Szentendre (German: Sankt Andrä, Serbian: Сентандреја, Slovak:
Svätý Ondrej) is the seat of the Szentendre district in the Budapest
agglomeration, Pest County. It attracts visitors mainly with its art
Szentendre is located at the gate of the Danube Bend, at the confluence of the Visegrád Mountains and Szentendre-Danube, opposite Szentendre Island, in a beautiful natural environment. It is easily accessible from Budapest by car, the H5 HÉV, bus and cruise ship services. A popular excursion destination.
The city was a small town until the 1870s, barely reaching a population of four thousand. The residential area of the city at that time now includes only two parts of the city, the Downtown and the Donkey Mountain, although the latter also became a residential area only in the early 20th century. These two parts of the city are separated from all other areas of Szentendre by the main road No. 11 running on their border.
Some smaller settlements have joined Szentendre over the centuries, and today they are different parts of Szentendre with traditional names, such as Izbég and Derecske. Most of the parts that used to belong to the agricultural areas of Szentendre are already built-up areas, such as the Pannonia Colony, Püspökmajor, Pismány, Szarvashegy. The incorporation of large-scale, one-step interiors in the late 1970s multiplied the living space, and by the beginning of the 21st century they were largely built-in, bringing the population of the former small town to 25,000 in 2010. The expansion of the residential area in Szentendre practically put an end to traditional fruit growing and horticulture.
Szentendre is located in the eastern part of the Visegrád Mountains. It is followed by Leányfalu from the north, the Szentendre island is located on the other side of the Danube, it is bordered by the capital to the south and the volcanic block of the Visegrád Mountains rises above the west. Pismány.
The area of Szentendre is the history of intermittently inhabited, independent (not developing from each other) settlements. These settlements were established along the four major watercourses of the region, usually in connection with the traffic along the Danube, in ancient times the collection point of the roads leading from Pilis. The material of the Ferenczy Museum contains Bronze and Iron Age scattered finds. A Bronze Age urn cemetery is known on Pap Island, which is, however, relatively far north of the medieval core of Szentendre, the bed of the Bükkös stream. In the early stages of the Middle Ages, it was also inhabited in the same place (Sarmatians and Avars), although the Avars already lived in the vicinity of today's city center.
In today's Szentendre area, the first better-known indigenous people were of Eraviscus origin, the first known place to live was Ulcisia Castra - later (in memory of one of the battles of Constantius II) Castra Constantia - settlement (vicus) and farm farms. He did not receive a municipal rank. The villas were inhabited by Aquincum officials and veterans. Among them is the largest villa building currently known in Pannonia. The fortress (burgus) was a 205 × 134 meter structure, housing about a thousand warriors, a cohor, the station of the Cohors militaria nova Surorum.
The floor plan known today may have been based on horseshoe-shaped corner towers in the time of Diocletian. The Roman locality was created in accordance with the interests of the limes on the Danube line, it was the checkpoint of the section between Dunabogdány (Cirpi) and Óbuda (Aquincum). The Danube Bend itself was the key to the protection of Pannonia, as the spread of Quads, Sarmatians and Jazigs also bordered this area. The name Ulcisia Castra comes from the Illyrian external word, which means wolf, and even refers to the Illyrians before the Eraviscs, unknown from artifacts.
Ulcisia Castra (Hungarian: Farkasvár) was one of the most important stations of the “limes” of the province of Pannonia, Marcus Aurelius' favorite military camp (see also: Hungarian sections of Roman limes). He turned here in 202 Septimius Severus, in 214 Caracalla and in 375 II. Emperor Valentinian.
In the age of migration, the area was not inhabited. The Romans in 4-5. the site was abandoned around the turn of the century, then there are still tombs from the 5th century, but later the area was probably uninhabited. Longobard finds have been unearthed from Hun times, and even the 100-grave cemetery is the largest Longobard cemetery in Hungary known to date. A VII. century Avar alloy products are known, some of which suggest that there was an Avar princely center in the area. In the 9th century, Prince Kursan is believed to have used the remains of the Roman camp as a fortress, and the settlement belonging to it was about a kilometer north, at the height of today's Pap Island. From here, tombs from the 10th century are known, while the area was home to the most significant settlements from the time of the Hungarian conquest in Pomáz and Csobánka.
The toponymic material also suggests that Szentendre was not a significant settlement at that time, as the area is rich in tribal names, while the name of Szentendre dates back much later. At the time of Taksony, Apor may have been a summer residence. This is indicated in a charter of 1009, in which the bishopric of Veszprém received a settlement from István I. The settlement lay along the Apor stream, and today this stream is usually identified with the Bükkös stream, which flows through today's Szentendre, and was the southern border of the Middle Ages. However, this area is inhabited, so there is no archaeological evidence for the settlement that existed in the early kingdom. According to some sources, a settlement called Apurig can be localized in this area, based on the name thymology of which an inhabited place can be imagined next to a watercourse called Apor stream (Apor case). However, there are also four significant streams in the area, Dera, Bükkös (formerly Bela-voda), Öregvíz (or Sztaravoda) and Sztelin (formerly Pismány-brook), and according to the map of the third military survey of 1872–1884, a the largely dried-up watercourse was also significant, the Dömörkapui stream. It is not possible to decide with which the Apor stream could be identified. According to some theories, the name of the city also refers to King Andrew I and St. Andrew's Monastery.
Already in the 12th century, the seat of the diploma issuer of
the bishopric of Veszprém was Szentendre. His name was Dul Fulco
(actually “hospes”, episcopal scribe) in his will in 1146 in Sanctus
Andreas, which II. King Geza confirmed it, it occurs for the first
time. Little is known about Fulco's life, on the basis of which he
immigrated to the Kingdom of Hungary from abroad and joined the
service of Prince Álmos as a clergyman. Later, Seraph served as
archbishop of Esztergom and several bishops of Veszprém, and later
became oblatus, joining the monastery of St. Martin of Pannonhalma
by the Benedictine order without becoming a monk. Based on his will
and estates, it is not certain that other threads were bound to
Szentendre in the occasional case of writing the will: if he had
possessions in Szentendre, he would certainly have included them in
his will. There is no settlement continuity between the Pannonian
Ulcisia Castra and the conquest settlement, and the cities of Apurig
and St. Andrew. Compared to the former Roman watchtower, the 12th
century town core was located on the other side of the Bükkös stream
around the still existing St. Andrew's Church. (Today is the parish
church of St. John the Baptist.)
During the time of the Árpád House, it became a courtyard, ie one of the accommodations of the nomadic royal house. Like the others, a church and a royal lodge built nearby formed the core of the city. The Árpádian church was built on a hill next to the Bükkös stream, the fortified manor house was located between the stream and the hill, which presumably stood on the site of or near today's Town Hall. Calvary is located on the other side of the stream, and the first private houses were built on the eastern side of the walled church hill. A 13–14. century (until 1318) it was also the seat of the archbishop. At that time Szentendre had various goods stop and customs rights, the citizens of Szentendre enjoyed duty-free access between Buda and Esztergom. In 1318, Károly took the property from the bishopric of Veszprém, moved the archbishopric to Buda, and Szentendre came under the rule of the archbishop of Esztergom. From 1342 it was a Benedictine grand chapter, in its monastery he died in 1385 II. Charles. The location of the monastery is still unknown. From 1493 it became a Pauline parish. The old maps mention Szentendre as Sanct Andreas Closter, suggesting that the market town was formed around the monastery and not vice versa, much of the town’s territory was owned by the Pilis Cistercian order until the end of the 16th century. A promissory note dates from the 16th century, according to which there were already watermills along the Bükkös stream, which later formed an important part of the industry in Szentendre, and we also know from a document from the time of Charles I that the locals were mainly involved in ship and wagon construction.
Serbian immigration began as early as the 14th century, with the first, even a small number of refugees emerging as a result of the first Battle of Rigomeza in 1389. In 1426, György Brankovics also received Szentendre among the areas he received in exchange for Nándorfehérvár. By 1428, those who saw moving to the north after the fall of Pigeon and Nichevo had arrived on Brankovic's estate. The construction of the Belgrade Church probably began in 1521, which is closely related to the loss of Nándorfehérvár in 1521. By 1559, on the other hand, only 38 inhabited houses remained in Szentendre, in 1588 a total of six gates remained on all the estates of the Pilis counties of the abbey, and these were in Szentendre.
In the Turkish era, the city was depopulated, listed as a
wilderness in the censuses. According to a 17th-century census,
there was only one head of the family in the city, meaning no more
than one permanent resident of the family, and the total number of
service staff associated with them. From 1595 (recapture of
Visegrád) to 1605 (re-Turkish rule of Visegrád and Esztergom) it was
the property of the Komárom castle headquarters. From 1659 it was
nominally the property of donor General István Zichy and President
of the Chamber, and in the first half of the 18th century it was
inherited in the Zichy family. Between 1420 and 1690 there were four
southern settlements in the settlement, of which only the last
Serbian is known in detail. In the 15th century,
Macedonian-Bulgarians and Dalmatians arrived, who declined
significantly under Turkish rule, moving in part to other nearby
settlements, but maintaining the Catholic parish. The area of
Esztergom was liberated from Turkish rule in 1684 (the victorious
battle of Szentendre was led by Károly Lotharingiai), but the
sovereignty of Pasha Ibrahim in Buda was only finally abolished in
Szentendre in 1686. In 1687 Dalmatians settled again, in 1690 Serbs.
The patriarch of Ipek, Chernojevich (III.), Who arrived with the
Serbs in 1690. The documents are about the arrival of a total of
about 37,000 people, 6-7 thousand Serb families, who were scattered
in the area - only a part of them went to Szentendre - and did not
intend to move permanently at all. Only the peace of Karlóca
preserved the state - the survival of Turkish rule over Serbian
territories - that ultimately left them. However, as a symbol of
confidence in moving home, it can still be recognized today that
these settlers did not buy large plots of land, only as much as they
could build a temporary house for. The whole city center still
consists of smaller or larger houses built on the same small plots,
the occupancy rate varies between 50 and 100%. Memories of the
flourishing are still preserved in the southern Baroque-style town
halls, churches, cobbled streets and narrow alleys of the city. The
great Serbian emigration of 1690 brought a large number of Serbs to
Szentendre, who left lasting traces on the image and culture of the
city, above all the Serbian trading houses of today's city center.
However, these are not identical to the houses built by the original
Serbian immigrants, the city center contained other buildings based
on late 19th century maps. During the reconstructions, extensions
and reconstructions, the Baroque, Rococo and Braid features of the
18th century have been preserved.
Along with the Serbs, there was also significant Dalmatian immigration. Dalmatian families settled on Szamárhegy, where Dalmatian Street today preserves their memory. Even in the 1980s, only descendants of Dalmatian families lived on this street. Today they are scattered throughout the city.
The structure of the medieval settlement is practically unknown, the medieval walls are known only from a few incoherent points. There is only one fully excavated medieval building because it is located below the other listed buildings still in use today, which are known at most for points. Among them are some points of a roughly 200-meter section of the medieval city wall. The downtown structure, which can still be seen today, developed between 1785 and 1850, which can be proved by comparing maps from military surveys.
The former small church with one church was transformed into a small town with seven churches after resettlement. The six additional churches were apparently founded or taken over by the settlers, abandoned churches that had existed since 1389. It was so much because each independent community had built one for itself, and eventually the episcopal seat of the Greek Orthodox also required the construction of an episcopal church. Thus Szentendre became the city of the seven towers in the 18th century, the century of the city's heyday.
The churches were first built of wood - temporarily - and then during the 18th century they were all walled up and given a tower, or a stone church was built nearby. The names of four of them also reveal the origins of the founders. The Pozsarevacska Church was founded in 1763 by the Serbian settlement of Pozsarevac. The Csiprovacskát (Church of St. Nicholas) was built by the Csiprovacács of Szerem, in 1791 (today the Roman Catholic Church of Peter and Paul). Opovacska was built by Opovac Serbs in 1746, but the presbytery ceased to exist in 1900 and has been operating as a Reformed church since 1913. The episcopal church called Száborna or Belgrade was built by the people of Nándorfehérvár. It was built according to the Preobrazhenska occupation, by tanners and tobacconists around the harbor, and on the hill above it still stands the cross of tobacconists. Blagovestensk was founded by Greek merchants. The latter is therefore also called Grecca, and it was also the name of their part of town. The Catholic Dalmatians settled in the northern parts of the city, starting from the parish church of St. John the Baptist (which at that time was the only Catholic church on the site of the former St. Andrew's Church).
Serbs were granted a number of privileges: free practice of
religion, election of judges, use of the Old Calendar, establishment
of a school, use of language, and significant tax breaks. In the
middle of the 18th century, a thriving Serbian civic city developed
on the site of the medieval Hungarian city, which became a patented
royal city from the time of Maria Theresa.
In the middle of the 19th century, Hungarians, Germans and Slovaks settled, which changed the ethnic image of the settlement. According to the 1890 census, Szentendre was inhabited by 27.9% German, 26.4% Hungarian, 23.6% Slovak, 19.1% Serbian and 3% other native speakers.
In 1872, Szentendre received the character of a city with an orderly council. Urban status was never revoked, but the area depopulated in Turkish times was naturally not on the list of cities. From the 1690s onwards, the population of a few hundred people began to grow slowly, reaching a level with the settlers in 1872 when, instead of a village character, an urban character again prevailed, and the infrastructure of both the administration and the settlement allowed urban development. exercise of prerogatives in the form of
The tranquil small-town life has attracted artists since the early 20th century. The artists' colony in Szentendre was established in 1929; it is associated with the so-called school in Szentendre. Even today, more than two hundred fine and applied artists, as well as writers, poets, musicians and actors live in the city, mostly with exhibition and work opportunities in Budapest.
The city of Szentendre was one of the smallest cities in Hungary until the 1870s, usually with a permanent population of 3–4,000. During the 20th century, the population grew dynamically. However, in 1979, by enclosing the entire Pismány Hill, the Kada Peak and its surroundings, the Tyúkosdűlő, Boldogtanya (formerly part of Leányfalu), Sztaravoda, Szentendre and Izbég, the Bishop's Major and its surroundings, and the Pannonia settlement the areas available for housing and recreation have increased exponentially. The city has since expanded to the surrounding mountains (for example, Szarvashegy) and has already exceeded 25,000 permanent residents, which does not include the undeclared permanent residents of Szentendre in the resort areas. However, the infrastructure of the city has hardly changed compared to the small settlement of a few thousand inhabitants.
Economy and society in the new age
There were basically three economic sectors: grape and wine production, industry, trade and transport. For example, two or three generations have increased viticulture tenfold and excellent red wine has also reached Austria, the Czech Republic and Poland by water and land. The textile industry tailor, hatter, duvet and carpet maker, and tógaszűcs zubbonykészítő masters; in the wood industry, lumberjacks, carpenters, joiners, upholsterers and coopers; the leather industry, Tanners, shoemakers, saddlers and furriers; goldsmiths, blacksmiths and wheelmakers worked in the metal industry. In addition to them, sailors, boatmen, millers, charterers, tugs, soap makers, painters, bakers and pipe makers lived in Szentendre.
The richest citizens of the city were merchants who also owned vineyards. As early as 1698, they merged into a community of interest under the name of the Serbian Privileged Trading Company of Szentendre. Their guild lasted for nearly a century and a half. They erected a memorial cross in the main square of the town in 1763, thanks to the great plague that escaped Szentendre. The squid cross (or plague cross) has been around ever since.
Serbian merchant families built their two-storey houses on the site of the former wooden houses, mainly in the Main Square and its immediate surroundings, in today's Dumtsa Jenő Street, Bogdányi Street, Greek Street and the Danube bank. Their style is still visibly southern, “Mediterranean”. They stored wine in their huge - sometimes multi-storey - cellars; the business was set up on the ground floor; the merchant and his family lived upstairs; and the high attic served as a warehouse. The material of the Roman and medieval ruin buildings was used for the construction. Their houses were often built on the foundations of earlier buildings. This is how the present image of the city center developed: simple Baroque, Rococo and braid buildings from the 18th century within the framework of a medieval street structure.
According to the 1728 census, 2,158 ako wines were produced on nearly 88 acres. The average yield per moon around 15 akos is good. In 1772, the gentleman's census registered 371 hectares of vineyards, in 1787 305 vineyard owners were registered, their total yield was 34,895 akos, and by the turn of the century it had jumped to 70,000 akos (almost four million liters). The 1791 census contains 28 industries of 131 artisans.
The one-street, main-square settlement was transformed into a
radial structure, just as houses were built along the roads from the
Main Square to the mountains. The city is surrounded by vineyards,
which shows the main occupation of the population, as vineyards of
this size cannot be cultivated other than as main work. Two-thirds
of the population was exclusively engaged in wine production, and
the remainder was engaged in the wine trade and service industries,
such as plenty of coopers and hauliers.
The core of urban settlements is relatively small. The houses of the wealthier were built here. These are characterized by a lack of a half-roofed installation, a small inner courtyard and a garden. At the time of their construction, the large yard was not yet a status symbol, on the contrary, the large yard was needed for farming, which these owners did not do. The usually paved small courtyard was only needed to access the necessary outbuildings. Some of the larger buildings have no yard at all as all the space has been used for construction. These are joined by small civic and industrial houses that are low and have a longitudinal axis parallel to the road. The shops also stood here. They were surrounded by semi-granary and agrarian zones.
The population is geographically separated by occupation. On the side of the main road towards the Danube lived fishermen and sailors, on the other side traders. The latter are richer in and around the Main Square. Viticulture and arable farmers lived along the roads to the mountains. The street structure adapts to the surface color. There are relatively regular plots of land on the flat parts, while moving north and west it becomes more and more irregular. The single-centered radial structure is further complicated by the fact that a bridge had to be erected on the Bükkös stream, and both sides of the “Old Bridge” became one junction. In addition, the area around the church above the Main Square also shows the character of a circular settlement. Such circular settlements in the Danube Bend only developed where Serbs moved. Moreover, several independent, very small circular settlements emerge next to each other. Due to its topographic features, the church hill became the center of a circular settlement (it was not inhabited by Serbs but also by Catholic Dalmatians), but the other Serbian churches also became the centers of a circular settlement in areas where the topography did not justify it. he settled around his church.
The changes of the 19th century are most visible in the center of the city, where the Church of St. John was built and the cityscape with its narrow streets began to take shape today. The great change can be attributed in large part to the massive flood of March 1838, which demolished 177 houses around the Downtown. The formation of the inner courtyard, which is no longer used for agriculture, can be seen. These are trading houses. In 1783, only 14 merchants were still registered in the town, a number that multiplied by the 19th century.
The 19th century brought decline to the city in every way. The floods of 1775, 1799, 1809 and 1837 played a significant role in this. In 1800, a fire destroyed the remaining wooden houses, while the clay-covered stone houses were destroyed by floods. By 1832, the population had shrunk to 3,186.
The vines are still significant in the outer areas, but the pastures also appear on the banks of the Bükkös stream. There are also historical data on the decline of grapes. Exports fell and domestic demand for sand grapes declined. The end of the mountain wines was brought by the phylloxera of 1880–1885. The cadastre of 1885 already shows mainly pastures.