Pápa (German: Poppa) is the second largest city in Veszprém county, the center of the Pápa district. The settlement is famous for its numerous churches, the Esterházy Castle and the Reformed College.
It is located in the valley of the once abundant Tapolca stream, in the center of the Pápai plain, at the confluence of the Bakony Mountains and the Kisalföld.
On the road
The most important road access route of the city is the main road 83, which can be reached from the south, the Veszprém area, and from the north, from the direction of Győr. The main road used to pass through the center of Pope, but has been avoiding it from the west for some time.
From the main road 83, the main roads 832 and 834 branch out to the east and west, respectively: the former provides a road connection for Pápa to Veszprémvarsány (and through it Kisbér-Tatabánya), the latter to Celldömölk.
From the surrounding settlements, it is connected to its neighbors in the east-southeast direction (Adásztevel, Nagytevel, Homokbödöge) by road 8303, and to its northern neighbors (Vaszar, Gecse) by road 8305. From the south, from Devecser and the main road 8, the road 8402 stretches so far. Roads 8403 lead to the south-western agglomeration of Pápa (Dáka-Nagyalásony-Iszkáz-Kerta) and roads 8406 and 8408 lead to the villages in the north-western agglomeration (Nagyacsád-Egyházaskesző and Marcaltő-Szany).
The origin of his name
Most local historians agree that the city is of personal origin: it was named after the Bavarian knight Popo, who may have been the foreman of the manor house on the site of today's city during the founding of the state. According to the most accepted assumption, Queen Gizella arrived in Hungary accompanied by Queen Gizella, but there is a view that she lived here before the conquest, even in the time of Frank the Earl. It is probably from him that the Pope clan originated, which in later centuries had estates around the city. It is in favor of German origin that the city is marked as Poppo or Poppa in medieval German engravings.
In recent centuries, local historians have recorded several folklore legends about the name of the city, which, because of the similar sound, usually associate the naming with the Catholic archbishop and go back to the age of state formation:
According to the best-known story, which was already recorded by Matthias Bél in 1735, King Stephen I met at this place with Bishop Astrik, returning from Rome, who handed him the II. He brought a crown from Pope on New Year's Eve. Then the king exclaimed, “Ecce papa misit mihi coronam,” that is, “Behold, the pope sent me a crown,” and the people named the newly founded city Pope out of respect and gratitude to the archbishop. The parish priest Gáspár Pongrátz recorded the same sentence in a different form in 1733: according to him, the city got its name from the legate of the Pope of Rome, who came to the king and rested here.
According to another legend, the naming was Prince Géza. His son, the later King Stephen, said as a baby in this place for the first time that Dad and Géza's paternal heart would have given the name the city with joy.
In his work published in 1799, György Enessey derived the name Pope from the word hump, as the city was built on a hill.
It has been inhabited since the Neolithic (Neolithic); Celtic archaeological finds have also been excavated in the area.
Although in Roman times the road between Szombathely (Savaria) and Győr (Arrabona) went to this, no settlement was established. The settlement was first mentioned in a charter in 1214 (MNL OL DL 91934). Then II. András Nóráp donated a part to János's son Hektor. In describing the boundaries of the estate, the “path that comes from the Pope” (“viam, quae venit de Papa”) is mentioned. The settlement was already the center of the courtyard and the seat of the archbishop, which set it apart from the other settlements in the area. A XIII. through the hospes introduced at the end of the 19th century, it was able to embark on a path of urban development. It is archaeologically proven that the XIV. At the beginning of the 19th century, it was given an urban look (the Main Square was formed, essentially in its present extent). A XIV. From the end of the 19th century, the diplomas referred to it as “oppidum”, ie as a market town, and even occasionally used the term “civitas” in connection with Pope. Pope built a representative cathedral on the site of the early church in the Main Square, a craftsman-circulating city developed in the late Middle Ages. It had its own seal, there were guilds in the town. Highly the most populous settlement of Veszprém county at that time.
Of great importance for the development of the city was the Tapolca stream, which once drove more than a dozen mills in the present-day area of the city. A XX. At the end of the 19th century, due to bauxite production, the stream subsided, although the water came back later, but the mills are now more of an attraction than a real one in the city.
The role of the city began to expand from the middle of the 18th
century (with minor interruptions), and schools have been operating
ever since. It was already a reputable school town in the middle of
the 19th century. Its nationally renowned school is the Reformed
College, originally founded in 1531, to which Sándor Petőfi and Mór
Jókai also attended. The other school with a similar reputation is
the Türr István High School, founded by the Paulines in 1638 and now
state-owned, to which the conciliator Ferenc Deák also attended.
An important element of its history is the blue painting workshop of the Kluge family currently living in Canada. It was established in 1786 in Pápa. The workshop was fed by the water of the Tapolca stream. Until the 19th century, blue painting was done by hand, but later by steam engines, which was one of the best in Hungary at the turn of the century. The workshop, along with the craft, passed from father to son in the Kluge family until their private enterprise was closed in 1945 during nationalization. The site has had a museum since 1962 that showcases a craft with a long history.
The main square was renovated between June 14, 2011 and 2013. The main building of the renovated Esterházy Castle was handed over on April 17, 2015. The new, ornate wrought iron gate of Esterházy Castle was handed over on September 28, 2019: A papal symbol was reborn.