The city of Szigetszentmiklós is the seat of the Szigetszentmiklós district in the Budapest agglomeration, Pest county.
The city is located on the southern border of Budapest, on Csepel Island. The settlement is located from the north of Budapest XXI. It is bordered on the east by the Ráckeve-Danube (thus Dunaharaszti and Taksony), on the south by Szigethalom, on the southwest by Tököl, on the west by Halásztelek, and on the northwest by the Danube River (District XXII of Budapest).
Szigetszentmiklós is a 750-year-old settlement, a town since January
The area of the settlement was already inhabited during the Neolithic period. During the Copper Age, the so-called people of Baden culture lived in this region, their memories came from the border of Szigetcsép and Szigetújfalu. They were followed by the so-called. the appearance of representatives of the bell-shaped culture in the area, who flooded Csepel Island in dense swarms. Findings related to them were found in greater numbers in Szigetszentmiklós from the area of Háros, Lakihegy and the areas under the Auchan department store, but during the construction of the M0 motorway, their burial sites were also excavated around the Üdülő-row. Even more finds have been unearthed from the city from the Bronze Age, namely the period of Vatyai culture; the finds show that the local population increased quite a bit at that time.
Based on excavations, it is probable that Celtic and ancient Roman, respectively. early and late medieval settlement stood in the area of today's city. Based on the research carried out in the settlement, the princely tribe of the conquering Hungarians settled in the place inhabited since prehistoric times, led by Árpád. The name of the island was borrowed by Árpád's chief horseman, Ispán Csepel (who settled here).
During the expansion of the Reformed church on Kossuth Street, excavations were carried out in 2012, during which it turned out that the church of the present day stood on the site of the Árpádian era.
Szigetszentmiklós was first named on October 14, 1264 in IV. He mentioned Béla's letter, in which he also writes about the church of the village at that time. Following the destruction of the Tartars, this locality was depopulated, and according to tradition, the settlements settled on Ráczkeve Island founded a new settlement around 1440. After the disaster in Mohács, this village was also destroyed, at the beginning of the 17th century Hungarians moved here.
In their Turkish treasury tax register of 1634–1635, it was listed among the villages of the stone (Ráczkeve) district; at that time it featured 14 houses.
The Reformed Church in 1626-29. has been present in the settlement for years. Between 1731 and 1739, János Patai, the Superintendent of the Reformed, lived in the locality. The date of construction of the first Reformed church is unknown, so much is known that it was restored in 1798. Its tower was demolished by the great storm of 1853 and rebuilt in 1875. The church was irreparably damaged in World War II, and the ruins were demolished in 1948. The foundation stone of the new church was laid in 1987, and the congregation took possession of it in 1991, four years later.
According to tradition, in 1707, in a cinemas built on the occasion of the attack of the Rács, the population with its refugees lived in the villages of Szőlős and Háros.
At the time of the 1715 census, 42 and in 1720 70 taxable Hungarian households were admitted to this locality.
In 1770, in connection with the decree of Mária Terézia, 73 16/32 fourth-class landlords were shown in the settlement. At the beginning of the 20th century, the settlement still owned an old silver seal press with a perforated handle, this seal press dates back to the time when the village judge wore the seal of the village on a string hung around his neck. The coat of arms on the stamp depicted a lamb pierced with a rod. There was a cross at the end of the rod, while a mace on the seal of the locality in the early 20th century.
Floods in 1838, 1850 and 1876 destroyed the locality.
The border was reorganized and divided in 1862. Until 1848, the settlement belonged to the Ráckeve estate, then at the beginning of the 20th century, the Ráckeve estate of the royal family was the largest owner of the locality.
The once destroyed settlements of Háros and Szőlős lay on the outskirts of the village; the former along the Great Danube, the latter along the Soroksár-Danube branch. The ruins of the churches in both settlements were visible until the late 1800s. They also belonged to the village as inhabited places: Hárossziget, Lakihegy, Felsőbuczka and Felsőtag.
In 1898, during the construction of the Danube protective dam, prehistoric clay pots were found, which then became the property of the Reformed school.
At the beginning of the 20th century, Szigetszentmiklós belonged to the Ráckeve district of Pest-Pilis-Solt-Kiskun county. In 1910, out of 3997 inhabitants, 3974 were Hungarians. Of these, 3,233 were Reformed, 637 were Roman Catholics, and 53 were Israelis.
The settlement and its surroundings were a strategically important part of the country under the Kádár regime, nearby there were aircraft, car and steel factories, a military airport, a barracks, and many industrial and military facilities. The prominent role is also indicated by the fact that the Szigetszentmiklós section of the Danube dam system is in some places two to three meters higher than other sections. The development of the city was also significantly influenced by the Csepel Car Factory.
The city is a popular destination for the suburbanisation strata
(moving out of Budapest), which is why the garden-town and
small-town character of the settlement has been strengthening
recently. According to the experts of the local government, the two
types of residential areas mentioned above were mainly included in
the zoning plans of the city. The population grew by a quarter in
the first decade of the 21st century.
Tourism in the area is significant and the economic role of the region is also increasing as a side effect of suburbanization processes. The continuous growth of the Leshegy industrial park and the establishment of several large companies in Szigetszentmiklós make the city one of the most job-providing regions in the country. Interestingly, a significant part of the employees commute from other settlements of the Ráckeve micro-region, while many of the city's residents work in Budapest.
An individual of an aggressively expanding harlekinkatica (an overwintering specimen) was first detected in Hungary on the border of Szigetszentmiklós in February 2008.