Sopron (German: Ödenburg, Croatian: Šopron, ancient Latin:
Scarbantia) is a county town of about sixty thousand inhabitants in
Győr-Moson-Sopron County, the center of the Sopron wine region. “The
Most Loyal City” (Latin: Civitas Fidelissima). It is the seat of the
It is the second richest settlement in Hungary in terms of monuments. It is the 9th most popular settlement in Hungary in terms of guest nights spent in commercial accommodation. In 2016, the renovation of the Castle Wall Promenade and the Castle District received an ICOMOS award.
It is located on the western border of Hungary, on the foothills of the Alps, 60 km from Vienna and 220 km from Budapest. It was built between the Sopron Mountains and the Balfi Hills near Lake Neusiedl, in the valley of the Ikva stream.
The microclimate of the area is conducive to wine production; Sopron is the "capital of Kékfrankos".
Road No. 84 connecting the city with Balatonederics via Sárvár. on the main road, from Budapest and Győr (via Nagycenk) on the main road 85, and by train from Budapest and Győr on the GYSEV railway line 8, from Szombathely on the railway line 15. The section of the M85 motorway reaching Sopron is expected to be handed over in 2020 to the Fertőrákos junction. In 2024, the M85 motorway, which bypasses the city from the north and leads to the border, may be completed, including the Sopron tunnel.
The A3 - A2 motorway offers a fast road connection to the province of Burgenland in Austria. The Sopron-Deutschkreutz railway line operates as a corridor railway. There is also a single-track non-electrified railway line to Austria and a single-track electrified railway line to Ebenfurt-Vienna.
The area has been inhabited since prehistoric times. In the nearby Castle Place during the Early Iron Age, the i. e. An earth castle was built in the 7th century. The excavation of this Hallstatt earthen castle and the associated mound tombs was started in 1887 by Lajos Bella, a teacher and archaeologist from Sopron.
In Roman times, a town called Scarbantia stood here, through which two important routes passed. His forum was on the site of today's main square. During the construction of the present town hall in 1897, the three large Roman statues depicting Jupiter, Jun, and Minerva were unearthed from here.
During the migration, Scarbantia remained in ruins, a new settlement was established here only after the conquest. The inhabitants of the city in the AD. In the 4th century, a 3–4 m thick city wall was erected in the area of the later downtown to protect themselves from the attacks of the barbarians. This wall was probably demolished during the era of migration. In 1092, the castle serfs of Sopron erected the wooden-framed, earth-reinforced rampart of the new border castle on its remains. The wooden frame later became the prey of the fire, and the rammed clay burned into slag. This mysterious “red rampart” was excavated by modern constructions in several parts of the city center, including the construction of a reinforced concrete wall protecting the back wall of Esterházy Palace.
A 9–11. Around the 16th century, the old Roman city wall was completed and the castle was rebuilt. It was then that he got his Hungarian name from the town's supran, named Suprun. It was already mentioned in 1153 as an important city.
In 1273 II. The Czech king Ottokár occupied the castle as a result of betrayal. Despite the fact that Ottokár took with him the children of the city's nobles as hostages, Sopron opened its doors in 1277 in the 4th century. Before King László, who thus managed to reclaim it, he made it a free royal city as a reward. Then, between 1297 and 1340, an 8–10 m high castle wall surrounded by moats was built on Roman foundations, on the inner plane of which the houses of the city center rested.
On February 25, 1441, Widow Queen Elizabeth of Luxembourg pledged Sopron and her surroundings for 8,000 gold. To the German-Roman emperor Frederick. The city was reclaimed only by Mátyás Hunyadi, who agreed with Frederick on July 19, 1463, to return the crown and the pledged areas for 80,000 forints.
In 1526 the population of the town expelled the Jews from Sopron.
In 1543 the city council forbade "foreign Hungarians" to take a house, and in 1594 it excluded the Hungarian language from city administration.
In 1529, the Turks ravaged the city, but it did not fall into the hands of the Turks. Many of the occupied territories fled to Sopron, which slowly became the center of a territory free of Turks. In 1553, 1622, 1625, 1635 and 1681 a parliament was also held here.
In 1605, Sopron was overthrown by Bocskai's armies. In the following decades, therefore, the people of Sopron strengthened their city even more, building new bastions and city walls. In the plague of 1655, half the population perished. In 1676, Sopron burned down completely. Then baroque buildings were erected on the site of the old medieval buildings, today’s downtown was born. It was then that the Fire Tower was also rebuilt.
The Rákóczi War of Independence was not supported by the city, it still withstood the siege of the Kuruc in 1705, but a year later János Bottyán took over the city. II. In the time of József, Sopron became the seat of Sopron County.
In 1753, the first coal mine in Hungary was opened in the forest of Sopron, later called the Brennberg Mine, which became one of the most modern mines in the country by the last decades of the 19th century.
The medieval defense system was obsolete by the 18th century, so in some places the city wall was demolished and several bastion gardens, still visible today, were created on top of the bastions. One of them hides behind the Esterházy Palace, with a round-domed music pavilion built in 1789, open at the front.
At the encouragement of Széchenyi, the first railway in
Transdanubia was built, connecting Sopron with Vienna and Vienna.
Being close to the border, Sopron was occupied early by Imperial troops in the 1848 War of Independence. It then developed nicely until the early 20th century, although its development slowed from the late 19th century, its economic weight declined. In 1890, the first rural telephone exchange was built here. Tram traffic started in the city in 1900, but the two-line network did not prove profitable in the long run, so it was abolished in 1923.
In 1919, the Academy of Banská Štiavnica was relocated from Banská Štiavnica, the legal successor of which is the College of Mining and Forestry.
In 1921, after the Treaty of Trianon, a referendum of purity disputed by Austrian contemporaries and historians decided which country Sopron and the surrounding eight villages belonged to. The majority of Sopronians chose Hungary. The event was commemorated by a memorial law in 1922, and has since been called “The Most Loyal City” (Civitas fidelissima). The day of the decision, December 14, is the celebration of Sopron. Offices remained bilingual until deportation in 1946, when, according to official figures, 2005 a native German-speaking person had to leave the city.
The city suffered a lot in the II. in world war. In 1944 he was hit by several airstrikes. The Jewish population of the town (1857 people) was transported almost entirely to death camps in the summer of 1944, 325 of those deported returned, and most of the others were murdered. In the mass graves around Sopron, 2181 labor corpses who died of starvation and epidemics were buried. From December 1944 to March 28, 1945, the Arrow Cross ruled the country essentially from Sopron. Mortality figures for the city’s population painted a frightening picture during the Arrow Cross rule. Associations and local newspapers were banned, and a significant portion of the population was assigned to build ramparts that were completely meaningless from a military standpoint. With tens of thousands (according to some sources, hundreds of thousands) of refugees, Arrow Cross party members, soldiers and gendarmes, the city was hugely swollen with food shortages and epidemics struck. From January 17, 1945, the local youth organization of the Arrow Cross Party had "enlisted" 12-year-old boys. Even in the days before the March 29 escape of the Arrow Cross, dozens of young people were gathered on the city streets.
The city was occupied by the Soviets on April 1, 1945.
Although the II. After World War II, significant industrial development unfolded in Sopron as well, the mine was closed in 1951 due to the impossibility of mining (water intrusions), and in the 1950s the college's mining engineering faculty was relocated to Miskolc (today the forestry engineering faculty is part of Sopron University). The charming baroque image of the city has been preserved. In the Kádár system, very significant monument protection works were carried out in the city, and due to the spectacular results, the city deservedly received the gold medal of the European Prize for Monument Protection in 1975.
The hilly area to the south and west of the town has been listed in the charters since 1225 as a watchtower for former archers. This is the holiday resort of Lővérek (Lőverek, Lövérek - language use fluctuates), Sopron. Here stands the Chapel of St. John of Nepomuk and the Column of Mary. On the northwestern edge of the city, the Yerevan housing estate was built between 1973 and 1985, mostly from the panel elements of the Győr house factory.
The border was opened on 19 August 1989 during a so-called pan-European picnic, which was used by hundreds of GDR residents to flee to Austria.
From 7 May 2010, companies in the Sopron area launched a money replacement paper voucher called a blue franc in Sopron for the purpose of economic recovery.
On April 18, 2016, the city received an ICOMOS award for the restoration and renewal of the Castle Wall Promenade, which was handed over in 2012, and the Castle District, which was renovated in 2015.
In 2012, the highest annual precipitation was measured here. At the Muck Lookout, 844.8 mm of rain fell this year.