Siklós Castle

Siklos Castle


Location: Baranya county Map

Constructed: 13th century


Description of Siklos Castle

Siklos Castle is a medieval citadel located in Baranya county in South Hungary. Siklos Castle was constructed in the 13th century. In 14th century a small chapel was constructed. In 1401 king Sigismund was imprisoned here for five months by the nobles. In the 17th and 18th centuries Baroque complex of Siklos Castle was erected within medieval walls. In 1955 Siklos Castle was nationalized by the communist government.


The first mention of the castle dates from 1294. Its oldest parts of the building were excavated in the basement of the southern wing by archaeologists, which may have been the core of an early castle built by the descendants of palatine Gyula Kán, mentioned in the former charter. After their possession, they were inhabited by a noble family calling themselves Siklós, along with its servants. Siklós can also be considered the birthplace of the great post-Tartar era. It could form a significant fortress, because in 1316 even the troops of the Kőszeg clan could not take it under siege.

In 1387, the Siklós family confronted King Sigismund of Luxembourg, who ascended the Hungarian throne, and therefore declared them unfaithful and confiscated their castle estate from them. A few years later it became the property of the powerful family of Barons of Garai, who significantly expanded its territory, but even surrounded the market town below it with a stone wall. In 1401, the nobles of the country revolted against the rule of Sigismund, who was kept in the castle of Siklós after Visegrád. However, as the barons could not reach an agreement, he was eventually reinstated in his dignity on the advice of the local landlord, Miklós Garai. Sigismund did not forget his noble supporter, with whom he entered into a league, and then, to seal this, the king and Baron Garai married two daughters of Lord Cillei.

By 1440, its fortifications had been built, which the Transylvanian voivode János Hunyadi, who strengthened the camp of King Ulászló, could not take in either. After the extinction of the Garai noble family, King Matthias handed it over to Prince János Corvin of Liptov, but already at the beginning of the 16th century the buildings of the Perényi aristocratic family lived. Imre Perényi remodeled the castle in Renaissance style and completed the construction of the castle chapel with Italian sculptors. In 1543, Sultan Suleiman's huge army marched into its walls after barely three days of fighting. In 1686, during the campaign of the Habsburg army that recaptured Buda, it was liberated from the occupation of the Ottoman Empire, and it lost its military significance only after the Rákóczi War of Independence. It was not blown up because of its imperial owners, but its internal residential buildings were significantly remodeled according to the signs of the Baroque design world.

From 1828 it was owned by the Batthyány family, then bought by a lawyer from Bratislava, Lajos Benyovszky. After his death, he was inherited by his son, Count Móric Benyovszky, who played a significant role in public life. He was elected Chief Lieutenant of Baranya County and Member of Parliament three times. After the count's death, his widow, Mrs. Lenya Benyovszky Batthyány, sold the castle to the Honvéd Treasury.

During World War II, English, American and Polish prisoners of war were held here. After World War II, he was orphaned for a decade, and only then received his current role after archaeological excavation and restoration began in 1955. The successive owners of the castle have rebuilt it into a magnificent castle, in accordance with the castle architectural requirements and style trends of the age. Within its walls, which have seen great historical times, a castle museum, a hotel and a restaurant have been set up.

The castle is from the beginning of the 21st century
Today, only the museum is open. In 2009-2011, it was partially renovated with the help of the Norwegian Financial Fund and the Southern Transdanubia Operational Program. The east and south castle courtyards have been renovated and a visitor center has also been set up. The museum currently has several exhibitions, Renaissance 17-18. Exhibition of furniture, medieval weapons and city history of the 19th century, Captain Tenkes' Panopticon, exhibitions of painters Kálmán Istókovits and Béla Simon, as well as temporary exhibitions of fine art can be seen.

The castle of Siklós is one of our most beautiful and unified historical monuments. The overall picture we see today is the result of a gradual and ongoing development. Its spectacular elements were laid in the Middle Ages, but almost every period of Hungarian construction history has left its stylistic mark on it.

The castle consists of several parts: the core of the ensemble is the castle. The castle is surrounded by high castle walls and fortifications, semicircular towers and bastions. There is a castle district around the inner castle. Here stands the monumental ensemble of the former Franciscan monastery and church. Historical values ​​and curiosities are connected to the monumental ensemble.

The Romanesque castle
The castle was the center of the estate and the seat of the most important aristocratic families of the Hungarian Middle Ages. The name of the settlement appears in our diplomas in the form Suklos, Soklos and others. It is first mentioned in a charter of 1190. According to the data, since the beginning of the 13th century it has been the property of the palatine branch of the Suklós family of the Khan genus. The castle itself is mentioned at the earliest in 1294, when Gyula Siklósi was its owner. Nothing was visible from this Romanesque castle before. The excavation of the southern castle wing helped with physical evidence. In the basement, a row of four Romanian-era funnel-lined windows and a space-covering wooden ceiling beam chair were found.


The gothic castle
King Sigismund confiscated the castle from the Siklós people in 1387 and donated it to the Garai family after a short change of ownership.

The Garais erected new wings and levels in the area bounded by the castle wall, meaning that the courtyard at the top of the castle hill was built on three sides into a huge castle and the ensemble was surrounded by a new protective ring, a gorge.

The most significant monumental remnant and spatial experience of the Gothic castle of Garaiak is the chapel. The high-rise single-aisle interior, with curtained windows, ends in a pierced, meticulously profiled late Gothic sanctuary. A Gothic window was found above the entrance marked by the snake coat of arms of the Garai family. The two booths of Kegyúr were also unearthed, decorated with murals from the first half of the 15th century.

Renaissance castle
The Garais owned and developed Siklós Castle for a century. In 1482, the palatine branch of the family became extinct with Job Garai, and the castle became a royal estate. It was given by King Matthias to his son, John Corvin. In 1507, Imre Perényi besieged the castle.

The Perényi people reorganized the approach to the castle, modernized its resistance and defense capabilities, and made the castle palace more inhabited in the Renaissance spirit, taking into account the military and settlement development. The renaissance stone carvings of the Siklós castle testify to the unbroken building spirit of the Turkish menace and the understanding and creative use of the Italian-educated, noble and simple world of form. (Imre Perényi and his second wife, Dorottya Kanizsai, spent most of their lives in Siklós.)

Siklós Castle was occupied by Sultan Suleiman's army in 1543 after a three-day siege. The Turks kept a large number of armies in the castle at all times and considered it a significant base for 150 years. Nevertheless, we know of almost no Turkish-related construction. It is probable, however, that at that time depictions of people, which were forbidden according to the Muslim religion, were removed from the statues of the chapel.

Siklós was taken back only when Buda was taken back. The castle was given to the Imperial General by Count Caprara Eneas, who began to build the castle, but with his death the work was interrupted. The completion of the castle is already named after the Batthyányians.

Passenger walker over the Barbican and the Dorottya Garden in Kanizsa
South wing
Cellar level: Prison, Souvenir, Captain Tenkes Panopticon, Wine Museum, Wine Shop
Ground floor: Renaissance furniture exhibition
1st floor: Medieval weapons and military history exhibition, exhibition of paintings by Kálmán Istókovits and Béla Simon, Chapel Gallery, Loggia
II. floor: Castle History Exhibition, Disaster Management Exhibition, Serbian Exhibition
East wing: Siklós Salon 2012, Screening room, Gyilokjáró, Spanish bastion, Géza Bakó's solitary collection, Gothic chapel, Dorottya Kanizsai garden
North Wing: Castle-Terrace Espresso, Historical panel, Medieval torture panopticon

Commemorative coin
On June 4, 2008, the Magyar Nemzeti Bank issued a silver commemorative medal from the Siklós Castle with a denomination of HUF 5,000.