes-puszta and Földes-puszta, which mostly consist of agricultural homesteads, and a residence on the south-eastern outskirts of the town, Biritó-puszta (with István I. Vocational High School), belong to the town.
In line with the climate of the Carpathian Basin, the region also has a humid continental climate, resulting in cold winters and hot summers; the most common wind direction is northwest.
The flooding of the Danube used to endanger the settlement many times, but now a huge dam system has been built between the city and the river, so only the left bank of the river is submerged during the flood.
After the prehistoric period, the BC. From the middle of the 6th millennium, since the Neolithic era, a food-producing, animal-breeding community has been living in this area. A BC. In the 4th millennium, the late Neolithic - early Stone Age population of Polish culture lived in the vicinity of Paks. The main site of the people who came here was Sánchegy. Most of the finds were found here, in and around the town, near Upper Biritópuszta and near the Red Mill.
A BC. 4–3. At the turn of the millennium, new popular waves reached the Carpathian Basin from the south and west, and this date also marked the beginning of the Bronze Age. The last time a Bronze Age combat helmet was unearthed was in 2005, which can be viewed today at the Paks City Museum.
Antiquity and Pannonia
A BC. In the 4th century, a Celtic Eraviscus tribe settled from the west, from the Rhine region, occupied Transdanubia. There was a lively trade with the inhabitants of the Balkans, as evidenced by the Celtic coins cast on the basis of the Greek designs found here.
Although the Romans had already occupied Transdanubia during the
reign of Emperor Augustus, the actual invasion was only during the
reign of Emperor Claudius, AD. It took place between 41 and 54 in
this neighborhood. With the conquest, the area became part of the
province of Pannonia within the Roman Empire. In Sánchegy near
nearby Dunakömlőd, the castrum (camp) built in the 4th century,
Lussonium, was one of the members of the fortress chain that formed
the border of the province. The Romans later erected the lime, which
functioned as a line of defense (defensive wall), the remains of
which can still be seen on the edge of the Imsósi forest, moving
from the railway embankment to Madocsa. The end of Roman rule was
the appearance of the Huns.
The Hun rule from 433 to 455 in Transdanubia was replaced by the Longobárd kingdom. This was abolished in 568 by the Avars from the east, whose presence can be expected for several centuries until the conquest of Árpád's Hungarians and the founding of the state. We have little data from the Árpádian period. Until the arrival of the Hungarians, the settlement was probably depopulated due to the continuous destruction of the various migrating tribes. According to documents from the turn of the first millennium during the reign of King St. Stephen I, Madocsa, 10 km northeast of Paks, and the fishing villages of Fadd, 20 km south, became ecclesiastical estates, along with the area between them. Since the name of Paks does not appear in one of the sources from 1009, it can be assumed that the village was not inhabited at that time, or if it did, only about 15-20 families could live here.
The name of Paks appears again in a written source in 1333, in a papal tithe register, according to which the priest Lőrinc of Paks paid 23 bananas. Almost at the same time (1354) the court judge and then master of the queen Oliver Rathold of Italian origin are mentioned. His descendants have already consistently used the surname Paksy. The Paksy family has done much to make the village stand out from the villages in the area and, over time, to become increasingly leading over neighboring settlements. Until 1662, this family, and since László Paksy had only a daughter, Anna, who was married to a descendant of the Daróczy family, from then on they owned the village.
Turkish rule and settlements
A 16–17. During and after the Turkish occupation during the 19th century, traces of the local population could be continuously detected in Paks, although those originally living here were forced to leave due to repeated war devastation. The village changed hands several times in Turkish times as a result of border raids. Due to the military road built by the Romans and the Danube waterway leading to Buda, the sultan needed the settlement, so his soldiers kept coming back. The Turkish army built a palisade castle on the southeastern slope of Calvary Hill, on the site of today's Bezerédj Primary School. He fled the city or In place of the exterminated Hungarians, there were Rác, Turkish and Greek civilians, mostly peasants and artisans. We do not know the exact Turkish image of the city, we can only place the former buildings on the basis of the descriptions and map sketch of the 17th century German traveler Heinrich Ottendorf and the Turkish traveler Evlija Cselebi. In mid-September, during his retreat, the Turkish army expelled from Buda and destroyed the town to dust, which had to be re-established. This was prevented first by the Turkish strikes and then by the fact that the Daróczy and Dry families, who were able to take possession of the area after the Paksy family, had to pay various documents and plenty of money for the village. After the grate soldiers who settled during and after the Turkish occupation left at the beginning of the 18th century, the infiltration of the Hungarian population began. At first only the old population returned, later other impoverished Hungarian families came from the more northern counties and the Great Plain, then from 1720 invited settlers from southern Germany appeared, so Swabians came from the German province of Baden-Württemberg, who They lived in the part of the town between Rákóczi Street. Until their deportation after the Second World War, the Swabians made up one third of the population, although the vast majority of them had forgotten their language by the end of the century and declared themselves Hungarian. Through the organization of the first Orthodox Jewish community in Tolna County, 70 Jewish families moved here in 1778, and later they also became a significant minority. Like the Swabians, they quickly adapted to the customs of the locals; they assimilated into their environment, although they preserved their religion. This is how the religious and ethnic image of Paks was transformed.
During the Rákóczi War of Independence
During the Rákóczi War of Independence, from 1704, it was constantly planned to build a bridgehead protected by a fortress on the right bank of the Danube, so that the Hungarian army could easily cross it and occupy Transdanubia. Dunaföldvár would have been the most suitable, but there was a strong Austrian garrison, so the choice fell on nearby Dunakömlőd. In 1705, General János Bottyán (the “Blind Botty” because he lost half an eye in the fighting) and engineer Ádám Vay built the Transdanubian kuruc bridgehead known as the “Bottyán Castle” and a defensive rampart on the site of the existing Roman fortress, although they clashed Vay wanted long-term work, but Bottyán wanted simple but fast construction. In the end, Bottyán's proposal came out victorious. The Kuruc army successfully crossed the Danube-Tisza between the built wooden bridge. The bridge was protected by a rampart on both banks of the Danube and on the hill rising near Dunakömlőd, so we can talk about a three-part fortification system. On June 9, 1705, Bottyán launched an attack from here, but his troops were repulsed, and on June 19, the Austrian colonel Glöckelsperg besieged the castle and occupied it on the 23rd. Bottyán withdrew, then crossed at Solt on November 4 and struck at the garrison left in Dunaföldvár. From here he turned south and took in the castle he had built himself. This time it was entrusted to Colonel John Hellepront, who was given 3,000 people to protect the castle. From here he went to the glorious campaign in which he occupied the castle of Simontornya, and then the whole of Transdanubia. During the movements of 1706, Bottyán defeated the Serbs who were destroying the southern parts of the country, and the Labans attacking Fehérvár, who turned against the Bottyán Castle in revenge. Hellepront and his men abandoned the castle and fled. The civilian population left in the castle was slaughtered by Austrian mercenaries and the fortress was destroyed to the ground. Due to the turn of the war, the castle was no longer rebuilt, so it lost its significance, yet it became one of the symbols of the Kuruc battles.
From the Kuruc War to the defeat of the War of Independence in 1848-49
In the settlement with the status of a market town from 1730, in addition to the primacy of agriculture, we can also witness the rise of guild industry. The recovery of trade was greatly aided by the Danube waterway. The centuries-long wars were followed by years of peace. The city developed rapidly and became one of the most important settlements in the area at the dawn of the Reformation. Its viticulture and thus its wine production was of a remarkably high standard during this period. The nobility who owned Paks, on the other hand, did not join the developments of the Reformation, they opposed the liberation of serfs and other measures. In 1847, however, the leader of the parish, Zsigmond Daróczy, sided with the reform politicians, renounced the collection of church tithes, and took a stand in favor of the liberation of serfs. Casino Paks was founded on his initiative in 1841, and then in 1844 it was placed in the newly renovated Zöldfa restaurant (today Erzsébet Nagy Hotel), which was the third best-known casino in the country after Pest and Bratislava. The later namesake of the famous hostel was Queen Elizabeth and Ferenc Liszt, and Ferenc Deák often played cards in his casino.
As a result of the start of steamboat traffic and devastating floods, the river regulations of the reform era also reached Paks. The Danube bend at Imsós was crossed in 1841, and the works were directed by József Beszédes and Pál Vásárhelyi.
The Revolution and War of Independence of 1848-49 escaped the city. Although the residents of Paks did everything they could to help the fighting, they also paid the mandatory defense taxes. In the battles, far more people were served than the obligatory recruits. Instead of the original 98 people, the city sent 207 soldiers. 68 joined the army heading to Bácska, 139 joined the formations fighting on the Drava border line to repel Serb troops. József Rézbányai Jr., a Paks locksmith (his descendant, the highly educated Dezső died in 1990) undertook to make their armaments, and the county had the money to do so. Captain Ferenc Petrich made an excellent description of the campaigns.
After the war of independence
In 1851, Elek Fényes's summary description in the book The
Geographical Dictionary of Hungary reads as follows:
Paks, a Hungarian-German city in Tolna County, on the right bank of the Danube, with its own post office and (post office) exchange, between Danube-Földvár and Tolna. Its location seems very pleasant to those coming from Szekszárd, it is surrounded by a rather steep mountain to the north and west, and from the south-west it is surrounded by a sandy area. "Its streets are spacious, and the main street can show tall buildings." It has a population of 8,294 souls, including 4,793 Roman Catholic, 1,530 Augustinian, 1,150 Reformed, 816 Hebrew, 5 faithful, and each denomination has a local school except for the faithful. - The Hungarian language is also spoken by the Germans. - The border of Paks is very large and has several steppes, but it is very sandy. Its vast pasture is almost useless due to the river sand, and some of it is planted with trees. Its vineyard reaches far and produces good wine. There were 95 urban plots. There are also 250 handicrafts, 37 shops, 25 Danube mills, a large inn and a ferry on the Danube. It holds 4 national and 2 lively weekly fairs. The origin of Paks is covered in dense obscurity, but that the Roman colony here could be proved by the excavated Roman money, memorial stones, etc. It is also certain that it is an old place, because in the old literature in the library of the Vaticanum, where the localities of the episcopal county of Pécs, which give the tenth of a year, count, it is already mentioned as a village under the name Pákos. Louis I donated Paks to the famous Apostolic Zemere, who saved his lord's life in the war against the Tartars, and whose remnants became the founders of a prosperous clan for a long time, taking the name Paksi but Pákos, and a lot of goods in Tolna, Pest, Solt, Fejér and Békés counties. they could. With the extinction of the male branch, the whole inheritance went to the daughter branch, and even now, both Paks and the other cattle are owned by public owners.
The families of Paks landowners also played a role in the slow civilization of the 19th century. It started from the second half of the century and then accelerated during the period of dualism, economic and cultural development. In 1870, the seat of the district was moved here from Dunaföldvár. In 1871, during the administrative reorganization of the country, the market towns ceased to exist, so Paks also became a large village. In 1875, a non-religious civic school opened. The mill industry developed, and due to cheap watermill grinding, farmers in the area brought their grain here. The city would have had an increasing need for railways, which by the turn of the century had become the engine of trade and industry. In 1881, the construction of the Pusztaszabolcs – Dunaföldvár – Paks local interest railway was raised, but this was not realized until 1895. The continuation of the railway line that would have connected Paks with Mözzs was no longer built.
On July 18, 1887, a pilgrim, mostly a woman and a child, trying to say goodbye to the Heart of Jesus (wd) in Kalocsa on July 18, 1887, lost his life during the Comprise of Biscay, as the ferry was more than doubled and the ship tilted to one side.
During the First World War and subsequent power struggles
The First World War did not affect Paks in terms of territory, there were no front lines and battles near the city, however, like all Hungarian settlements, Paks suffered the consequences of the war.
Among the Hungarian cities, Paks also boasted World War I veterans. Among them, the name of Ferenc Kern stands out, who alone regained a cannon occupied by the opponent.
The city, like the rest of the country, was hit hard by the Treaty of Trianon, which ended World War II, as it lost its southern trade ties.
In the ensuing turmoil, city officials quickly took turns. No action was able to overcome the emerging chaos, moreover, the provisions of the council deprived the local retailers of their property, but the peasants did not receive the promised land, thus creating a quiet resentment against the directorate.
The red terror also reached Paks. In the summer of 1919, an uprising broke out in Tolna County to overthrow the proletarian dictatorship. Two gendarmes fell victim to the red formations seconded from Szekszárd. At the same time, a river battle ensued on the Danube. The Red Squadron tried to arrest the fleeing Ludoviks here. A ship intending to switch was sunk, and another Ludovik ship ran into a mine and was destroyed.
After the red terror, the white terror also reached the city. The
invading units executed three members of the Paks Communist
Directorate, Géza Mihalik and Antal Wiedemann, in the courtyard of
the village hall, a third person, György Takács, in the Imsósi
Between the two wars
The period between the two world wars, despite the global economic crisis, showed signs of economic development. Although the number of poor, indebted peasant families and the number of fragmented estates increased compared to large estates, daylighting, wine production, the opening of a brick factory at the foot of Sánchegy and the opening of the Krausz-Moskovits United Industrial Industries Ltd. surviving the situation.
World War II in Paks
Many Paks also took part in the 1941 invasion of Bácska and the fighting in Novi Sad.
Later, a large number of local soldiers joined the front in the 2nd Hungarian Army sent to the Don Bend. Many of them did not even return. Their names and memories are preserved by the World War II Memorial Column in front of the Church of the Heart of Jesus.
The German occupation also involved casualties. Irresponsibly scattered explosive charges and mines dumped in the Danube against the Soviets caused several civilian deaths.
Even the Holocaust caused serious losses. The Jewish population was gathered from Paks and the surrounding villages and a ghetto was established in the Paks Synagogue (now a library) and the Jewish school (now a marketplace) and Villany Street (named after the first power plant here). They were later transported from here to the Auschwitz concentration camp and some from there to the labor camp near Walldorf (Werra).
The Protocol on the Restriction of the Rights of the Jews, dated March 22, 1944, regulated the life of the Jews in 8 points:
They could not be on the street between 6 pm and 7 am.
They had to wear a yellow star 10 × 10 cm in diameter and
They had to write in letters 5-8 cm on the wall of their shop that Jewish shop, Judengeschäft.
The leaders of the Jewish denomination had to make a list of their believers. Each head of the family was required to report to the community leader where their family members were at 4 p.m. The leaders of the faith communities were required to report the change to the German headquarters every day at 5 p.m.
A Jew could not use any means of public transportation (boat, train, etc.).
Every Jewish merchant was required to make an inventory of his chattels. Whoever failed to do so was responsible, according to the minutes.
The document also states that if a community leader had violated the code, the commander would have envisaged the execution of 100 Jews.
Furthermore, the Obersturmführer warned the Jews in the decree to refrain from practicing the black market.
The decree was signed by dr. Golden slave judge, Simon Altmann, leader of the Orthodox Jewish community, Gyula Steiner, leader of the Orthodox Jewish community, István Horváth, leader of the neolog Jewish community, and Mösslacher (Müsslacher?) S.k. SS Obersturmführer. Several of the population did not take a good look at the events. On June 15, 1944, an anonymous letter was received by the sub-army. The letter states:
I make a respectful request to the Honorable Lord Alispan, as a Hungarian Christian resident, I cannot watch the cruelty that 3 detectives are carrying out in the Paks ghetto with the Jews. They are punched and then dipped in cold water so they don’t see the punch. Then, after the beating, they must be given a statement that they have not been harmed. I sincerely ask Mr. Alispán to take action, because such things cannot happen in the National Socialist Hungary, and this was an astonishment not only among the Jews, but also among us Hungarians.
We kindly ask you to arrange our request
- Several Christian residents of Paks
After the war, some returned, and Jewish shops were still on the main street in the 1960s. A memorial plaque to those who did not return can be found in the Jewish cemetery in Paks.
Frontal fighting and Soviet occupation
The Soviet army marched into the city on December 1, 1944, preceded by two frontal sieges. Soviet troops fired on the city from the other side of the Danube, several civilians were wounded, and a girl just sitting in the barber shop was killed by a bullet from the other side. The army that occupied the city itself came from the south. A Hungarian corps tried to arrest the invading Soviet soldiers at Csámpa, but at the sight of the force, the team disbanded in order to save their lives. Fortunately, many were able to escape. Clams were upset by the Soviets, the male population fled, the women hid. Even so, the resistance did not disappear. An old uncle, whose horse was to be kidnapped by a soldier, cut his throat and hid his corpse.
Paks himself was guarded by a double line of defense. On the
stretch of road where the grammar school stands today, one of the
systems stretched. Behind sandbags stood armed soldiers who managed
to shoot a Russian soldier during the invasion. In retaliation, two
civilian men (Tapodi Vendel and András Németh) were abducted from
the New Town on the afternoon of December 2, 1944, on the road to
Csámpa, and the Soviets shot to death. The second line of defense
was on Sánchegy. It was a multi-level trench system, but due to its
superiority, Hungarian soldiers were forced to leave it behind.
People did not dare to take to the streets after the occupation. They drove a hole in the back fence of the courtyard, driving through the city neighbors in the city. Whoever was caught on the street was taken to the Soviet Union by a Malenkij robot. This fate awaited many. The Soviets then systematically robbed the houses. They were mainly looking for watches and cameras. He was still lucky, whose watch was only robbed, but his life was left. Then they made their way north, in the direction of Dunaföldvár.
As the front stopped 30 km from the city in the winter of 1944, the headquarters of the 3rd Ukrainian Front were temporarily established in Paks, at which time Marshal Tolbuhin also stayed here.
In 1947, local Germans were settled in and around Paks, a total of 115 people, including Pál Stenger (1925–2008), who later moved to Reichertshofen and then, on his return, organized twinning between the two settlements.
After World War II
We can also see the need for constant progress in the post-World War II era. The nationalized Cannery has become one of the best developing industrial facilities in Paks, but many other agricultural, industrial and service cooperatives have also been established.
The main streets and squares were given to Marx, Lenin, Tolbuhin, etc. the names of the public spaces created until the end of the 1970s and the emblematic persons and events of the red past of Hungary-Paks (Rajk, Ságvári, Wiedemann Antal |, April 4, November 7, etc.). These largely disappeared only in 2013, following the 2011 law.
Of course, the Rákosi dictatorship did not avoid this settlement either. Several intellectuals were sent to the forced labor camp in Recsk, and Györgyi Tarisznyás, one of the local language teachers (later a Russian translator and Dr.), became involved in the infamous Rajk lawsuit. He spent six years in prison on false charges. László Rajk denied all along that it could have anything to do with his case. The details of the case were never officially revealed, the ÁVH destroyed the documents in 1959 and 1961. The other side character of the lawsuit is dr. Antal Klein was a former landowner and member of parliament from a smallholder party.
Autumn 1956 in Paks
The winds of revolutionary changes that flooded Hungary in the autumn of 1956 also reached Paks. The people of the countryside, including the Paks, did not demand a bloody showdown either. The anger he felt over repressed national values, symbols, and the loss of national pride encouraged people against communist symbols (red star, Rákosi coat of arms, Soviet monument) and dictatorial economic and administrative institutions. The population took to the streets demanding the abolition of measures that crippled the lives of the peasantry (especially the collection). Service records, tax returns, real estate records, and job personal records were destroyed and scattered on the streets. The student criticized the teaching of the Russian language.
The following was said at the Paks demonstrations:
1. The Soviet army must withdraw from the country immediately!
2. The new Hungarian government should set free elections immediately after the restoration of order, with the participation of several parties!
3. Complete political and economic independence from the Soviet Union!
4. Declare March 15 and October 23 a national holiday!
5. Freedom of the press, assembly and speech!
6. Complete amnesty for those involved in the war of independence!
7. Reorganize the internal law enforcement body without the participation of the former ÁVH, in accordance with the interests of the people!
8. Accountable to those who contributed to the oppression of the people!
9. Review our trade agreements with foreign countries and open up those unfavorable to the country!
10. Eliminate incorrect aspects of the norm system.
11. We demand a new peasant policy!
12. To provide state financial support to the relatives of those who died a heroic death in our war of independence!
On the evening of October 27, 1,500 people gathered in front of the town hall, where a group of intellectuals handed out pamphlets. Police dispersed the protest with a gun. The next day, the National Commission was formed, which took care of the equipment of the local national guard, which ensured the bloodless course of the revolution in Paks throughout.
After the defeat of the revolution, National Guard Commander
János Tuba was sentenced to 3 years 8 months in prison, which the
court reduced to 11 months in the second instance. Gyula Schmalcz
Gyula got 1 year 6 months, while Frigyes Koch got 2 years 6 months.
In addition, 10 people were interned for 8 months to 1 year.
Internships lasting less than 3 months did not require a court
order, so no data remained. The memory of the revolution is still
preserved in the heart of the population of Paks. The works of
László Juhos are reminiscent of the victims in the courtyard of the
The Atomic City
In the autumn of 1967, a government decision was made on the construction of the first nuclear power plant in Hungary, which was replaced by the area between the Danube and the Csámpa-puszta (formerly the Magyari-puszta). In 1969, earthworks began. At the suggestion of academician György Jánosy, another type of reactor was awaited, which postponed the work for a few years. By 1974, the first terraced houses were already standing on the housing estate. By 1982, more than 2,000, mostly corporate, rental apartments had been built in the city. On October 3, 1975, the foundation stone of the power plant was laid. The decisive factor in becoming a city at the end of 1978 was the construction of the Nuclear Power Plant. On December 28, 1982, experimental power generation began in the first unit. The fourth unit was completed by August 1987, effectively completing the construction of the power plant.
The ethnic image of the city today shows something completely different. The once large German population is now an absolute minority due to deportations and assimilation. In 2001, 330 people declared themselves to be German, which is 1.6% of the city’s residents, however, there are still German nationality classes in primary schools and a German nationality municipality also operates in the city. German spouses who moved here when the power plant was installed also take part in this.
The construction of the power plant made Paks the most dynamically developing settlement in the country. Branches of services have emerged that previously seemed unthinkable for such a small settlement; the house of culture, built in 1978, has a theater-cinema hall, sports fields with a separate mediation tower and outbuildings, new health facilities with modern equipment, and other community institutions.
On July 17, 2010, the national highest temperature of the year, 36.8 ° C, was measured here.